Guide for Authors

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology publishes clinical articles on all aspects of the digestive system, including the liver and pancreas. The types of articles Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology publishes include original papers, review articles, and special category manuscripts. Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with the "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology has a total circulation of approximately 19,000—about 16,000 in the United States and 3,000 in other countries. 70% of subscribers are AGA members.

CGH is indexed in Current Contents, Excerpta Medica, MEDLINE®, Science Citation Index, and Scopus.

CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY strongly encourages the submission of papers on a breadth of clinical topics in gastroenterology and hepatology, especially randomized controlled trials, high-quality observational including epidemiological and outcomes studies, and novel case series. CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY is interested in several aspects of clinical and translational studies including treatment, prevention, screening, and diagnosis. High-quality systematic and meta-analyses are also welcome and will be highlighted in a special section. Publication priority will be determined by factors such as novelty, impact upon clinical practice, strength of the experimental design, and mechanistic insight.

Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest Policy
Plagiarism, Duplicate Submission/Publication Policy
Image Manipulation Policy
Open Access Policies
Information about Article Types
Submission Checklist
Reporting Clinical Trials
Manuscript Processing and Review
Editorial Office


Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology strongly discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study. In almost all cases, a single study is best reported in a single paper.

The Journal editors consider research/publication misconduct to be a serious breach of ethics and will take action as necessary to address such misconduct, which includes submission or publication of information that:

  • Is intentionally erroneous,
  • Has been published elsewhere by a different author without acknowledgment (plagiarism),
  • Has been published elsewhere by the same author without acknowledgment (duplicate publication), or
  • Is subsequently published elsewhere by the same author without acknowledgment, attribution, or permission from the AGA Institute, as holder of the copyright, to reprint or adapt the material.

Each author who submits a manuscript to CGH must attest to several author statements in the manuscript management system, thereby assigning copyright of the manuscript to the AGA Institute and affirming authorship responsibility, manuscript originality, payment of color reproduction fees, IRB/Animal Care Committee approval, role of study sponsor, financial disclosures, and funding sources.

Breaches of CGH's ethical standards may result in proscribed submission for all authors of the concerned manuscript and, when appropriate, notification of the authors' institutions. All authors are fully responsible for the content of the manuscript.

The publication of abstracts is not considered duplicate publication but should be disclosed in the cover letter accompanying the manuscript submission.

Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content of the paper and must approve of the final version of the manuscript. Authorship should be based on substantive contributions to each of the following:

  • Conception and design of the study;
  • Generation, collection, assembly, analysis and/or interpretation of data;
  • Drafting or revision of the manuscript;
  • Approval of the final version of the manuscript.


A. Potential Conflicts of Interest
The following are examples of COI that may occur with editors, authors (including invited authors), and reviewers. Interactions considered pertinent are from the start of the research activity in a specific program until such time that a submission is anticipated to be published or one year from submission date, whichever is longer.

a. Editors: Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts must have no personal, professional, or financial involvement in any of the issues they might judge. Examples of personal involvement with an author include former student, fellow, mentor, or relative. Examples of professional involvement include academic rivalry, being from the same institution or research group as the author, evaluating a manuscript submitted by a member of the board of editors, or collaborating (e.g., co-authoring research article or grant) with an author. Examples of financial involvement include employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties with an entity (or competing entity) discussed in the manuscript.

It is a COI for editors of the AGA Institute journals to hold a position of editorial responsibility for a competing publication. The Ethics Committee reviews disclosure statements submitted by editors and notifies either/both the Secretary/Treasurer and editor of any potential conflicts. The procedures contained in Section C of the "AGA/AGA Institute Policy on Disclosure of Potential Conflict of Interest" apply if a conflict is found to exist.

b. Authors: COI for an author may arise if there exists a financial arrangement (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties) with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company that makes a competing product.

c. Reviewers: COI for reviewers exist when they have had an ongoing collaboration, original publications, or grants with the authors within the previous two years, except when part of a multicenter group from a different site; are from the same institution as the authors; or have any financial arrangements (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties) with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company that makes a competing product.

B. Process
Potential COI are to be disclosed at the beginning of the peer-review process.

a. Editors: An associate editor having COI with a submitted manuscript must recuse himself from handling the manuscript and request that the manuscript be reassigned. The editor-in-chief having COI with a submitted manuscript must assign review to one of an associate or guest editor for handling. A manuscript submitted by one of the members of the board of editors must be assigned to a guest editor.

b. Authors: The senior or corresponding author assumes full responsibility for supplying the following information on the title page at manuscript submission:
i. For each author, disclosure of any financial arrangement with any company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or that makes a competing product; or a statement for each author that there is no conflict to disclose.
ii. A disclosure of all funding sources supporting the work and all institutional or corporate affiliations.
iii. A list of individuals who provided writing assistance for the manuscript and the source of funds that supported this assistance.

In addition, at manuscript submission, each author must attest to several author statements in the manuscript management system, thereby assigning copyright of the manuscript to the AGA Institute and affirming authorship responsibility, manuscript originality, payment of color reproduction fees, IRB/Animal Care Committee approval, role of study sponsor, financial disclosures, and funding sources.

Based on the information provided, the editors will determine whether COI exists and decide to either a) reject the manuscript or b) publish the manuscript with the COI disclosed.

c. Reviewers: When invited, reviewers must decline to review a manuscript if a potential COI exists. After review, all reviewers must agree to and initial one of the following statements, which appear in the journals' manuscript tracking system:
i. I, the undersigned Reviewer, certify that I have not had an ongoing collaboration, original publication, or grant with the authors within the previous two years, except in the case of being a part of a multicenter group from a different site, nor am I from the same institution as the authors. I also certify that I do not have any financial arrangements (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants/patents received, and royalties) with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company that makes a competing product.
ii. I have listed any potential conflicts on interest in the Comments to Editors field.

If the reviewer discloses a potential COI after the review, the handling associate editor decides if the review should still be used to judge the manuscript.

C. Sanctions
Should an editor, author, or reviewer fail to disclose a potential COI and this is discovered after publication, the following sanctions may be applied according to the severity of the infraction.

a. Editors:
i. A letter of reprimand and warning as to future conduct from the editor, in the case of an associate editor, or from the Chair of the Publications Committee, in the case of the editor.
ii. Dismissal from the position.

b. Authors:
i. A letter from the editor of explanation and education where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.
ii. A letter from the editor of reprimand and warning as to future conduct.
iii. A letter from the editor to the author's institution or funding body.
iv. Publication of a notice detailing the author's failure to disclose the COI.
v. Publication of an editorial detailing the full details of the misconduct.
vi. Refusal to accept future submissions from the author on a sliding scale of one-to-five years.
vii. Formal retraction or withdrawal of the paper from the scientific literature.viii. Reporting the case to the Office of Research Integrity (ORI).

c. Reviewers:
i. A letter from the editor of explanation and education where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.
ii. A letter from the editor of reprimand and warning as to future conduct.
iii. A letter from the editor to the reviewer's institution.
iv. Refusal to allow the individual to review for the journal on a sliding scale of one-to-five years.

This policy was developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).


A. Definitions

a. Plagiarism: Unreferenced use of published and unpublished ideas. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication and applies to print and electronic versions.

b. Duplicate Submission/Publication: Occurs when two or more papers, without full cross-reference, share the same hypothesis, data, discussion points, or conclusions.

B. Sanctions
Should plagiarism or duplicate submission/publication be identified, the journal editors will apply the following sanctions according to the severity of the infraction. They will apply sanctions to individual authors depending on their type of involvement with the article, as provided at the time of submission on the title page.

a. A letter of explanation from the journal editors to the authors where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.

b. A letter of reprimand from the journal editors as to future conduct.

c. A formal letter from the journal editors to the author's institution, employer, or funding body.

d. Publication of a notice or editorial in journal.

e. Refusal to accept submissions from the author for a range of one-to-five years.

f. Formal withdrawal or retraction of paper from the scientific literature.

g. Journal editors report the case to Office of Research Integrity, which promotes integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the U.S. Public Health Service; monitors institutional investigations of research misconduct; and facilitates the responsible conduct of research through educational, preventive, and regulatory activities.

This policy was developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Image Manipulation Policy

A. Definition*

Image manipulation is the misrepresentation of data by selectively altering portions of an image. The expectations for how images should be ethically handled are:

a. No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed or introduced.
b. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields or exposures must be made explicit by the arrangement of the figure (e.g., using dividing lines) and in the text of the figure legend.
c. Adjustments of brightness, contrast or color balance are acceptable if they are applied to every pixel in the image and as long as they do not obscure, eliminate or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds. Non-linear adjustments (e.g., changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
*Language used with permission from The Journal of Cell Biology.

B. Process
The journals' graphics staff will screen images at random during the submission process and will review images that editors, reviewers or readers suspect have been manipulated. If manipulation is suspected, the staff and editors will initiate an investigation with the authors and possibly their institutions.

C. Sanctions
Should image manipulation be verified before or after publication of an article, one of the below sanctions will be applied, based on the severity of the infraction. The journal editor-in-chief and board of editors will determine, on a case-by-case basis, the severity of the infraction and corresponding sanction. Sanctions will be applied to individual authors depending on their type of involvement with the article, as provided at the time of submission on the title page.

a. A letter of explanation from the journal editors to the authors where there appears to be a genuine misunderstanding of principles.
b. A letter of reprimand from the journal editors as to future conduct.
c. A formal letter from the journal editors to the author's institution or employer.
d. Rejection or withdrawal of manuscript acceptance.
e. Publication of a correction or editorial.
f. Retraction of the published article.
g. Refusal to accept submissions from the author for a range of one-to-five years. For particularly egregious cases or series of cases, a life-time ban may be considered.

The AGA reserves the right, on a case-by-case basis, to report particularly egregious cases to the relevant funding bodies.

This policy was developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publishing Ethics (COPE).


Compliance With Funders’ Open Access Policies
CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY’S publishing partner, Elsevier, has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors who publish in Elsevier journals to comply with manuscript archiving requirements of various funding bodies (for example, the National Institutes of Health), as specified as conditions of researcher grant awards.For a full list of funding bodies with which Elsevier has agreements, go to These agreements and policies enable authors to comply with their funding body’s archiving policy without having to violate their publishing agreements with CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGYAND HEPATOLOGY. The agreements and policies are intended to support the needs of the Journal’s authors, editors, and society publishing partners, and to protect the quality andintegrity of the peer-review process.

Author-Sponsored Articles
CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY offers authors the option to sponsor immediate open access to their articles online at and Authors can elect to sponsor their article only after receiving notification that their article has been accepted for publication in CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY.The charge for article sponsorship is $3000, which is used to offset publishing costs of typesetting, tagging, and indexing of articles, hosting articles on dedicated servers, supporting sales and marketing costs to ensure global dissemination via www. and, and permanently preserving the published journal article. The fee excludes taxes and other potential author fees such as submission, page fee, and color charges, which are additional. Authors who have had their article accepted and who wish to sponsor their article to make it immediately freely available should complete and submit the sponsored article order form. You will need your Elsevier Production Article Number to complete the form. You will receive this number via email once your accepted manuscript has been received and processed by the Elsevier team.

Open Issue Highlights and Archives
The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) supports free access to CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY on the broadest possible basis while adhering to a publishing model that is economically sustainable over a long horizon. To that end, for each issue of the Journal, several original research articles are identified by the Journal’s editoras critical content for readers and thus are made immediately open access. Additionally, all content older than 12 months is free to all online. Also, many special sections of each new issueare immediately free to all online.

Manuscript Posting
Authors of articles published in CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY may voluntarily post their accepted manuscripts to personal websites or institutional repositories immediately upon acceptance.


Original Articles
Original Articles are full-length reports of original research and will be considered for either the Alimentary Tract or Pancreas, Biliary Tract, and Liver sections of the Journal. Articles cover topics relevant to clinical studies in these areas of interest. They may discuss nutrition, morphology, physiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, imaging, or therapy. Both adult and pediatric problems are included. To be published, the work presented in the manuscript must be original; on occasion, confirmatory studies of timely and important observations will also be acceptable. In addition, other considerations for evaluating the acceptability of a submitted manuscript include its importance, the soundness of the experimental design, the validity of the methods, the appropriateness of the conclusions, and the quality of presentation.

Original articles submitted to Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology cannot exceed 4,000 words including the figure and table legends, and references. No more than six figures and/or tables are permitted, though more may be included online as supplemental material. Each figure may have up to six panels (labeled A-F). The editor reserves the right to publish excessively long tables as online-only material. Your manuscript will be returned to you if it does not meet these criteria.

Narrative Reviews
Narrative Reviews are invited reviews from experts in the field on a particular topic of interest to the CGH readership. These reviews are typically 6,000 words (references are included in this word count) in length and include a maximum combination of six tables and/or figures.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses are solicited and unsolicited manuscripts that feature an organized and detailed review of the scientific literature about a particular topic. This section is peer-reviewed and acceptance for publication is not guaranteed. The length must not exceed 6,000 words (references are included in this word count) and a maximum combination of six tables and/or figures can be included. For meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials, authors must provide a CONSORT checklist at manuscript submission and follow the PRISMA reporting guidelines found here: For meta-analyses of observational studies, authors must follow the MOOSE reporting guidelines found here:

Image of the Month
Image of the Month presents a striking clinical image(s) that is meant to challenge and inform the reader. Although priority will be given to exceptionally unique submissions, and those that are not similar to recently published cases; authors should be encouraged to present quality images of more commonly encountered diseases and conditions.

All submissions will be considered for both print and online-only publication. Any Image of the Month submissions that contains video alone will be limited to electronic publication only. Authors of Image of the Month submissions are not required to pay for color image reproduction. All submissions should contain no more than four (4) color or black and white images of 300 dpi resolution. Images should be accompanied by a Word document containing a brief description of no more than 200 words. The text should succinctly present relevant clinical information, including a short description of the patient's history, relevant findings, clinical course, response to treatment, and condition at last follow-up.

Please follow additional instructions below:

  1. Images should be submitted as separate TIF files. Do not embed them in the text file.
  2. Do not include an abstract or references.
  3. Do not include image captions. Instead, include callout letters (a, b, c) in your description to assign appropriate text to each image.
  4. Do not include figures with multiple panels.
  5. The title should be declarative and succinct, describing the main finding within the images. The associate editor(s) may modify the title according to journal style.
  6. Endoscopy images should be free of lettering, words, or numbering.
  7. Include associated pathology images when appropriate.
  8. No more than three authors are allowed on each submission. Contributors must provide their names, addresses, phone, and e-mail addresses.
  9. Submissions must be submitted online at
  10. Please limit the word count to 200 words.

Image of the Month articles are indexed on PubMed.

Editorials provide comments on papers published elsewhere in the same issue. Editorials are usually solicited by the Editor.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor offer opinions on papers published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Such correspondence is evaluated only for articles published within one month of submission of the letter (eg, for the July 2012 issue, letters submitted after August 31, 2012 will not be considered). Those letters deemed of interest to the Journal (typically less than 25% of those submitted) are sent to the authors of the original article for a response; the authors are given 2 weeks to reply. A decision will then be made whether to publish the letter with or without its reply.

Letter to the Editor submissions must not exceed 750 words, with no more than 8 references (not included in the word count). Original or unpublished data will not be considered. For the references, use the following format: Jones RS, et al. Clin Gastroenterol and Hepatol 2011; 2: 373 -380 (only first author is listed and article title is not included). The correspondence and the reply cannot include more than 3 authors each. All letters become the property of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology and are subject to editing by the Journal. Letters are selected based on their relevance and originality. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology will not publish letters commenting on manuscripts for which letters have already been published.

Research Correspondence
Research correspondence are concise and smaller scientific reports of original research studies. The format is as follows: no abstract, article text must not exceed 750 words (not including table, figure, or references) and 8 references and may include up to 1 table or figure. If needed, these may include 1-2 additional figures or tables (maximum of two total figures or tables) as supplementary material, for describing results, and up to an additional 500 words of text for describing methods. The text cannot be used to provide additional results or discussion. These reports are not the same as a Letter to the Editor and must not duplicate other material published or submitted for publication. Research correspondence must be divided into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion, and all article titles should be declarative.

Issue Highlights
The Issue Highlights section is written by the editors of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology on a rotating basis. It provides general previews of two articles that appear in the issue and are of particular importance to the CGH readership.

Continuing Medical Education (CME)
Selected issues of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology will contain continuing medical education exams associated with articles that appear in the issue. AGA members can take the exams online free of charge. Non-AGA members are required to pay a $15 processing fee. Readers can claim 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ and 1 MOC credit. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 1 MOC point in the American Board of Internal Medicine’s (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program. Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the AGA’s responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.


All manuscripts should be typed in 12-point font size and double-spaced and should contain the following sections in the order given below. All manuscripts submitted to Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology are made available for online review. Authors should submit their manuscripts, with figures and tables, electronically via our website, . Complete instructions for online submission are located on the website.

Cover Letter
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology strongly encourages authors to suggest three to four referees (include their e-mail address, phone, and fax numbers) and the Associate Editor they believe best qualified to review their paper. Authors may also list a non-preferred Associate Editor and non-preferred referees, but the ultimate selection of an Associate Editor and referees is at the sole discretion of the Editor and Associate Editor, respectively. A list of our current Associate Editors can be found at
State reasons for deviations, if any, from standard format and clarify any potential conflicts related to the exclusive nature of the publication. The cover letter must also categorize the manuscript into one of two groups: Alimentary Tract or Pancreas, Biliary Tract, and Liver.

Title Page
Title--Use no abbreviations. Limit: 120 characters including spaces. Must state the main finding of the study.
Short Title--Limit: 45 characters with spaces.
Authors--Include first names of all authors and name and full location of department and institution where work was performed.
Grant Support--List grant support and other assistance.
Abbreviations--List abbreviations alphabetically. (Note: In general, the use of abbreviations is discouraged.)
Correspondence--Provide name, complete address, e-mail address, telephone number, and fax number of corresponding author.
Disclosures--All authors must disclose any potential conflicts (financial, professional, or personal) that are relevant to the manuscript. If the author(s) has nothing to disclose, this must be stated.
Writing Assistance--The names and funding source for individuals who provided writing assistance must be listed.
Author Contributions--List how each author was involved with the manuscript (e.g., study concept and design; acquisition of data; analysis and interpretation of data; drafting of the manuscript; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; statistical analysis; obtained funding; administrative, technical, or material support; study supervision).

Abbreviations must be spelled out at least once. Do not use footnotes or references.Structured abstracts should be 260 words or less and include the following sections:

Background & Aims: Provide one-to-two sentences of background information to indicate why the study is interesting and important. Provide one sentence to state the main question addressed by the article.

Methods: Methods should include information on the following aspects of study design, when applicable.

  • Design--describe the basic study design, e.g., randomized controlled trial, cross sectional study, cohort study, case series, survey, etc.
  • Setting--specify whether the study was conducted in a primary or tertiary care setting, in an ambulatory care clinic or hospital, in the general community, etc.
  • Participants--indicate the number of study subjects, how they were selected, what key features were included. What data were collected?
  • Intervention--report the method of administration and duration of the intervention. Describe control groups and what methods were used to analyze the data.
  • Describe main outcome measures.

For studies that are quality improvement (QI) related, authors must include a statement about IRB review. Authors must include one of the two statements: 1) This study received IRB approval, and include protocol number; or 2) This study was exempt from IRB review after institutional IRB review.

Results: Describe the main findings of the study, including confidence intervals or P values. Report the absolute values and risk differences so that readers can determine the absolute, as well as the relative, impact of the results. Please be consistent in reporting either number or percentage values.

Conclusions: State conclusions that are directly supported by the evidence and the implications of the findings. For clinical trials, state the clinical trial registration web site and number (eg,, Number NCT002209456).

Include three-to-four keywords associated with your manuscript, separated by semicolons (e.g., active vitamin D; parathyroid hormone-related peptide; hypercalcemia; bone resorption).

The keywords should be terms not already included in the title or abstract. Should your manuscript be accepted, the keywords will appear with the published manuscript, making it easier to find in literature search engines such as PubMed.

What You Need to Know
All revised original research submissions (including Alimentary Tract articles; Pancreas, Biliary Tract, and Liver articles; and Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) must include text for a "What You Need to Know" box to appear on the second page of the published article. The text should include and relate to the following three headings:

  • Background
  • Findings
  • Implications for patient care

Please provide 1-2 sentences (25-30 words) under each of these three headings that succinctly summarize your study in relation to each category. This text should not include nonstandard abbreviations. Please upload this content in a single Word document file, separate from other manuscript materials.

Video Abstracts
Authors are encouraged to submit video abstracts with their manuscripts at the revision stage. Discussion points include the motivation for undertaking the study, a brief overview of methodology, and the highlights of how the results advance the field of digestive disease. The following guidelines apply:

• Acceptable file formats: MPEG, MOV, AVI, or GIF
• Length does not exceed five minutes
• Sound and picture is clear (ensure that you capture the video in a quiet and well-lit environment)
• Video is in English; if your native language is not English, we strongly encourage you to submit TWO versions of your video: one in English and one in your native language
• Author speaks clearly
• Authors are encouraged to show their laboratories and techniques or procedures related to their study
• Authors must introduce themselves at the beginning of the video, sharing their name and institution
• Content is relevant to accepted manuscript
• Content is free of language that is offensive, defamatory, abusive, profane, and threatening
• Patients should not be identifiable, or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use in the video.

To submit a video abstract with your revised manuscript, choose the item type "Video Abstract" on the journal's manuscript management system, Editorial Manager.

Body of paper
Describe ethical guidelines followed; cite approval of institutional human research review committee or animal welfare committee; describe in detail hazardous procedures or chemicals involved, including precautions observed.

Outline statistical methods used.

Identify drugs and chemicals used by generic name (if trademarks are mentioned, manufacturer name and city are given).

All gene and protein names must be written according to NCBI or HUGO nomenclature. Official NCBI gene full names and symbols are preferred, although "Other Aliases" will be accepted. The Editors acknowledge that exceptions to these guidelines exist, and these will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

Cite references in order of appearance in text using superscripted Arabic numerals.Cite personal communications and unpublished data directly in text without being numbered.All abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus abbreviations.

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.Follow Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology requirements for style:

Article (list 3 authors followed by et al):
13. Meltzer SJ, Ahnen DJ, Battifour H, et al. Protooncogene abnormalities in colon cancers and adenomatous polyps. Gastroenterology 1987;92:1174-1180.

18. Day RA. How to write and publish a scientific paper. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific Information, 1979.

Article in Book:
22. Costa M, Furness JB, Llewellyn-Smith IF. Histochemistry of the enteric nervous system. In: Johnson LR, ed. Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Volume 1. 2nd ed. New York: Raven, 1987:1-40.

5. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, et al. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Tables should be prepared without the use of tabs; most table editor programs can be uploaded successfully. If your table contains decimal fractions, please round your numbers to two places after the decimal point. Tables may be embedded in the file that contains your manuscript or attached as separate files. Please spell out all abbreviations used in the table in an accompanying footnote.


For additional information regarding journal guidelines for figure submissions, please see our Figure Submission FAQs.

Images: Images can be clinical, pathologic (gross or microscopic), endoscopic, or radiographic. They should be of high quality (300 ppi or greater, clear, and in good focus) and illustrate the diagnosis well.

Photographs: Remove all names and all other patient identifiers from photos and radiographic studies.

Line Art and Graphs: Graphs, charts and other line art may be reformatted and/or redrawn by our Graphics staff for consistency with the overall style of the AGA Institute journals. Please be sure that any graphs or line art you submit are at a resolution of at least 300 ppi so that they are readable to reviewers.

Figure Legends: Please do not embed or flatten the text into the image files. Figure legends should be included in the manuscript body, immediately before the references, or typed and submitted in .doc (Word document) or .rtf (rich text format). This text will be reformatted in the style of the AGA Institute journals.

Gel Electrophoresis Labels: Protein molecular weight or DNA marker sizes must be indicated on all figure panels showing gel electrophoresis.

Preferred Figure File Formats: The preferred formats for figure files are tiff (.tif) and jpeg (.jpg). For questions regarding the conversion of other file formats to .jpg or .tif, please view our Figure Submission FAQs.

Accepted Figure File Formats: Other acceptable file formats include: .bmp, .gif, .pbm, .pcx, .png, .pct, .msp, .tif, .eps, .xbm, .psd, .ai, .indd, .pdf, and .tga files. When sending image files, please do not embed them in Word. You may submit mixed file formats (image1.jpg, image2.tif, image3.eps, etc.).

Image File Formats not Supported at this Time: Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets, ChemDraw, CorelDraw, Canvas, FreeHand, SigmaPlot, QuarkXpress, and Equation Editor. You may export image files from these programs as PDF, JPEG, or other acceptable file formats. For questions regarding the conversion of these file formats to our preferred formats, please view our Figure Submission FAQs.

File Naming Convention: Figures should be named consecutively such as "figure 1.tif," "figure 2.jpg," etc., with the file extension appended (.tif, .jpg, .eps, etc). Each figure should be saved as a separate electronic file.

Color Files: Figures should be submitted in the CMYK color space. Authors are encouraged to present color figures in a manner that will allow the data to be interpreted by colorblind readers. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology suggests that authors present dual-labeled images in green and magenta rather than in green and red. See the website of the Jfly data depository for Drosphila researchers ( ) for more information on how to make figures and presentations intelligible for a colorblind audience.

Font: If your figures include text, an 8 to 10 point Arial font should be used. Acceptable fonts are "sans serif" fonts such as Helvetica, Arial, and Myriad. Examples of unacceptable fonts ("serif" fonts) are Times New Roman, Palatino, and Garamond. Lettering should begin with an upper case letter, followed by lower case lettering.

Multiple Panel Figures: Please submit each panel (image) separately. However, you may submit a multiple panel version to suggest the order in which you would like the panels arranged. You may also include a written, suggested layout. Each individual panel should be of the highest possible quality (300 ppi or higher) at actual print size.

Cost: Authors will be required to pay for the printing of color figures ($650 for the first color figure and $100 each for additional figures). If the manuscript is reviewed with color figures, it must be published with color figures with printing fees paid for by the author. If the author does not wish to pay for printing color figures, then the figures must be uploaded in grayscale or black-and-white only to allow review of the data as they will ultimately be published in print. Authors may include color images to be published online only by uploading the color files separately as supplemental files.

Supplemental files
We encourage you to submit non-essential figures or portions of your manuscript as supplementary material for online-only publication, as our readership highly values supplementary materials. However, please note that the following items MUST  be within the main text and not provided as supplemental information: 1) important materials and methods 2) references cited in the main text. Also, authors who offer supplementary information must ensure those materials are readily available upon request.

The portions of your manuscript that you would like to be included as supplementary material (including figures and tables) should be uploaded separately from the manuscript as "supporting documents." The supplementary material will not appear in the PDF, though there will be a link to access the file in the PDF of your submission.


In according with the guidelines set for by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (, authors of manuscripts involving clinical trials must provide full registration of their clinical trial(s). A clinical trial is defined as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention and comparison groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. The trial must have at least one prospectively assigned concurrent control or comparison group in order to trigger the requirement for registration.

Appropriate online registries include,,,, or any primary registers that participate in the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Platform.

The clinical trial registry web site and the clinical trial number must be included at the end of the “Conclusions” section in the abstract (this information will not count toward the 260 word limit). Example:, number NCT002209456. This information must also be provided in the manuscript management system upon submission.

Randomized Controlled Trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on Manuscripts that fail to comply with CONSORT guidelines will not be reviewed for publication.

Access to Study Data

In the methods section, a statement must be made that all authors had access to the study data and had reviewed and approved the final manuscript.


Submissions. The Editorial Office receives over 1,000 manuscripts a year. Each new manuscript receives a unique number, and information on the manuscript is recorded on the Editorial Office computer network. The editorial staff releases information on manuscripts only to authors. The Editorial Office will e-mail a letter to the corresponding author acknowledging receipt of a manuscript, whether new or a resubmission. All manuscripts should be submittedonline at

Review process. Each manuscript is assigned to an Associate Editor who has expertise on the subject of the manuscript. After review by the Associate Editor, if the manuscript is judged to be appropriate and competitive for publication in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, it is sent to experts in the appropriate area for peer review. The Associate Editor chooses two or three reviewers, who remain anonymous. Authors are encouraged to suggest an Associate Editor and three to four reviewers in the cover letter, though final assignments are at the discretion of the editor.

Reviewers provide comments for the editor and for the authors. The Journal expects reviewers to treat manuscripts as confidential communications and not to use the content for their own purposes or make copies of the manuscripts. Reviewers are also expected to declare to the editor any possible conflicts of interest.

Decisions. The single most important criterion for acceptance is the originality of the work. However, a decision to accept a manuscript is not based solely on the scientific validity of its content. Other factors affecting decisions include the extent and importance of new information in the paper compared with that in other papers being considered, the Journal's need to represent a wide range of topics, and the overall suitability for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Decision letters usually, but not always, convey all factors considered for a particular decision. Occasionally, the comments to the authors may appear to be inconsistent with the editorial decision, which takes into consideration reviewers' comments to the editor, as well as the additional factors listed above.

Decisions on peer-reviewed papers are e-mailed to the authors an average of two weeks from the date of submission.


Accepted manuscripts are sent to the publisher, Elsevier, and indexed on PubMed soon after acceptance. Within five to seven business days, they will be uploaded to Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology online under "Articles in Press" for preprint viewing by subscribers. Once authors have had the opportunity to review proofs of their manuscripts, these author-corrected proofs will replace the uncorrected proofs, followed by the final articles on PubMed.

There is a press embargo for all studies published in CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY until they are posted online in our Articles in Press section. Studies cannot be publicized as accepted manuscripts or uncorrected proofs. In the event a corrected proof is not posted online, the embargo will be lifted at 3 p.m. ET the day of online publication. Please see our embargo policy at for more details.

Manuscripts are copyedited to make them consistent with Journal style; if a particular section in the manuscript is not clear or requires additional information, the copyeditor will direct questions to the author. These questions, or "author queries," will appear in the margins of the proofs that are sent to the author. All abstracts and titles will be reviewed and modified by the Journal's science editor. Authors can review changes at the revision stage of their manuscripts. All line art will be reviewed and possibly modified by the Journal's graphics staff. Authors can review changes at the proof stage of their manuscripts.

The time between acceptance and print publication is approximately three months. The corresponding author can expect proofs of the article approximately two months after acceptance. Authors receive proofs for the primary purpose of checking the accuracy of the typesetting; authors are not to revise or rewrite their articles at this stage. If after acceptance of their paper, authors become aware of important information they believe should be added to their manuscript, they should contact the editor of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Authors are required to return proofs to the publisher within 48 hours. If changes are not returned within 48 hours, the manuscript will move forward in the production process.

Reprints. Forms for ordering article reprints will be sent with proofs to authors and should be returned with the corrected proofs. Authors do not receive free reprints, and therefore are responsible for ordering their own reprints (minimum order, 100) from the publisher.


The address for correspondence is: Fasiha Kanwal, MD, MSHS, Editor, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, AGA Institute, 4930 Del Ray Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3015; e-mail:; tel: 301-654-2055 ext. 681; fax: 301-654-1140.

Updated April 2012

© 2012 by the AGA Institute