Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning is devoted to dissemination of high quality, peer-reviewed scholarship relevant to all areas of pharmacy education—promoting educational research excellence. The Journal maintains a particular focus in two major areas: pharmacy faculty development in the scholarship of teaching and learning and the scholarship of interprofessional pharmacy education. With diverse editorial board members, authors, and peer reviewers, the Journal engages a variety of stakeholders in pharmacy education: educators, researchers, faculty practitioners, as well as interprofessional colleagues. Diverse author contributions are within original research, review articles, commentaries, and letters categories.
Original research topics include, but are not limited to:
- Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: teaching/learning strategies; interprofessional education
- Quality Improvement - assessment of programmatic/curricular outcomes
- Curricular Revision – design, implementation, evaluation
- New school/program strategies
- Attitudes/perceptions within pharmacy education
Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning is devoted to dissemination of high quality, peer-reviewed scholarship relevant to all areas of pharmacy education-promoting educational research excellence. The Journal maintains a particular focus in two major areas: pharmacy faculty development in the scholarship of teaching and learning and the scholarship of inter-professional pharmacy education. With diverse editorial board members, authors, and peer reviewers, the Journal engages a variety of stakeholders in pharmacy education: educators, researchers, faculty practitioners, as well as inter-professional colleagues. Diverse author contributions are within original research, review articles, commentaries, and letters categories.
Original research topics include, but are not limited to:
• Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: teaching/learning strategies; inter-professional education
• Quality Improvement - assessment of programmatic/curricular outcomes
• Curricular Revision - design, implementation, evaluation
• New school/program strategies
• Attitudes/perceptions within pharmacy education
Types of paper
Types of Paper (additional information is available for each manuscript type - contact Editor-in-Chief at email@example.com)
1. Research PaperOriginal Research Articles and Research Notes are both hypothesis-driven inquiries with the purpose of contributing to generalizable knowledge (i.e., builds on prior knowledge) about teaching, learning, or education in pharmacy. The primary difference between these two article types is that studies described in Research Notes exhibit notable issues related to validity and/or generalizability that limit the extent to which the findings contribute to the literature. Authors are strongly encouraged to submit manuscripts that represent a pilot study of a larger research project as a Research Notes.
Clear and direct communication of the scientific process is a vital guiding principle for both Original Research Articles and Research Notes. An important part of research is the potential for replication by others, which is very difficult if the study methods and procedures are poorly described. Many of these reporting guidelines can be found online at the EQUATOR Network clearinghouse (http://www.equator-network.org).This type of manuscript should report completed qualitative or quantitative original research. The manuscript should include discrete sections including introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusions. Authors are encouraged to use subheadings throughout their manuscript, especially with the Methods and Results sections. Limitations of the research should be included in the Discussion section. A thorough review of the literature should be conducted and a discussion of the same should be included in the manuscript text in the Introduction section. Consideration of the literature in other relevant healthcare professions is recommended. The length of the manuscript text should not exceed 5000 words not including the title page, tables, figures, or references.
Book Review Content Guidelines:
1. Who is best served by reading/using this book (e.g., faculty, researchers, students, teaching assistants, practitioners)?
3. Would you suggest others read this book cover-to-cover, by chapter, or based on an acute need?
5. How much of the content is relevant to a PharmD curriculum vs. of value to a pharmacy educator and/or practitioner?
7. If applicable, what kind of student would benefit from using this book (e.g., in need of remediation or refresher, currently enrolled in PharmD curriculum, a FPGEE student)?
9. How does this book complement (or duplicate) other books that are available? When comparing this book to others like it - what are this book's strengths and weaknesses?
11. If possible, provide your opinion on a couple of pointers or comments to the author(s) that could be of value to those using this book as well.
. 1000 word limit
Teaching and Learning Matters (TALM) Content Guidelines:
The aim of this article type is to encourage sharing the wisdom that is gained through a scholarly approach to teaching. By sharing this knowledge, it is hoped that others will be (1) inspired to utilize the techniques discussed and (2) join in enhancing the scholarship by supporting the technique. In order to accomplish these goals, the scholarship must be written to a caliber that merits recognition and dissemination. Therefore, this article provides guidance as it relates to the expectations for manuscripts submitted under this category.
o Basic overview of the learning environment suf?cient to understand the strategy's ?t and context, including attributes of learners
o Impetus for change
o If a novel use of an existing technique: Clear articulation of the adaptation of the activity/strategy/technique/ approach or its novelty
o Required resources, such as physical space, personnel and relevant expertise, training and preparation processes, time to create, and technology ?
o Methods of assessment of student learning and/or evaluation of strategy:
o An overview of methods used and rationaleo Description of assessment's and/or evaluation's tie to the course grade/?nal assessment (if applicable)
o Data supporting students learning and/or evaluation of strategy, which may include the following:. Learning evaluation (including tool(s) if applicable) (e.g., summaries of rubric ratings and scores)
. Student evaluations of activity (e.g., course evaluations, focus groups, and surveys). Peer evaluations of educational materials (e.g., slides, exams, assignments, and online support materials)
. Peer evaluations of instructional delivery. Peer review of outcomes of teaching advancement (e.g., student work products)
. Peer recommendations for improvements of teaching advancementCritical analysis of the educational activity
o Criteria by which educational activity is critically analyzed, which may include the following:o Resources to implement (e.g., time)
o Publically available or locally established standards, thresholds, or benchmarks used to interpret the data on student learning and/or evaluation of the strategyo Evidence of drawing together data from multiple sources
. Summary of analysis-a clear and concise statement of the ?ndings of your analysis of the educational activity. Lessons learned:
o Most rewarding part(s) of developing and implementing this educational activityo Most challenging part(s) of developing and implementing this educational activity
o Planned improvements for this educational activity. Statement of the work's contribution to previous scholarship
. Implications for the curriculum, to other colleges/schools of pharmacy and/or the professionA structured abstract using these section headings also should be submitted.
For more information, see the Teaching and Learning Matters announcement in CPTL.Teaching and Learning Matters (TALM) Format Guidelines:
. 5000 word limit (somewhat flexible - contact Editor-in-Chief). Use graphs and tables as appropriate to best present the study results; however, do not duplicate data in graphs, tables, and text.
. Tables, figures, and references are not included in the word limit.
Quality Improvement (QI) Article Content Guidelines:
These articles are focused on the cycle of continuous quality improvement (CQI) as applied to pharmacy education in its broadest sense. The focus should reside on the CQI process. The inclusion of institutional or other study data that is not specifically germane to this process is not appropriate. Authors are encouraged to consult the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) guidelines (http://www.squire-statement.org). While these guidelines were originally developed for quality improvement in health care, the recommendations in these guidelines are useful in concept for CQI activities in educational settings. QI articles include the following components: [NOTE: bolded headers below are required as the article section headers]
Problem Description. Describe the nature and significance of the education-related problem that inspired the work, including how the need was identified.
. Describe the relevance of your process to readers and the academy-at-large.
. Describe your process in developing the improvements, including the members, activities and timeline.
. Describe the methods by which your improvements were evaluated.
. Explain the findings from your CQI process.
(Note: While results and evaluative data are not the central issue in this article section, a discussion of their role in your CQI process is needed.)
. Discuss any limitations.
. Provide a concise description of stakeholder observations (e.g., what went well? what challenges were encountered?)
. Discuss future implications for the academy-at-large (what would you suggest to others based on this experience?)
. Address only the objectives and do not overstate your findings.
. Provide a summary statement of the implications of your work for your program and for others.
Quality Improvement Article Format Guidelines:
. Use graphs and tables as appropriate to best present the study results; however, do not duplicate data reporting in graphs, tables, and text.
This type of manuscript should report the results from preliminary studies or when limited data is available from qualitative or quantitative original research. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 3000 words not including the title page, tables, figures, or references. The manuscript components are dependent on the type of short communication submitted (see below). These manuscripts will fall into one of the following four categories.
Description and Section Headers: See Research ArticleExperiences in Teaching and Learning (EiTL)
While articles in the Teaching and Learning Matters section focus on development and evaluation of a teaching and learning approach that make a substantial contribution to or advancement in pharmacy education, EiTL articles report efforts that make a more modest contribution to the pharmacy education literature. Articles in this section generally focus on application and implementation of a previously developed teaching and learning approach, or are focused on application of a teaching and learning approach to a different setting, discipline, or audience. An EiTL article may also report an experience with a modification or improvement over a previously reported technique.Initiatives suitable for this category may have had minimal evaluation or prospective consultation of the existing literature. There may be notable methodological (e.g., participant surveys that lack connection to previous work or a foundational model, non-specific measures of student learning such as overall course grades) or logistical (e.g., small sample size, low response rate) limitations. While some broad outcome data are included, the focus of the article is truly on reporting the context and experience rather than relying heavily on providing evidence of the approach's effectiveness. Section Headers: Background and purpose, Educational activity and Setting, Findings, Discussion, Summary
Interprofessional Education (IPE) Report:Interprofessional Education (IPE) Reports describe innovative, promising, early-stage IPE models alongside thoughtful analysis of the insights gained and barriers identified/overcome by pharmacy educators working to address IPE requirements embedded within accreditation standards. Authors are encouraged to contact the Editor-in-Chief (firstname.lastname@example.org) for article topic suitability prior to submission. Section Headers: Background, Interprofessional Education Activity.
Live and Learn:Live and Learn articles describe studies during which a problem or significant limitation negatively impacted any substantial results and/or interpretation of the results. Authors are expected to be concise. Section Headers: Background, Impact, Recommendations(s), Discussion midwestern.edu
Wisdom of Experience Article Content Guidelines:
Faculty, preceptors, administrators, professional students, graduate students, and residents are invited as authors. Manuscripts can comment on insights derived from one-to-one interactions (e.g. advising, mentoring, teaching), group work (e.g. teaching teams, classrooms, task forces) or institutional/multi-institutional initiatives (e.g. curriculum reform, regional collaborations, new administrative structures). Manuscripts may be inspired by reflections on didactic, experiential, and/or laboratory teaching experiences. Manuscripts may also be inspired by career transitions or significant moments of self-reflection and review, such as the promotion and tenure process, nomination, application or receipt of awards, or peer-observations of teaching. Authors should be conscious of and identify shifts in their own perspective or paradigm.
. Explains the gap in the teaching-learning literature that this reflective work begins to fill
.Presents an objective, complete and well-expressed description* of the experience in an authentic and engaging manner.
o Considers characteristics of participants, content or context
o Identifies shifts in own perspective or paradigm
. Explore the implications and value of the learning to others (i.e. individuals, institutions, the academic community).
A brief structured abstract using these section headings also should be submitted.
Wisdom of Experience Article Format Guidelines:
. No more than ten references (not included in word limit)
Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor Content Guidelines:
. Provide a clear, succinct critique and/or comment on an issue in an article published in the Journal in the previous 12 months. A letter must not duplicate other material that has been published or submitted for publication
. Letter authors must disclose any competing or conflicts-of-interest; in the absence of competing or conflicts-of-interest, authors must provide a statement that they do not have any competing or conflicts-of-interest.There is no need to provide an abstract for this article type.
For more information, see Letter to the Editor announcement in CPTL.Letter to the Editor Format Guidelines:
. 500 word limit. No more than six references
Methodology Matters Article Content Guidelines:
My (or our) Situation (or Issue, Problem):. This section situates your review within a particular problem, as well as includes a poignant objective for the review-this section will set the stage for this article.
. Briefly note the importance of this topic as it relates to education scholarship.. As appropriate, point out your expertise (e.g., Does the situation described represent questions you frequently receive? Is this something you have encountered frequently as an expert peer-reviewer?).
Methodological Literature Review:. Clearly and succinctly discuss poignant literature that informs this methodology topic. Help readers to understand the basis for your upcoming recommendations.
. Make sure this review's concepts and terminology are described for readers without substantial training in research methods, analysis, or educational measurement.My Recommendations and their Application(s):
. Provide clear, logical, and practical advice/recommendations.. Connect your recommendations to the existing literature base and/or evidence
. If applicable, give your solution to the situation at beginning of this article (this also can serve as your example/application, unless you want to point out other examples in the literature). Describe other examples of the recommended course of action (these may not come from the pharmacy education literature, but examples from the health sciences are preferred-please keep in mind AMA-style/article length when giving examples from outside articles).
Potential Impact:. Discuss benefits and limitations of your recommendations
. Describe the manner in which your recommendations could potentially change/impact educational scholarship in pharmacy.If applicable, briefly provide any theoretical implications from your situation and recommendations
. If applicable, briefly discuss any recommendations for changes at the broader level that may avoid the potential for encountering these problems/issues or diminish their impact in the future (e.g., changes in education or practice). Supply a Box 1 (table) of recommended resources for interested readers to further explore.
A structured abstract using these section headings also should be submitted.For more information, see Methodology Matters announcement in CPTL.
Methodology Matters Review Articles Format Guidelines:. 7500 word limit (somewhat flexible - contact Editor-in-Chief)
. These review articles should not include any new data or data analyses. Tables, figures, boxes and references are not included in the word limit.
Reviews in Education
Educational Review Articles Content Guidelines:
. Some areas evolve faster than others (e.g., use of technology in educational settings) and therefore may warrant more frequent reviews (i.e., a shorter review timeframe.
. Provide sufficient background to situate your review (i.e., show relevance for readers)
. For systematic reviews, explicit criteria for including or excluding identified articles from the review should be included, as well as an explicit timeframe over which the review was conducted
. Report your software and analysis for meta-analyses (e.g., MIX 2.0 or RevMan).
. As appropriate to your objective and methods, provide quantitative- or qualitative-synthesis of data from identified articles (Do not simply restate results from those articles)
. Highlight unconventional or unexpected relationships noted during your review.
. Provide clear applications for pharmacy education and implications to theory and/or future investigations from the results of the review.
A structured abstract using these section headings also should be submitted.
. 5000 word limit (somewhat flexible - contact Editor-in-Chief)
. Tables, figures, and references are not included in word limit.
Issues in Pharmacy Education Article Content Guidelines
Articles in this category are informed opinions that foster scholarly dialogue on issues, trends, or findings believed to be important in the context of pharmacy education and related areas. Descriptions of original research results and educational innovations are not accepted as a Commentary, but may be appropriate for one of the other sections of the Journal. Articles in this category include the following components: [NOTE: bolded words represent the required article section headings]Introduction
. Explain the controversy, issue, trend, or innovation in pharmacy education. Describe your perspective and/or provide a framework for the commentary.
. Discuss its importance for readers and the academy-at-large.Perspective or Commentary
. Discuss your perspective, while using an informed, scholarly tone. Provide information to support your perspective (e.g. citations, experience).
Implications. Provide suggestions and/or implications for moving forward for the academy-at-large.
A brief structured abstract using these section headings also should be submitted.For more information, see Commentary announcement in CPTL.
Issues in Pharmacy Education Article Format Guidelines:. 1500 word limit (somewhat flexible - contact Editor-in-Chief)
. No more than six references (not included in word limit). No more than a total of two figures and/or tables (not included in word limit)
. Commentaries should not include the description or analysis of new data
Teachable Moments Matter
Teachable Moments Matter (TMM) Content Guidelines:
TMM articles are intended to be instructive for readers and the academy-at-large. A TMM article is published alongside or within one issue of the original parent Original Research Article, Case Report, or Short Communication. The Editor-in-Chief will invite individuals with appropriate expertise to write these when a commentary may offer helpful suggestions on methodology for readers and the academy-at-large. These articles are written in collaboration with the original contributor(s). Articles in this category include the following components: [NOTE: bolded words represent the required article section headings]
. Identify and describe the problem and/or limitation encountered during the associated study
. Describe the impact of this problem and/or limitation on study results, analysis, and/or generalizability/interpretation
. For other researchers, describe how this problem/limitation could have been prevented or avoided
Teachable Moments Matter (TMM) Format Guidelines:
. No more than six references (not included in word limit)
Before You Begin
Ethics in publishing
Human and animal rights
Conflict of interest
For Subscription articles
For Open Access articles
Retained author rights
Role of the Funding Source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit https://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site https://service.elsevier.com for more information.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
Please submit your article via https://ees.elsevier.com/cptl.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities, institutional affiliation, and location of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. For more information please refer to https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:Title page (with author details): This should include the manuscript title, authors' names and affiliations (including a complete address, telephone, and e-mail address for the corresponding author) followed by an abstract, key words, disclosure statements.
Corresponding author contact information format example:Robin M. Zavod, PhD, FAPhA
Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy
555 31st Street
Downers Grove, IL 60515
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any Acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names, affiliations, and locations.Use of wordprocessing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.
Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
Appendices, Tables, and Figures
Essential title page information
o Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the phone number and e-mail address of each author. Do not use superscripts.
o Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Section headings are the same as within the manuscript.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit our customer support site https://service.elsevier.com for more information.The Editorial Office reserves the right to require authors to produce evidence (e.g., paid invoice) that this type of service was employed.
Teaching and Learning Matters (TaLM):
Teaching and Learning Matters (TaLM):
The aim of this article type is to encourage sharing the wisdom that is gained through a scholarly approach to teaching. By sharing this knowledge, it is hoped that others will be (1) inspired to utilize the techniques discussed and (2) join in enhancing the scholarship by supporting the technique. In order to accomplish these goals, the scholarship must be written to a caliber that merits recognition and dissemination. Therefore, this article provides guidance as it relates to the expectations for manuscripts submitted under this category. Section Headers: Background, Educational; Activity, Critical Analysis of the Educational Activity.
This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
•Full postal address
•Abstract with appropriate section headings, Keywords, Disclosure statements (title page)
•Ethics statement (approval, exempt) (manuscript text)
•All figure captions
•All tables/figures/appendices (including title, description, footnotes; each uploaded separately)
•Manuscript has been 'spell-checked', 'grammar-checked', and appropriate section headings used
•All identifiers (author names/initials, affiliations, and locations) have been removed from all components of the manuscript, including the file names.
•All abbreviations in text, tables, and figures are defined the first time used (text) and in the appropriate table and/or figure legends.
•All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text using AMA Style format, and vice versa
•Volume, issue, and page range are included for each relevant citation.
•Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
•Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
•If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
For any further information please visit our customer support site at https://service.elsevier.com.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
A structured abstract, by means of appropriate headings, should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
•Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
•Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
•Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
•Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
•Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
•Provide captions to illustrations separately.
•Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
•Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
Please do not:
•Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
•Supply files that are too low in resolution;
•Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal (AMA style) and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Access dates must be provided and must be within the year the manuscript was submitted.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Access dates must be provided and must be within the year the manuscript was submitted.
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).
Reference to a journal publication:
Reference to a book:
2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000. Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
Use of the Digital Object Identifier
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our ProofCentral system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
Online proof correction
To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at https://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You can also check our Author FAQs at https://www.elsevier.com/authorFAQ and/or contact Customer Support via https://service.elsevier.com.