Federating journal in its field, the European Annals has an Editorial board of experts with international reputation that allow to make an important contribution to communication on new research data and clinical practice by publishing high-quality articles.
European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases and its French version, Annales Francaises d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de pathologie cervico-faciale, publish original scientific articles in the field of oto-rhino-laryngology from all domains in English and French. All the articles accepted are translated from French into English or from English to French by the Editorial Board for dual publication: in English in electronic form only (European Annals); and in French in paper and electronic editions (Annales Francaises). Only the English version (European Annals) is indexed in international databases. The Journal follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (which can be viewed on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors site: www.icjme.org). Authors can submit their article using the Journal's online submissions site: https://www.editorialmanager.com/anorl/default.aspx.
Manuscripts are submitted for peer review by the Editorial Board, the only body that can decide on publication. The Board informs the author(s) about its observations, indicating the modifications required for their manuscript to be accepted. The authors must modify their article within 1 month. The Board reserves the right to make minor modifications to the text to standardize the presentation without informing the authors. In no case does the Journal make any commitments regarding the manuscripts submitted before the final decision taken by the editors. The instructions to authors are identical for submissions in either French or English. Having read the criteria for submissions, authors should ensure that their article complies with the Journal's editorial guidelines, outlined below, before uploading their files to the submission site.
Types of article
When authors submit their manuscript, they should specify the section in which they wish to be published.
Editorials consist of a title, free text and not more than 5 references, for a maximum 3,000 words. They comprise 5 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 60 characters.
• Discussion: Free, with as few paragraphs as possible (not more than 5), without titles. There are no subtitles.
• Conflicts of interest
For an Original Article, the text (excluding title, tables, disclosure of interest and references) is limited to a maximum 3,500 words. There can be a maximum of 6 authors. There can be not more than 3 tables, 2 figures and 30 references. Verbs are in the past tense except for statements of established fact, which are in the simple present tense (e.g., "The patient was operated on; septicemia requires antibiotic therapy"). References are given the text in order of citation, in square brackets, just before the period closing the sentence. Authors are encouraged to follow the EQUATOR guidelines (https://www.equator-network.org/)to build their article and to mention the guideline used in the Material and Method chapter. Statistical rules to apply are described in the chapter "Methods and statistical considerations" of this guide. The body of the article comprises 11 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 80 characters.
• Abstract: structured as Aims, Material and Methods, Objectives, Results, Conclusion, for a maximum 250 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: The Introduction comprises 3 parts: general presentation of the field, particular aspect dealt with in the study, study objectives and what the study wishes to bring new to the existing literature.
• Material and methods: This section, without subtitles, presents the study population, selection criteria, study objective(s), study variables and statistical methods. Prospective and/or randomized studies should mention their institutional review board approval (CPPRB, for France). To promote reproducibility and transparency, authors are encouraged to submit by accessory separate file the anonymous database allowing for study completion.
• Results: The results correspond to the study objectives, and are presented clearly and logically, including negative findings, with reference to tables. This section includes no commentaries or references.
• Discussion: Without subtitles, the Discussion analyzes the results, with comparison to the scientific literature (PubMed analysis). It should match the Introduction. Uncertainties and limitations are presented.
• Conclusion: The Conclusion presents the lessons to be drawn, solutions and future research perspectives.
• Disclosure of interest.
• References: The purpose of the reference list is to provide references to previously published scientific articles (PubMed analysis) for all facts stated and all names mentioned in the article; there should be no references to non-indexed work (books, communications, theses, etc.).
The following list shows the most frequent faults leading to rejection of original articles submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Diseases:
□ Purely descriptive study.
□ No additional contribution to existing data and publications.
□ Objectives not defined, varying; and/or important variables absent or not studied.
□ Poorly structured Material and Methods section: not presenting the study population, study objective and/or study variables.
□ Absence of statistical analysis, and/or statistical tests used incorrectly.
□ Introduction vague, too long and/or not reflecting the literature.
□ Study population too heterogeneous and/or poorly defined.
□ Discussion vague, irrelevant, over-rating results, unrelated to study objectives or results and/or introducing further results.
□ Discussion needing to be developed, lacking important references or with incorrect references.
□ Insufficient follow-up.
□ Results missing, false, changed during the Discussion.
□ Article already published elsewhere.
□ Falsely prospective study design.
□ Study re-submitted without taking account of peer review.
□ Article not suited to an Otorhinolaryngology journal.
A review presents the state of the art on a specific topic. It is based on a review of the most recent scientific literature (PubMed, Cochrane Database, etc.). Authors are encouraged to follow the PRISMA methodology (https://www.equator-network.org/) to build their article and to mention this methodology in the chapter Material and Methods. The statistical rules to follow are documented in the paragraph Statistics of the current guide. There should be no more than 6 authors. The text (excluding title, tables, disclosure of interest and references) is limited to a maximum 4,000 words; there can be a maximum of 5 tables, 5 figures and 100 references. Writing, layout, choice and use of references are as for an Original Article. Reviews comprise 9 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 60 characters.
• Abstract: The Abstract is non-structured, with a maximum 250 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: The Introduction includes the objectives of the Review, the data-bases analyzed, search-terms used, and exclusion criteria (case reports, etc.).The introduction must tell the reader what the review wishes to bring new to the yet published literature.
• Discussion: The Discussion may be broken down into 3 subsections with titles and, if suitable, 3 subtitles per subsection.
• Disclosure of interest.
Only exceptional cases (less than 15 cases previously reported) and case reports providing new findings can be submitted to the Annals. Authors are encouraged to publish complications as Case Reports. Cases reported as pretexts for a review of the literature or update will not be accepted. Authors are encouraged to follow the EQUATOR guidelines (https://www.equator-network.org/) to build their case report.The text (excluding title, tables, disclosure of interest and references) is limited to a maximum 1,000 words; there can be a maximum of 3 tables, 3 figures and 10 references. Writing, layout, choice and use of references are as for an Original Article. There should not be more than 4 authors. Case Reports comprise 9 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 80 characters without vague terms such as, rare exceptional, unique as well as the terms "case report".
• Abstract: The Abstract comprises 3 parts: introduction, case summary, and discussion, for a maximum 200 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: The Introduction comprises 3 parts: general presentation of the subject, particular aspect dealt with in the study, and study objectives.
• Case report(s): This section presents the case(s) analyzed; several (but less than 10) can be presented as a small series. This section contains no commentaries or references.
• Discussion: Without subtitles, the Discussion analyzes the data presented in the Case Report, with comparison to the literature (PubMed analysis). Uncertainties and limitations are presented.
• Conclusion : The Conclusion presents the lessons to be drawn, solutions and future research perspectives.
• Disclosure of interest.
The following list shows the most frequent faults leading to rejection of case reports submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Diseases:
□ Lack of originality (15 cases already found in PubMed).
□ No new contribution to the medical literature on the topic.
□ Title vague, too long or uninformative (avoid terms such as: "about", "a case of", "rare", "exceptional", etc.).
□ Diagnosis incorrect or unproven, or insufficient follow-up.
□ Introduction vague, unrelated to the case, or not reflecting the literature.
□ Non-respect of the Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol H N Dis's instructions to authors.
□ References missing or incorrect.
□ Mistakes of spelling and grammar.
□ Table or figure duplicated the text of the report.
□ Associating two rare cases without causal relation (coincidence).
Letter to the editor
This section fits the majority of case reports. Number of authors is no more than 4. No summary and no key words. Title must be short. Text organised in two paragraphs comprise no more than 500 words with one table, one or two figures and maximum 5 references. The first paragraph presents the case, the second is devoted to discussion of key points.
What is your diagnosis?
This type of article is a short presentation of a clinical case with iconography: radiologic, clinical, operative or anatomopathologic imaging. The title should be short, announcing the topic but not the diagnosis. There should not be more than three authors. The text (Description, Question(s) and Replies) should not exceed 200 words (not counting title, disclosure of interests, acknowledgments and references). The iconography should comprise at most two images, presented side by side in a single zone (marked "a" and "b"), without legend as the text itself provides the description. The text should contain no more than 5 references. The article is divided into the following 7 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, in no more than 60 characters.
• Description: presenting the clinical context of the images.
• Question(s): What is your diagnosis?
• Disclosure of interest.
Surgical technique or technology
A surgical technique or technology article briefly describes a technique or treatment, or their modifications or new equipment with no more than 4 authors. A short discussion should provide a general overview and be limited to a precise message on the advantages of the technique. The text should not exceed 2000 words : 2 tables and 4 figures an in case of a surgical technic, 2 drawings or 6 schemas (help from a professional drawer affiliated to the journal may be sought), two figures and 15 references."Writting and us" of reference is identical to scientific article with structuration in 10 sections: Title, as short as possible with no more than 60 signs. Summary, not structured, 200 words maximum. Key Words, 3 to 5. Introduction, Technique, Discussion without subtitles, Conclusion, Conflict of interest, Acknowledgments, References.
This rubric is for case reports specifically focusing on infectious or tumoral tropical pathologies. The text of the report (not counting title, Abstract, word-count, tables, disclosure of interest, acknowledgments and references) should not exceed 1,000 words. There should be not more than 3 tables, 3 figures and 10 references. The conditions for writing, layout and referencing are as for an original article. There should not be more than 4 authors. The report should be divided into the following 10 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, in no more than 80 characters.
• Abstract: In 3 sections: Introduction, Case report, Discussion; there should be not more than 200 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: In 3 parts: general presentation of topic, particular aspect of study topic, objectives.
• Observation(s): Presentation of the case(s) studied. Up to 10 cases may be put together as a small series. This section should include no discussion or references.
• Discussion: The Discussion should not be divided up into subsections. It should analyze the findings presented under "Observation(s)" and compare them with the literature (PubMed analysis). Uncertainties and criticisms should be presented.
• Conclusion: Setting out the lessons to be drawn, solutions and research perspectives.
• Disclosure of interest.
Studies in humans and animals
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). If the Editors consider that the level of English is insufficient editing services will be provided by the journal.
Informed consent and patient details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/anorl/default.aspx.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Methods and statistical considerations
The authors are advised to follow specific guidelines (CONSORT, PRISMA, STROBE, …) available at www.equator-network.org.
For observational studies, please precisely describe how the data were collected instead of using generic terms such as 'retrospective study', in accordance with the STROBE guidelines [1-3]. In observational studies, report and describe missing data. Generally, a brief description of excluded subjects due to missing data compared to the included population is reported in the text, and more detailed comparisons are provided in the supplementary material (such as a table comparing included versus excluded subjects).If the cohort is of small sample size (less than 50), please consider your results as exploratory rather than confirmatory.
Causal language should be used only for randomized controlled trials. Typically, the term 'association' should be preferred when highlighting a significant association between two variables in an observational study.Include the registration number in the Methods section for randomized controlled trials (clinicaltrials.gov) and systematic reviews (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero).
Always provide the number of observations, do not rely only on percentages. Use means and standard deviations (SDs) for normally distributed data and medians and ranges or interquartile ranges (IQRs) for data that are not normally distributed.
Briefly report the tests used for bivariate analyses in the Statistical analyses section of the Methods. Although it is not mandated to report it in the main text, it is important to verify that the conditions of validity of the statistical test are met for both bivariate and multivariate analyses (for instance, normally distributed data for Student t test or proportional hazard assumption for Cox regression models).
Authors must use appropriate statistical tests. For instance, chi square test must be used for bivariate comparisons of percentages (and Fisher exact test in case of unmet conditions of validity). Student t test must be used in order to compare means (and Mann-Whitney test in case of unmet conditions of validity). In case of paired series, authors must use specific tests.
Do not rely only on p-values, which fail to convey quantitative information. For more details regarding interpretation of statistical tests or confidence intervals, authors are encouraged to read the article by Greenland et al ("Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations") . Never present a p-value alone, i.e. without the descriptive data or the effect size (such as odd ratio). Authors are also encouraged to consider as "significant", only p-values inferior to .005 and to consider p values between 0.05 and 0.005 as "suggestive" . Do not consider a p-value between 0.05 and 0.10 as a trend. In case of a randomized controlled trial with a 5% significance level, such a p-value is non-significant. In case of an observational study, the effect size with its confidence interval is of greater interest.
Authors are encouraged to use effect size and measure of uncertainty, such as odd ratio and 95% confidence interval. These measures convey quantitative informations, which p-value does not. Include the name of the statistical software used for performing analyses.
Tables and figures
Tables and figures should support the text and be cited in it. In tables, include number and eventually percentages. Generally, comparisons must be read between columns. Provide the unit of measure for each continuous data. Data presented in tables and figures should not overlap. For Kaplan-Meier curves, include the number at risk at each time point below the x-axis. Pie charts and 3D graphs should not be used .
Data sharing statement
Please include in the Acknowledgments section a `data sharing statement?, stating if the data can be shared (publicly available or on request) or not.
-  von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Lancet. 2007;370(9596):1453-1457.
-  Vandenbroucke JP. Prospective or retrospective: what?s in a name? BMJ. 1991;302(6771):249-250.
-  Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Lippincott-Raven; 1998.
-  Greenland S, Senn SJ, Rothman KJ, et al. Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations. Eur J Epidemiol. 2016;31(4):337-350.
-  Ioannidis JPA. The Proposal to Lower P Value Thresholds to .005. JAMA. 2018;319(14):1429-1430.
-  Spence I. No Humble Pie: The Origins and Usage of a Statistical Chart. J Educ Behav Stat. 2005;30(4):353-368.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
3: "Vancouver" system with numbers in text
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.Sc.2010.00372.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00205 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
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