Guide for Authors

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• Types of article
• Ethics in publishing
• Studies in humans and animals
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Double-blind review
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Highlights
• Methods and statistical considerations
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Research data
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases and its French version, Annales Francaises d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de pathologie cervico-faciale, publish original scientific articles in the field of oto-rhino-laryngology from all domains in English and French. All the articles accepted are translated from French into English or from English to French by the Editorial Board for dual publication: in English in electronic form only (European Annals); and in French in paper and electronic editions (Annales Francaises). Only the English version (European Annals) is indexed in international databases. The Journal follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (which can be viewed on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors site: Authors can submit their article using the Journal's online submissions site:

Manuscripts are submitted for peer review by the Editorial Board, the only body that can decide on publication. The Board informs the author(s) about its observations, indicating the modifications required for their manuscript to be accepted. The authors must modify their article within 1 month. The Board reserves the right to make minor modifications to the text to standardize the presentation without informing the authors. In no case does the Journal make any commitments regarding the manuscripts submitted before the final decision taken by the editors. The instructions to authors are identical for submissions in either French or English. Having read the criteria for submissions, authors should ensure that their article complies with the Journal's editorial guidelines, outlined below, before uploading their files to the submission site.

Types of article

When authors submit their manuscript, they should specify the section in which they wish to be published.

Editorials consist of a title, free text and not more than 3 references, for a maximum 2,000 words. They comprise 5 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 60 characters.
• Discussion: Free, with as few paragraphs as possible (not more than 5), with titles. There are no subtitles.
• Conflicts of interest
• Acknowledgments.
• References.

Original Article
For an Original Article, the text (excluding title, tables, disclosure of interest and references) is limited to a maximum 3,500 words. There can be a maximum of 6 authors. There can be not more than 3 tables, 2 figures and 25 references. Verbs are in the past tense except for statements of established fact, which are in the simple present tense (e.g., "The patient was operated on; septicemia requires antibiotic therapy"). References are given the text in order of citation, in square brackets, just before the period closing the sentence. The body of the article comprises 11 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 80 characters.
• Abstract: structured as Aims, Material and Methods, Objectives, Results, Conclusion, for a maximum 250 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: The Introduction comprises 3 parts: general presentation of the field, particular aspect dealt with in the study, and study objectives.
• Material and methods: This section, without subtitles, presents the study population, selection criteria, study objective(s), study variables and statistical methods. Prospective and/or randomized studies should mention their institutional review board approval (CPPRB, for France).
• Results: The results correspond to the study objectives, and are presented clearly and logically, including negative findings, with reference to tables. This section includes no commentaries or references.
• Discussion: Without subtitles, the Discussion analyzes the results, with comparison to the scientific literature (PubMed analysis). It should match the Introduction. Uncertainties and limitations are presented.
• Conclusion: The Conclusion presents the lessons to be drawn, solutions and future research perspectives.
• Disclosure of interest.
• Acknowledgments.
• References: The purpose of the reference list is to provide references to previously published scientific articles (PubMed analysis) for all facts stated and all names mentioned in the article; there should be no references to non-indexed work (books, communications, theses, etc.).

The following list shows the most frequent faults leading to rejection of original articles submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Diseases:

□ Purely descriptive study.
□ No additional contribution to existing data and publications.
□ Objectives not defined, varying; and/or important variables absent or not studied.
□ Poorly structured Material and Methods section: not presenting the study population, study objective and/or study variables.
□ Absence of statistical analysis, and/or statistical tests used incorrectly.
□ Introduction vague, too long and/or not reflecting the literature.
□ Study population too heterogeneous and/or poorly defined.
□ Discussion vague, irrelevant, over-rating results, unrelated to study objectives or results and/or introducing further results.
□ Discussion needing to be developed, lacking important references or with incorrect references.
□ Insufficient follow-up.
□ Results missing, false, changed during the Discussion and/or considered non-significant in the Discussion despite a p-value of < 0.05.
□ Article already published elsewhere.
□ Falsely prospective study design.
□ Study re-submitted without taking account of peer review.
□ Article not suited to an Otorhinolaryngology journal.

A review presents the state of the art on a specific topic. It is based on a review of the most recent scientific literature (PubMed, Cochrane Database, etc.). There should be no more than 6 authors. The text (excluding title, tables, disclosure of interest and references) is limited to a maximum 4,000 words; there can be a maximum of 5 tables, 5 figures and 100 references. Writing, layout, choice and use of references are as for an Original Article. Reviews comprise 9 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 60 characters.
• Abstract: The Abstract is non-structured, with a maximum 250 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: The Introduction includes the objectives of the Review, the data-bases analyzed, search-terms used, and exclusion criteria (case reports, etc.).
• Discussion: The Discussion may be broken down into 3 subsections with titles and, if suitable, 3 subtitles per subsection.
• Conclusion.
• Disclosure of interest.
• Acknowledgments.
• Abstract:
• References.

Case Reports
Only exceptional cases (less than 15 cases previously reported) and/or case reports providing new findings can be submitted to the Annals. Authors are encouraged to publish complications as Case Reports. Cases reported as pretexts for a review of the literature or update will not be accepted. The text (excluding title, tables, disclosure of interest and references) is limited to a maximum 1,000 words; there can be a maximum of 3 tables, 3 figures and 10 references. Writing, layout, choice and use of references are as for an Original Article. There should not be more than 4 authors. Case Reports comprise 9 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, with not more than 80 characters.
• Abstract: The Abstract comprises 3 parts: introduction, case summary, and discussion, for a maximum 200 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: The Introduction comprises 3 parts: general presentation of the subject, particular aspect dealt with in the study, and study objectives.
• Case report(s): This section presents the case(s) analyzed; several (but less than 10) can be presented as a small series. This section contains no commentaries or references.
• Discussion: Without subtitles, the Discussion analyzes the data presented in the Case Report, with comparison to the literature (PubMed analysis). Uncertainties and limitations are presented.
• Conclusion : The Conclusion presents the lessons to be drawn, solutions and future research perspectives.
• Disclosure of interest.
• Acknowledgments.

The following list shows the most frequent faults leading to rejection of case reports submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Diseases:
□ Lack of originality (15 cases already found in PubMed).
□ No new contribution to the medical literature on the topic.
□ Title vague, too long or uninformative (avoid terms such as: "about", "a case of", "rare", "exceptional", etc.).
□ Diagnosis incorrect or unproven, or insufficient follow-up.
□ Introduction vague, unrelated to the case, or not reflecting the literature.
□ Non-respect of the Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol H N Dis's instructions to authors.
□ References missing or incorrect.
□ Mistakes of spelling and grammar.
□ Table or figure duplicated the text of the report.
□ Associating two rare cases without causal relation (coincidence).

What is your diagnosis?
This type of article is a short presentation of a clinical case with iconography: radiologic, clinical, operative or anatomopathologic imaging. The title should be short, announcing the topic but not the diagnosis. There should not be more than three authors. The text (Description, Question(s) and Replies) should not exceed 200 words (not counting title, disclosure of interests, acknowledgments and references). The iconography should comprise at most two images, presented side by side in a single zone (marked "a" and "b"), without legend as the text itself provides the description. The text should contain no more than 5 references. The article is divided into the following 7 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, in no more than 60 characters.
• Description: presenting the clinical context of the images.
• Question(s): What is your diagnosis?
• Replies.
• Disclosure of interest.
• Acknowledgements.
• References.

Surgical technique or technology
A surgical technique or technology article briefly describes a technique or treatment, or their modifications or new equipment. A short discussion should provide a general overview and be limited to a precise message on the advantages of the technique. The text should not exceed 2000 words, two figures and 10 references.

Tropical pathology
This rubric is for case reports specifically focusing on infectious or tumoral tropical pathologies. The text of the report (not counting title, Abstract, word-count, tables, disclosure of interest, acknowledgments and references) should not exceed 1,000 words. There should be not more than 3 tables, 3 figures and 10 references. The conditions for writing, layout and referencing are as for an original article. There should not be more than 4 authors. The report should be divided into the following 10 successive sections:
• Title: As short as possible, in no more than 80 characters.
• Abstract: In 3 sections: Introduction, Case report, Discussion; there should be not more than 200 words.
• Key-words: 3 to 5.
• Introduction: In 3 parts: general presentation of topic, particular aspect of study topic, objectives.
• Observation(s): Presentation of the case(s) studied. Up to 10 cases may be put together as a small series. This section should include no discussion or references.
• Discussion: The Discussion should not be divided up into subsections. It should analyze the findings presented under "Observation(s)" and compare them with the literature (PubMed analysis). Uncertainties and criticisms should be presented.
• Conclusion: Setting out the lessons to be drawn, solutions and research perspectives.
• Disclosure of interest.
• Acknowledgements.
• References.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Studies in humans and animals

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.

Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Reporting clinical trials
Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram are available online.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). If the Editors consider that the level of English is insufficient editing services will be provided by the journal.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author but copies should not be provided to the journal. Only if specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example if a legal issue arises) the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Structured abstract
Abstracts should be structured appropriate to the article type as detailed above.

Three to five keywords are requested for all article types with the exception of Letters to the Editor and What is your diagnosis.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

The statistical methods used should be clearly presented to allow verification of all results reported. All medications and other drugs should appear under their international non-proprietary names, with the trade name followed by ® in a footnote, including the manufacturing laboratory and its head-office location. Surgical materials and implants should be described by their generic names with a footnote stating the manufacturer's name, head-office site, and trade name of the device followed by ™. Any abbreviations or acronyms should be in full followed by the abbreviation in parentheses at its first mention in the text.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Methods and statistical considerations

General considerations
The authors are advised to follow specific guidelines (PRISMA, STROBE, …) available at

The objective of the study must be clearly identifed at the end of the Introduction section. In the Methods section, the outcome of interest (primary and eventually secondary outcomes) must be identified and included in the Statistical analyses subsection.

For observational studies, please precisely describe how the data were collected instead of using generic terms such as 'retrospective study', in accordance with the STROBE guidelines.1-3 In observational studies, report and describe missing data. Generally, a brief description of excluded subjects due to missing data compared to the included population is reported in the text, and more detailed comparisons are provided in the supplementary material (such as a table comparing included versus excluded subjects).

If the cohort is of small sample size (less than 50), please consider your results as exploratory rather than confirmatory.

Causal language should be used only for randomized controlled trials. Typically, the term 'association' should be preferred when highlighting a significant association between two variables in an observational study.

Include the registration number in the Methods section for randomized controlled trials ( and systematic reviews (

Statistical analyses

Always provide the number of observations, do not rely only on percentages. Use means and standard deviations (SDs) for normally distributed data and medians and ranges or interquartile ranges (IQRs) for data that are not normally distributed.

Clearly describe the statistical analyses, including a clear description of the variables included in the multivariable models.

Be sure that statistical tests are appropriately used depending on the data. Briefly report the tests used for bivariate analyses in the Statistical analyses section of the Methods. Although it is not mandated to report it in the main text, it is important to verify that the conditions of validity of the statistical test are met for both bivariate and multivariate analyses (for instance, normally distributed data for Student t test or proportional hazard assumption for Cox regression models).

For test selection use the following table.

Variable Nature Comparison of 2 series Comparison of K(>2) series Non parametric Correlation
Nominal or Bimodal Dependent Series: Mc Nemar test or Chi 2 test
Independent Series: Fisher test or Chi 2 test
Dependent Series: Cochran Q test
Independent Series: Chi 2 test
Contingency coefficient. Crammer V. Guttman lambda.
Ordinal or Quantitative Dependent Series: Wilconxon T test
Independent Series: Mann-Whitney U test. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Dependent Series: Friedman test
Independent Series: Kruskal-Wallis test
Spearman correlation. Kendal correlation.

Report effect size and measurement error (such as odd ratio and confidence intervals for instance). Do not rely only on p-values, which fail to convey quantitative information. For more details regarding interpretation of statistical tests or confidence intervals, authors are encouraged to read the article by Greenland et al ("Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations").4 Never present a p-value alone, i.e. without the descriptive data or the effect size (such as odd ratio). Authors are also encouraged to consider as "significant", only p-values inferior to .005 and to consider p values between 0.05 and 0.005 as "suggestive"..5 Do not consider a p-value between 0.05 and 0.10 as a trend. In case of a randomized controlled trial with a 5% significance level, such a p-value is non-significant. In case of an observational study, the effect size with its confidence interval is of greater interest.

Include the name of the statistical software used for performing analyses.

Tables and figures
Tables and figures should support the text and be cited in it. In tables, include number and eventually percentages. Generally, comparisons must be read between columns. Provide the unit of measure for each continuous data. Data presented in tables and figures should not overlap. For Kaplan-Meier curves, include the number at risk at each time point below the x-axis. or document, in the material and method section paragraph, the number of patients lost of follow at the various interval used for analysis.6 Pie charts and 3D graphs should not be used.

Data sharing statement
Please include in the Acknowledgments section a `data sharing statement?, stating if the data can be shared (publicly available or on request) or not.


  1. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, et al. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Lancet Lond Engl. 2007;370(9596):1453-1457. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61602-X
  2. Vandenbroucke JP. Prospective or retrospective: what's in a name? BMJ. 1991;302(6771):249-250.
  3. Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Lippincott-Raven; 1998.
  4. Greenland S, Senn SJ, Rothman KJ, et al. Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations. Eur J Epidemiol. 2016;31(4):337-350. doi:10.1007/s10654-016-0149-3
  5. Ioannidis JPA. The Proposal to Lower P Value Thresholds to .005. JAMA. 2018;319(14):1429-1430. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.1536
  6. Spence I. No Humble Pie: The Origins and Usage of a Statistical Chart. J Educ Behav Stat. 2005;30(4):353-368. doi:10.3102/10769986030004353


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites). Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
[2] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.
Reference to a book:
[3] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[5] Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] [6] Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. . In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.