Computers & Geosciences publishes high impact, original research at the interface between Computer Sciences and Geosciences. Publications should apply modern computer science paradigms, whether computational or informatics-based, to address problems in the geosciences.
Computational/informatics elements may include: computational methods; algorithms; data models; database retrieval; information retrieval; near and remote sensing data analysis; data processing; artificial intelligence; computer graphics; computer visualization; programming languages; parallel systems; distributed systems; the World-Wide Web; social media; ontologies; and software engineering.
Geoscientific topics of interest include: mineralogy; petrology; geochemistry; geomorphology; paleontology; stratigraphy; structural geology; sedimentology; hydrology; hydrogeology; oceanography; atmospheric sciences; climatology; meteorology; geophysics; geomatics; seismology; geodesy; paleogeography; environmental science; soil science; glaciology.
Other fields may be considered but are not regarded as a priority.Computers & Geosciences does not consider:
- Geoscience manuscripts that do not contain a significant computer science innovation. Pure methodological developments (e.g. geophysics, hydrology) are not considered. Pure analytical developments are not considered, unless they have significant implications on computational geoscientific problems.
- Computer science manuscripts with no clear application to the geosciences (as defined above).
- Manuscripts aiming at solving a geoscientific engineering problem rather than answering a scientific question
- Standard code of already well-established, or previously published methods
- Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), unless they provide an original solution to a non-trivial input-handling problem.
- Manuscripts that use GIS tools in standard ways
- Research paper (5,000 words): Providing a novel and original contribution to the scientific fields of study outlined above.
- Case study (5,000 words): Describing a real-world case study on the scientific fields of study outlined above.
- Review paper (10,000 words): Critically describing the state-of-the art of applications of computer science in the geosciences, as a stand-alone contribution or to frame a special issue. Criteria for assessment shall be: completeness, depth, novelty, timeliness, quality, and interest to the Journal's readership. Before submitting review paper manuscripts, a review outline should be approved by one of the editors of the Journal.
- Book or software reviews (1500 words): Describing and evaluating a new or significant publication or piece of software, not written by the author, that is relevant to computation or informatics in the geosciences.
- Letter to the Editor: Commenting on published articles. Criteria for assessment shall be the merit of the question or comment raised. The author(s) of the commented-on article shall be offered the opportunity to prepare a reply, to be published alongside the comment.
Manuscripts can also be submitted to Computers & Geosciences? open access companion title, Applied Computing & Geosciences.
Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
Types of paper
- Original research article: Providing a novel and original contribution to the scientific fields of study outlined above.
- Application article: Describing a real-world case study on the scientific fields of study outlined above.
- Scientific review article: Critically describing the state-of-the art of applications of computer science in the geosciences, as a stand-alone contribution or to frame a special issue. Criteria for assessment shall be: completeness, depth, novelty, timeliness, quality, and interest to the Journal's readership. Review outlines should be pre-approved by an Associate Editor, or Editorial Board Member of the Journal.
- Book and software reviews: Describing and evaluating a new or significant publication or piece of software relevant to aspects of computation or informatics in the geosciences.
- Letter to the Editor: Commenting on published articles. Criteria for assessment shall be the merit of the question or comment raised. The author(s) of the commented-on article shall be offered the opportunity to prepare a reply, to be published alongside the comment.
For Original Submission:
- Research Articles and Application Articles - 5,500 words maximum.
- Review Articles - 10,000 maximum.
- Book Review and Short Notes - 1,650 maximum.
For Revised Submission:
- Research Articles and Application Articles - 6,500 words maximum
- Review Articles - 10,000 maximum.
- Book Review and Short Notes - 1,650 maximum.
NOTE: Only the Manuscript file will be included for wordcount (Abstract, Keywords, Highlights, References and Captions will be excluded).
Contact details for submission
For general information about the submission of computer code, or inquiries on access to the ftp site for computer code http://www.iamg.org for the journal, contact:
Prof. Dr. Dario Grana
University of Wyoming
University of Lorraine
Dr. Leandro P. de Figueiredo
Federal University of Santa Catarina
To avoid incomplete submissions, we strongly advise the authors to use the Microsoft Word/Latex template available in the CAGEO github repository:
Microsoft Word template:
Latex Project template:
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:
• Code availability section
• E-mail address of corresponding author
• Full postal address of corresponding author
• Authorship statement (for manuscripts with more than one author)
• Make sure that all this information is available on the manuscript first page (see below section ?Essential title page information?
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print.
• Graphical Abstracts (where applicable)
• Highlights files
• Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Include code availability section (for code-related manuscripts)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Ethics in publishing
Please see our information on Ethics in publishing.
Declaration of competing interest
Corresponding authors, on behalf of all the authors of a submission, must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. All authors, including those without competing interests to declare, should provide the relevant information to the corresponding author (which, where relevant, may specify they have nothing to declare). Corresponding authors should then use this tool to create a shared statement and upload to the submission system at the Attach Files step. Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify compliance, your article may be checked by Crossref Similarity Check and other originality or duplicate checking software.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist" and "whitelist". We suggest using alternatives that are more appropriate and (self-) explanatory such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist". These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor, a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.editorialmanager.com/CAGEO/default.aspx.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential reviewers.
Note: the editor decides whether or not to invite your suggested reviewers.
Important Items when submitting a manuscript:
- To be certain that your manuscript contains suitable material for the journal (computing methods in the physical geosciences). Out of scope articles will be returned to authors without review. Please read the journal Aims & Scope:
- Grammar, spelling and accuracy is considered as the most important screening criterion. If your manuscript contains errors in English, it will be returned. Use decimal points (not decimal commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above). Italics are not to be used for expressions of Latin origin, for example, in vivo, et al., per se. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the ""spell-check"" and ""grammar-check"" functions of your wordprocessor
- Have your manuscript read by another party. Someone who is not familiar with your manuscript will often pick up mistakes that authors commonly overlook. If English is not your native tongue, please have your manuscript checked by a native English speaker or enlist the services of someone or a company that can provide English editing services.
- Please consult the ""Guide for Reviewers"" for evaluation criteria. Manuscripts that do not meet the novelty, significance, and competence criteria will be returned to authors at any stage, at the discretion of the Editor.
- All manuscripts must be submitted as doubled spaced with line numbers.
- The references must follow the citation format as stipulated in this guide. Your manuscript will be returned if the citation format is not correct.
- Ensure that figures are adequately labelled (coordinates, scale bar, orientation) and the resolution is sufficient for publication scale.
- If you are submitting a revised manuscript, CLEARLY explain, point-by-point, to the comments provided by the reviewers.
- Choose the appropriate article type (Research, Application, Review or Short Note articles).
- Text and figures must be uploaded separately (TEX documents excepted).
Please provide a covering letter explaining the contribution of the manuscript.
For questions about the editorial process (including the status of manuscripts under review) or for technical support on submissions, please visit our Support Center.
You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file for the review process. The manuscript must be single column and double spaced. References can be included in several formats as long as they are consistent throughout the reference list, they include the names of all the authors, and the journal titles are not abbreviated. Citations must be included in the author-date format (e.g. APSA and APA). After acceptance, authors will be requested to submit the paper in the publication format of the journal and provide the files required for the publication of the article.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process. As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
References can be included in several formats as long as they are consistent throughout the reference list, they include the names of all the authors, and the journal titles are not abbreviated. Citations must be included in the author-date format (e.g. APSA and APA). Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
To avoid incomplete submissions, we strongly advise the authors to use the Microsoft Word/Latex template available in the CAGEO github repository:
Microsoft Word template:
Latex Project template:
The manuscript must be single column and double spaced. There are no other strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions. Line numbering of the manuscript is mandatory for all submissions. If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. Divide the article into clearly defined sections.
This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.
If English is not your native tongue, please have your manuscript checked by a native English speaker or enlist the services of someone or a company that can provide English editing services.
Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
All manuscripts must be submitted as doubled spaced with line numbers.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Authors are encouraged to include a 'Data Availability' section in their manuscript which is visible in ALL reading formats and may refer to data hosted in ANY repository. It should be placed before the references to provide readers with information about where they can obtain the research data required to reproduce the work reported in the manuscript, and typically consists of a simple sentence giving the URL(s) of and citation(s) to the dataset(s). Full information can be found here.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Link to the code. Manuscripts presenting code, software or implementation of described algorithms need to include a link to a repository where the code can be downloaded
• Authorship Statement. Submissions must include a compulsory brief authorship statement that describes the contribution of each author (maximum one sentence per author and a total of 200 words only). At the time of publication, this statement will figure in the paper. The main goal is to unambiguously identify the role of each co-author, regardless of the authors order which can vary across disciplines. Furthermore, the contribution statement is the occasion to acknowledge co-first authorships (i.e., two or more authors have made an equal significant contribution to the work) and co-last authorships (i.e., several senior authors have co-supervised a research project with equivalent inputs). It is also the place to specify whether an advisor author is mentioned as second author or as last author. Moreover, the contribution statement aims at ensuring that ghost writing and courtesy authorship do not take place. Authorship should be based fulfilling all of the following criteria:
1. Authors make substantial contributions to the development of ideas, their implementation, the conception of experiments, data acquisition, analysis or interpretation;
2. Authors participate in drafting or critically revisiting the manuscript and take intellectual responsibility for its content;
3. All authors give their final approval of the manuscript version to be submitted and any revised version of it.
• Highlights.Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal as they help increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length 300 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. A structured abstract is required. For this, a recent copy of the journal should be consulted. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. References should therefore be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Abstracts are not required for Short Notes.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, it is recommended to include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Computer code availability
Name of code, developer and contact address, telephone number and e-mail, year first available, hardware required, software required, program language, program size, and details on how to access the source code.The text should be included as a new section titled “Computer Code Availability” after Acknowledgements. When a software component is an essential part of the paper presentation, authors should be prepared to make it available to reviewers during the review process. Software/scripts used or developed for the substantial part of the presented work must be open-source and freely available for download from a stable public repository (git repositories are encouraged). Please avoid i) inserting the code source directly in the manuscript, and ii) personal file-sharing services. The repository link should be included in the "Computer Code Availability" section, the download should be anonymous. Free open-source code for proprietary platforms (e.g. matlab or GIS plugins) are accepted and must be shared in the public repository.
Nomenclature and Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Equations and symbols
Use punctuation after mathematical equations (i.e. use a period (.) if the equation ends a sentence).
Please note that equations and symbols may be incorrectly converted in Editorial Manager. Therefore, these should be supplied in one of the following ways:
1. As a .pdf file
2. As a 2003 Word .doc file. If the source file was a Microsoft Word 2007 document (.docx), re-save the original document as a Word 2003 file (.doc) by opening the document and selecting 'Save As', then 'Word 97-2003 Document'.
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Do not use the definite article (the) in figure or table captions.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left. See further under Electronic artwork.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Text:All citations in the text should refer to:
- Single Author:the Author's family name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
- Two Authors:both Authors' names and the year of publication;
- Threee or more Authors:first Author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...."
List:References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same Author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.Examples:
Journal articleSrivastava, D.C., Lisle, R.J., 2004. Rapid analysis of fold shape using Bezier curves. Journal of Structural Geology 26, 1553-1559 (Note: spell out journal names in full).
Xu, S. J, Lu, X. C, Zhao, L. Z., 2001. Earth science curriculum redesign and multimedia courseware development. China Geology Education 40(4), 12-15 [in Chinese].(Note: Article published in another language).Pinnegar, C., Eaton, D. W., 2003. Application of the S-transform to prestack noise attenuation filtering. Journal of Geophysics Research 108(B9), 2422-2431. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JB002258.(Note: doi is cited)
BookJohnson, A.M., Fletcher, R.F., 1994. Folding of Viscous Layers, 1st edn. Columbia University Press, New York, NY, 461pp.(Note: Note capitalize first letters of words in books and give total pages in book.)
Richardson, J.L., Vepraskas, M.J. (Eds.), 2001. Wetland Soils. Genesis, Hydrology, Landscapes and Classification, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, 417pp.McGuinness, D., da Silva, P., 2003. Infrastructure for Web Explanations. International Semantic Web Conference 2003, Published in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2870, Springer: Berlin, pp. 113-129.
Article in edited book
De Paor, D. G., 1996. Bezier curves and geological design in structural geology and personal computers, In: De Paor D.G. (Ed.) Structural Geology and Personal Computers, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 389-417. (Note capitalize first letters of words in books and give page range of cited article.)
Deutsch, C.V., 1997. Direct assessment of local accuracy and precision. In: Baafi, E.Y., Schofield, N.A. (Eds.), Geostatistics Wollongong '96, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 115-125.
Ainsworth, S. E., Peevers, G. J., 2003. The interaction between informational and computational properties of external representations on problem-solving and learning, In: Alterman. R., Kirsh, D. (Ed.), Proceedings 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 67-72, URL: http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/CSJarchive/proceedings/2003/pdfs/35.pdf.
Apel, M., 2004. A 3d geosience information system framework. Ph.D. Dissertation, Technische Universitaet Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany, 105 pp.(Note: include total pages.)
Peternell, M., 2002. Geology of syntectonic granites in the Itapema Regiona SE Brazil - Magmatic structures of the Rio Pequeno Granite SE Brazil and analyses with methods of fractal geometry. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Technische Universität München, Munich, 90 pp.Technical report
Reimann, C., 1998. Environmental geochemical atlas of the central Barents region. Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim, Norway, 745 pp.(Note: include total pages.)
National Science Foundation (NSF), 2003. Revolutionizing science and engineering through cyberinfrastructure: Report of the National Science Foundation Blue Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure, Arlington, Virginia. URL:Software Reference
MySQL Reference Manual, 2007. Version 5.0, MySQL AB, Cupertino, CA, USA, p. 1574.
Spectra Vista Co, 2005. GER 3700 User Manual. Spectra Vista Co., New York, USA, p. 45.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Exact citations of the work of others must be provided in quotes with the author(s) properly credited and sourced.
Citing and listing of Internet/Web references
Published standards, data released as an official publication, software or software manuals (see examples below) are to be included in the Reference section. Publication details including author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc. should also be given and followed by the full URL and last date of access. Website data or descriptions do not qualify as references and are to be shown within the text as footnotes. Internet links should not be embedded in the text. Footnote or move to References, as appropriate, formatting according to styles provided in the examples below.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Name and year system
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...."
Listing References: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.
Reference to Mendeley Data:
Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T., 2015. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal requires and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. When sharing data in one of these ways, you are expected to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
To maximise the visibility of your data, authors are invited to add a citation to their datasets by including a data reference in their Reference List as per the 'Data References' instructions elsewhere on this page.
This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in Research Elements.
Research Elements is a suite of peer-reviewed, open access journals which make your research objects findable, accessible and reusable. Articles place research objects into context by providing detailed descriptions of objects and their application, and linking to the associated original research articles. Research Elements articles can be prepared by you, or by one of your collaborators.During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a Research Elements article.
More information can be found on the Research Elements page.
To foster transparency, we require you to state the availability of your data in your submission if your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post. This may also be a requirement of your funding body or institution. You will have the opportunity to provide a data statement during the submission process. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page..
This journal aims to publish code and supporting data from accepted manuscripts using state-of-the-art technologies. Code should be original and demonstrate a development in research. It should also have clear design and be reproducible, reusable, extensible and maintainable. Manuscripts presenting code, software or implementation of described algorithms need to include a link to a repository where the code can be downloaded. In such cases the open source license should be clearly indicated in submitted manuscripts. Manuscripts that describe code that is not open source are desk rejected. The journal editors offer to fork source code or data repositories that accompany published papers on GitHub (https://github.com/CAGEO), to help the community find the author’s original repository.
1. A readme.txt file (or equivalent) providing the name of the program, the title of the manuscript along with the author details. This will assist in correctly assigning the program code and associated files to the correct submission.
2. A user manual or instruction guide that provides information on how to use the program.
3. The source code for any programs that have been written.
4. Test data that can be used to assure that the program is working correctly. Test data should not be overly large so that there are problems downloading the program code and data.
5. Output files should also be provided that will allow a user to check if a compiled program is working properly.
6. Executable program code is not encouraged because of difficulty in transmitting .exe files past Virus scanners and the limited life of executable code.
7. All files should be compressed into .zip or .gz format, which will then be placed on the Computers& Geosciences FTP site for download once the manuscript has been accepted and published.
Availability of accepted article
This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the Journal Pre-proofs (both in HTML and PDF format), which have undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but are not yet the definitive versions of record. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.
Online proof correction
To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.