Cytotherapy is the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT). The journal brings readers the latest developments in the fast moving field of cellular therapy in man. This includes cell therapy for cancer, immune disorders, inherited diseases, tissue repair and regenerative medicine. The journal covers the science, translational development and treatment with a variety of cell types, including hematopoietic stem cells, immune cells (dendritic cells, NK, cells, T cells, antigen presenting cells), mesenchymal stromal cells, adipose cells, nerve, muscle, vascular and endothelial cells, and induced pluripotential stem cells. We also welcome manuscripts on subcellular derivatives such as exosomes. A specific focus is on translational research that brings cell therapy to the clinic. Cytotherapy publishes original papers, reviews, position papers editorials, commentaries and letters to the editor. We welcome "Protocols in Cytotherapy" bringing standard operating procedure for production specific cell types for clinical use within the reach of the readership.
The journal's scope covers:
•Biological science of cells for therapy
•Technical aspects of cell processing and transplantation
•Clinical cell therapy trials
•Regulatory and ethical aspects
Short Reports: should not exceed 3000 words excluding references; they may contain up to 3 figures or tables.
Reviews: Review articles are usually solicited. However, Cytotherapy occasionally publishes unsolicited reviews. Reviews should not exceed 12,000 words excluding references (typically less than 150). They may include up to 6 figures and tables. Mini reviews (less than 5000 words) are accepted.Commentaries and Letters to the Editor: are formatted in a series of paragraphs with up to 10 references. Typical length is 300-1000 words. No abstract is required. Letters may include a single figure or table.Letters to the editor: The journal welcomes correspondence. Letters may be submitted as free text. Accompanying references, figures and tables should be submitted using the format for original papers.
In Focus issues: In Focus editions will contain a guest editorial, reviews and original papers following the guidelines above.ISCT Committee Reports A brief introductory paragraph <200 words serving as a summary of the article. The article should be up to 3000 words (max.), arranged in paragraphs (subheadings as appropriate) and a conclusion paragraph; it may include up to three tables/figures and 20 references if needed. Up to 3 Authors of the report, all other members of the committee to be listed as a footnote. Subject to peer review and editorial modifications for style and presentation.
Other formats: The journal will accept free-text submissions describing meeting reports, regulatory guidelines, classification systems, standard operating procedures and miscellaneous reports. These will be published as "Meeting Reports" or "Letters to the Editor".Terminology Update: In concordance with ISCT guidelines Cytotherapy defines "MSC" as 'mesenchymal stromal cells' in preference to the historical term 'mesenchymal stem cell.' Prior to publication, references to 'mesenchymal stem cell' in a submitted manuscript will be changed to 'mesenchymal stromal cell' throughout the text, figures, tables, and supplementary materials. For additional information, see "Clarification of the nomenclature for MSC: The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement" (available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1465324905708276).
Manuscripts should be submitted online: http://ees.elsevier.com/jcyt. New users should start by creating an account and then follow the instructions provided. Manuscripts are submitted through the Author Centre. Authors for invited articles should follow the instructions given in the invitation e-mail.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Cytotherapy considers research and publication misconduct to be a serious breach of ethics, and will take such actions as necessary to address such misconduct. Authors should refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for full information. Authors are also encouraged to visit Elsevier's Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication. Plagiarism and duplicate submission are serious acts of misconduct. Plagiarism is defined as unreferenced use of published or unauthorized use of unpublished ideas, and may occur at any stage of planning, researching, writing, or publication. Plagiarism takes many forms, from 'passing off' another's paper as the author's own paper, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another's paper (without attribution), to claiming results from research conducted by others. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Duplicate submission/publication occurs when two or more papers, without full cross-reference, share the same hypothesis, data, discussion points, or conclusions. Identifying information should not be published in written declarations, photographs or pedigrees. Do not reveal patients' names, initials or hospital numbers, for example in illustrative material. Photographs of human subjects must be accompanied by informed consent of the person(s) concerned and requires that the person should see the manuscript before publication. Facial features must be unrecognizable. The Editorial Office may request the authors to supply a PDF copy (or paper copy) of an ethical committee approval for articles describing animal experiments or clinical studies/trials (patients, patient material, medical records), including a verified and official translation of such documents. State in the ethics section that the procedures of the study received ethics approval from the relevant and named national, regional or institutional ethics/review committee(s) responsible for human/animal experimentation. Supply the date of issue and registration number. If no ethics approval was received, explain why, including an explanation as to how the study adhered to the Helsinki Declaration. If deemed necessary by the Editors, cases will be submitted to COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics).
Permission to reproduce material published in other journals must be sought by the authors before publication of the article. A note about permissions granted should be included in the cover letter submitted together with the manuscript. More information can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/permissions. Permission to republish material from Cytotherapy can be sought directly online. Look for the article on the journal website and use the "Rights/Permissions" or "Permissions & Reprints" link. For more information please visit: http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Authors are responsible for recognizing and disclosing any conflict of interest, or potential conflict of interest, that may bias their work, or could be perceived to bias their work, and acknowledge all financial support and any other personal connections. Cytotherapy adheres to the ICMJE guidelines, including those on Conflict of Interest and Authorship. Please indicate any activities that apply to the past five years and foreseeable future. Authors must complete the Journal's Conflict of Interest form and upload it with their manuscript and figure files during the electronic submission process. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Cytotherapy will not publish clinical trial data unless the manuscript indicates that approval by a local ethical committee, and informed consent has been obtained according to the Helsinki Declaration.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3300, excluding taxes. There is a 10% discount off the open access publication fee for members of the International Society for Cellular Therapy Head Office. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Either English or American spelling is accepted if used consistently throughout the manuscript. Authors who are not fluent in English should use the help of a colleague or translator who is proficient in medical English before submitting the manuscript for consideration. The quality of the language is the author's responsibility. All manuscripts will undergo copyediting before printing, but significant language editing will not be undertaken. Poor quality of English masks the possible scientific merit of some papers, and can delay publication or lead to outright rejection of the paper. More on language editing and quality may be found at http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageservices/, and information on language editing services can be found at http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
A Cover Letter should be provided, where authors vouch for the accuracy of the manuscript according to the guidelines given here. This is also the place where authors may inform the editors of any special circumstances or details regarding the submitted material, including prior publication of the material/parts of the material in a minority language. Authors are welcome to recommend reviewers in the cover letter, particularly if they are Cytotherapy editorial board members. Associate Editors should not be recommended as reviewers. Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Manuscript files should be structured as follows: (1) Title page; (2) Abstract; (3) Keywords; (4) Abbreviations; (5) Main text; (6) Acknowledgments; (7) Disclosure of Interest; (8) References; (9) Legends of Figures and Tables; and (10) Tables and/or Figures.
The text should be double-spaced with generous margins. Times New Roman in 12 pt size is the preferred font style. Smaller spacing and font may be used for references, tables and figure legends. Subheadings may be used for clarification in the Material and Methods and Results sections, and must clearly differentiate from the main text using appropriate font style.
The Title page should include: (a) Full title (avoid abbreviations in the title); (b) Running title (for page heading, maximum of 50 characters); (c) All contributing authors with full name, title and affiliation; and (d) Corresponding author details with e-mail address (to which all decision letters and page proofs will be communicated).
The Abstract should be 250 words or less and divided into subheadings: (1) Background; (2) Methods; (3) Results; (4) Discussion; and (5) Keywords. Only approved abbreviations may be used in the abstract without definition. Review Articles should include a "block style" nonstructured abstract.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Key Words: After the abstract, please include 3-10 keywords placed in alphabetical order and according to the Medical Subject Headings list of Index Medicus.
Abbreviations used in the text should all be explained and listed on a separate page after the Abstract. A phrase is spelled out when used for the first time followed by an appropriate abbreviation in parentheses. Abbreviations must be spelled out in figure legends and footnotes of tables. If the article contains many non-standard abbreviations, a separate list with explanations must be provided.
Acknowledgment: Include only those who have made a valuable contribution to the work presented but who do not qualify as authors, with their contribution described. This may include a patient population and funding bodies. Use plain language and avoid adjectives. If appropriate, funding for publication, for writing or editorial assistance may be added.
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Nomenclature and units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAP: Symbols, Units, Nomenclature and Fundamental Constants in Physics for further information.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
The number of figures should be kept to a minimum. There should preferably not be any repetition/overlap of information given in figures and text. Figures should be submitted as separate files in their native file format in the best possible quality. Figures must be numbered and quoted consecutively in the text. Format: EPS or TIFF preferred. Resolution: 1200 dpi greyscale mode for black and white images such as graphs and log scales, 600 dpi greyscale mode for images such as gels or blots, and 300 dpi CMYK mode for colour images. A figure should be no larger than 160mm in width and 200mm in height at the appropriate resolution. Figures with resolution lower than specified will not reproduce correctly and could delay publication. For more information on submission guidelines for figures, visit http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
For illustrations in color in the printed version of the journal, the authors are required to pay the charges at USD 650 for the first color figure, and USD 100 for each additional color figure. However, illustrations may be printed in black and white in the hard copy and published in color in the online version of the journal without charge.
Include the figure number in the figure caption (in Arabic numerals). Every panel appearing in the artwork should be defined in the legend. Define scale bars in figure legends, not in the artwork. Legends should be intelligible without reference to the text. Abbreviations defined in the text do not have to be defined again in the figure legends.
As with figures, the number of tables should be kept to a minimum and preferably not repeat information already found in the text. Tables should be intelligible without reference to the text and should supplement, not duplicate it. Each table should be included in the main manuscript file on a separate page after the references. If tables are uploaded separately, they must be in Word or Excel. The title should be typed above the first line of the table, and should include the number of the table (Roman numerals). Footnotes are indicated by using lower case alphabets as superscripts. P values are given as numbers (not as *, **, ***). Abbreviations defined in the text do not have to be defined again in the table key.
The total number of references should not exceed 100. Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in the text, tables and legends by Arabic numerals within brackets, i.e. . References cited in tables and figure legends should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration. The titles of the journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. List all authors when 6 or fewer; when 7 or more, list the first six and add 'et al'. If a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume the month and issue number are omitted in the reference list. Page numbers are given as "2284-90", not "2284-2290." The use of abstracts in the list of references should be avoided. Manuscripts accepted but not yet published are designated 'in press.' Unpublished observations as well as manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text only as 'unpublished observations' with the authors' initials, surname and institution, as well as the year when the observation was made. The references must be verified by the authors against the original documents.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Cytotherapyaccepts supplementary data files to accompany the online article, allowing authors to support and enhance their papers. Supplementary materials may include additional images, tables, datasets, video clips, etc. All supplementary materials are subject to peer review, however, supplementary materials will not be edited, and will be posted as provided by the authors. There are no limitations for length, figures and references in Supplementary Materials. All Supplementary Materials should be cited within the text of the manuscript.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples. Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use the feature, please contact email@example.com for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.
Manufactured reagents: When referring to manufactured reagents, please list company name, city, state, and country in brackets following the name of the product/item.
Use of statistics: The results should be quantified and presented with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (e.g. confidence intervals). The mean and standard deviation (SD) should be given at a minimum; a sole reliance on the use of P values is not acceptable. The statistical method(s) and/or package used should also be stated. The Results should be presented in a logical sequence, and the Discussion should commence with a presentation of the major findings of the study and conclude with the implications and/or applications of the findings. Review Articles are structured more freely, yet the above instructions on statistics should be applied, when relevant.
Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
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