Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details on the requirements for submitting your paper to Domestic Animal Endocrinology. The guidelines described in this document should be adhered to carefully, to ensure high-quality and rapid publication of your manuscript.
Aims and scope
Domestic Animal Endocrinology publishes scientific papers dealing with fundamental, translational, and clinical aspects of the endocrinology of domestic animal species at all levels of organization (organismal, cellular, and molecular). Those manuscripts utilizing other species as models for clinical or production problems associated with domestic animals will also be considered. Clinical Case Reports will generally not be accepted unless the research report provides significant new information regarding mechanisms responsible for a phenomenon. Topics covered include the regulation of hormone secretion, hormone action, and biochemical endocrinology.
Review Articles should cover subjects falling within the scope of the journal that are of active current interest. They may be submitted or invited.Short Communications are concise but complete descriptions of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications should be as completely documented, both by reference to the literature and description of experimental procedures employed, as an Original Research Paper. They should not occupy more than six printed pages (about 12 manuscript pages, including figures, tables and references). Policy and ethics
The work described in your article must have been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. This must be stated at an appropriate point in the article.
Unnecessary cruelty in animal experimentation is not acceptable to the Editors of Domestic Animal Endocrinology.Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Editor-in-Chief from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript before development of Author Proofs and before the manuscript is published online. Requests must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement.After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/or visit our customer support site http://support.elsevier.com for more information. If it is determined by the Editor-in-Chief that the English grammar usage within a submitted manuscript fails to meet a minimum level of acceptability, the manuscript will be returned to the authors with a request to have it edited by a native English-speaking editor or editing service as described above. Failure to meet minimum language requirements in subsequent submissions of the article will be grounds for rejection of the manuscript.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/dae/.
Please submit, as part of the covering letter with the manuscript, the names, full affiliation (department, institution, city and country) and email addresses of 3 potential Referees. Appropriate Referees should be knowledgeable about the subject but have no close connection with any of the authors. You may also suggest reviewers you do not want to review your manuscript, but please state your reasons for doing so.
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format, double-spaced, and with all lines numbered continuously on the left margin to facilitate the review process. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Use initials only for first and middle names. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names in italicized font. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. Abstracts must be limited to a single paragraph with no more than 2,500 keystrokes (characters plus spaces).
A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples. Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
KeywordsImmediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Subdivision - numbered sectionsDivide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Main headings (1. Introduction; 2. Materials; 3. Methods; 4. Results; 5. Discussion) should be written in sentence case, bold font. Subheadings should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering), italicized and not bolded. Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
IntroductionState the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Introduction should not exceed 1.5 manuscript pages.
Materials and methodsProvide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
ResultsResults should be clear and concise.
DiscussionThis should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Although there are always exceptions, a good rule of thumb is for the Discussion section to not exceed 5 double-spaced manuscript pages and to limit the number of references to no more than 35.
ConclusionsThe main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
AcknowledgementsCollate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.References
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) arabic numerals placed within brackets and separated by commas in the order in which they appear in the text.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text. Place on the left margin in brackets. Please list the names of all co-authors. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
Reference to a book:
 Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Each table should be placed on a separate page following References. To facilitate editing, tables should be created using the word processing program with the caption included. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.
Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions in a separate “List of figures”, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Artwork
While it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format. Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
Present incidental graphics not suitable for mention as figures, plates or schemes at the end of the article and number them "Graphic 1", etc. Their precise position in the text can then be indicated. See further information under Electronic artwork. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left, but such embedding should not be done specifically for publishing purposes. Further, high-resolution graphics files must be provided separately.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
 Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact email@example.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.
Please use the following words, phrases, abbreviations, and stylistic conventions:
• Do not use the term 'significant' redundantly throughout the text. Cite a P value (recommended for Abstract and for Results) associated with each statistical inference.
• Terms with a specific statistical meaning (i.e. significant, tended and correlated), should only be used in a strict statistical context.
• Numbers less than 10 are written as a word, unless followed by an abbreviation for unit of measure, e.g. five embryos, 5 min
• Abbreviate units of measure when they follow a quantity: days, d; hours, h; weeks, wk; years, yr; minutes, min; For example, 4 d, 5 h, 6 yr.
• When using a time-descriptive noun as a name (e.g., hour of the experiment or day of the experiment), spell out the noun.
Use the following expressions:
• Estrus is a noun; estrous is an adjective.
• 120 to 125, not 120-125
• treatment by period, not treatment X period
• gravity: 100 X g (in lieu of speed for centrifugation)
The following abbreviations represent DAE-terms that do not require definition by the author. All units of measure associated with numerical values must be abbreviated according to DAE form as indicated below. All others should be defined in the abstract (if used) and again the first time the term appears in the text. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Never use an abbreviation to start a sentence (e.g., mRNA should be Messenger ribonucleic acid); otherwise, rephrase the sentence so that it doesn't begin with the word in question.
Units of time
s - second(s)
min - minute(s)
h - hour(s)
d - day(s)
wk - week(s)
mo - month(s)
yr - year(s)
µL - microliter
mL - milliliter
L - liter
dL - deciliter
Other physical units
Bq - becquerel
°C - degree Celsius
Cal - calorie
Ci - curie
cM - centimorgan (spell out morgan if used without a prefix)
Da - dalton
Eq - equivalent
g - gram
ha - hectare
Hz - hertz
IU - international unit
J - joule
lx - lux
m - meter
M - molar (concentration; preferred over mol/L)
mol - mole
N - normal (concentration)
Pa - pascal
t - metric ton (1,000 kg)
V - volt
W - watt
P- as in P < 0.05
ANOVA - analysis of variance
CV - coefficient of variation
df - degree(s) of freedom
F - F-distribution (variance ratio)
LSD - least significant difference
n - sample size (used parenthetically or in footnotes)
P - probability
r - simple correlation coefficient
r2 - simple coefficient of determination
R - multiple correlation coefficient
R2 - multiple coefficient of determination
s2 - variance (sample)
SD - standard deviation (sample)
SE - standard error
SED - standard error of the differences of means
SEM - standard error of the mean
ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADG - average daily gain
ADP - adenosine diphosphate
AI - artificial insemination
ATP - adenosine triphosphate avg - average (use only in tables, not in the text)
BCS - body condition score
bp - base pair
BSA - bovine serum albumin
BW - body weight
cDNA - complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
C/EBP - CAAT-enhancer binding protein
cfu - colony-forming unit
CoA - coenzyme A
Co-EDTA - cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetate
CP - crude protein (N x 6.25)
d - dextrodiam. diameter
DE - digestible energy
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
EBV - estimated breeding value
eCG - equine chorionic gonadotropin
EDTA - ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EIA - enzyme immunoassay
ELISA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Exp. - experiment (always followed by a numeral)
FFA - free fatty acid(s)
FSH - follicle-stimulating hormone
g - gravity
GE - gross energy
GLC - gas-liquid chromatography
GLM - general linear model
GnRH - gonadotropin-releasing hormone
GH - growth hormone
GHRH - growth hormone-releasing hormone
hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin
HEPES - N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid
HPLC - high-performance (pressure) liquid chromatography
i.d. - inside diameter
Ig - immunoglobulin (when used to identify a specific immunoglobulin)
IGF - insulin-like growth factor
IGFBP - insulin-like growth factor-binding protein(s)
IL - interleukin
kb - kilobase(s)
LD50 - lethal dose 50%
LH - luteinizing hormone
LHRH - luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
ME - metabolizable energy
Misc. - miscellaneous
NAD - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH - reduced form of NAD
NDF - neutral detergent fiber
NDIN - neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen
NE - net energy
NEg - net energy for gain
NEl - net energy for lactation
NEm - net energy for maintenance
NEFA - nonesterified fatty acid
No. - number (use only in tables, not in the text)
NRC - National Research Council
o.d. - outside diameter
PAGE - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS - phosphate-buffered saline
PCR - polymerase chain reaction
PG - prostaglandin
PMSG - pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin
PPAR - peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
PUFA - polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)
QTL - quantitative trait locus (loci)
RFLP - restriction fragment length polymorphism
RIA - radioimmunoassay
RNA - ribonucleic acid
rpm - revolutions/minute (not to be used to indicate centrifugal force)
RQ - respiratory quotient
SDS - sodium dodecyl sulfate
SFA - saturated fatty acid
SNP - single nucleotide polymorphism
ssp. - subspecies
ST - somatotropin
spp. - species
TDN - total digestible nutrients
TLC - thin layer chromatography
Tris - tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
USDA - US Department of Agriculture
UV - ultraviolet
VFA - volatile fatty acid(s)
vol - volume
vol/vol - volume/volume (used only in parentheses)
vs. - versus
wt - weight (use only in tables, not in the text)
wt/vol - weight/volume (used only in parentheses)
wt/wt - weight/weight (used only in parentheses)
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