Guide for Authors

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• Fees
• Authorship
• Group Authorship
• Communication
• Copyright
• PubMed Central (NIH-Funded Work/Authors)
• Open Access Options
• Preliminary Reporting of Data/Embargo
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Online First
• Online Only
• Ethical Treatment of Patients/Subjects
• Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval/Helsinki Declaration
• Animal Studies
• Conflict of Interest
• Permissions
• Figures/Tables
• Survey Instruments/Questionnaires
• Privacy and Informed Consent
• Scientific Misconduct
• Process
• Plagiarism and Overlapping Publication
• Image Manipulation
• Style and Usage
• Submission
• Tracking and Correspondence
• Peer Review
• Tobacco Policy
• Abbreviation List
• Abstract
• Acknowledgments
• Figures
• Virtual Microscope (Content Innovations)
• 3D Radiological Data (Content Innovations)
• Figure Legends
• Use of inclusive language
• References
• Journal Article
• In-Press Journal Article
• Book
• Book Chapter
• Abstract
• Data References
• Data visualization
• Supplemental Material/Appendices
• Tables
• Text
• Title Page
• Ahead of the Curve
• Case Reports/Series (Selected Reports) (Online only)
• Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians (Online Only)
• CHEST Guidelines
• Commentary
• Consensus Statements
• Development Process
• Format
• Contemporary Reviews in Critical Care Medicine and Contemporary Reviews in Sleep Medicine
• Correspondence
• Commenting on Recent Articles
• Response Letters
• General Interest and Announcements
• Editorials
• Errata
• Medical Ethics
• Original Research
• Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval
• Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)
• Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
• Registration of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews
• Surveys/Questionnaire-Based Studies
• Other Study Types
• Confidence Interval
• Matching Language to Level of Evidence
• Poetry (Pectoriloquy)
• Point/Counterpoint Editorials
• Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Pearls
• Recent Advances in Chest Medicine
• Retractions
• Special Features
• Supplement Issue Proposals
• Topics in Practice Management
• Teaching, Education, and Career Hub (TEaCH)
• Translating Basic Research Into Clinical Practice
• Ultrasound Corner


General Policies
All manuscripts submitted to CHEST should be prepared in accordance with our instructions to authors, which reflect the latest ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.




Processing charge Fee
Fee none
Page charges none
Article charges none
Color none
Data supplements none
Open Access fees $3,300


CHEST follows the “ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals”, defining an author as a person who has participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for all portions of the content. Specifically, an author is a person who meets all four of the following criteria:

  1. has made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  2. has drafted the submitted article or revised it critically and substantially for important intellectual content;
  3. has provided final approval of the version to be published;
  4. has agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Any contributor to the work who does not meet all the listed criteria does not qualify as an author but instead is considered a collaborator (see "Collaborators" section below).

Author contributions should be listed in the acknowledgment section (see example below under "How Group Authorship Is Presented in the Journal"). As authors are a part of the study group, their names should be listed redundantly: both in the byline and as part of the collaborator group listing in the acknowledgments.

The final author lineup and order should be determined by all authors before submission and may not be changed without a written explanation and signed permission of all authors post submission. This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:

  • Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Managing Editor from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the authors' names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author whose name is being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Managing Editor to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that (a) the Managing Editor will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (b) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.

  • After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and will result in a corrigendum.

Responsibility for Data

For reports containing original data, at least one author (eg, the principal investigator) must indicate that (s)he had full access to all the data in the study and that he or she takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, including and especially any adverse effects. The corresponding author must assume full responsibility for the integrity of the submission as a whole, from inception to published article. CHEST reserves the right to clarify each author's role, based upon information collected from authors in connection with their submission. For large, randomized, multicenter, controlled trials, different authors may share responsibilities and separately attest to these:

For efficacy data: "Dr. XYZ has personally reviewed the efficacy data, understands the statistical methods employed for efficacy analysis, and confirms an understanding of this analysis, that the methods are clearly described and that they are a fair way to report the results."

For safety data: "Dr. XYZ has personally reviewed the safety data. (S)he understands the statistical methods employed for safety analysis and confirms that (s)he understands this analysis, that the methods are clearly described, and that they are a fair way to report the results." Furthermore, (s)he has personally reviewed the Serious Adverse Events occurring in = 0.1% of participants per treatment group and confirms that these are fairly disclosed and analyzed even in the presence of uncertainty with respect to relationship to treatment."

For study design: "Dr. XYZ confirms that the study objectives and procedures are honestly disclosed. Moreover, (s)he has reviewed study execution data and confirms that procedures were followed to an extent that convinces all authors that the results are valid and generalizable to a population similar to that enrolled in this study."

Group Authorship

In cases involving group authorship—usually by a research network or working group—CHEST may ask for confirmation that each person named in the byline as an author met the ICMJE criteria for authorship, especially in manuscripts with a large number of listed authors.

Recognizing that not everyone in such a group is involved in the actual writing or authoring of the manuscript as per the ICMJE recommendations (above), CHEST requires use of one of the following author byline options offered in the current edition of American Medical Association Manual of Style.

  1. List in the byline the authors who fulfill the ICMJE recommendations and wrote the manuscript and include in the byline the phrase "on behalf of the (Name of Research Group/Network*)," then list in the acknowledgment section all the other contributors as "*[Name of group/network] Collaborators" (see example 3 in the "How Group Authorship Is Presented" section below). Please make sure to include the * in both places as noted here. The group should identify one author to serve as the corresponding author.
  2. Use as a byline "The (Name) Study Network Collaborators*," then list *[Name of group/network] Collaborators (include * in both places as noted here) in the acknowledgment section in subgroups according to the specific tasks performed, such as 1) writing and editing the manuscript, 2) data collection and analysis, 3) design of data collection tools, and so forth.

The editor reserves the right to determine whether the list of collaborators appears in the acknowledgments section or, if it is exceedingly lengthy, in an online-only data supplement.

The section below titled "How Group Authorship Is Presented in the Journal" provides examples of how various authorship roles are shown in published articles.


  • When a research group or network name appears in an article byline, the personal names of the other contributors of that group will be published in the article text. Such names are entered as collaborator names for the MEDLINE citation. Collaborators are individuals who contributed to research but do not meet all four ICMJE criteria and, therefore, do not qualify for authorship. CHEST asks that these individuals be acknowledged in a section titled "Collaborators," which should appear in the Acknowledgments section after "Financial/nonfinancial disclosures" and before "Other contributions." Collaborators' degrees should be included.

Medline Recognition of Individual Group Collaborators' Work

If there is a large number of authors, CHEST may request confirmation that everyone listed met the ICMJE recommendations for authorship. If they did not, the Journal may then require that the authors form a corporate or study group; the name of that group will appear in the article byline following the names of the authors who do meet the ICMJE recommendations.

Medline has a well-developed process for accommodating group authorship that provides each individual group member with due credit.

  • Study collaborators are listed in the Medline database record in association with the published article (under the heading "Collaborators"; see below for an example).
  • If an individual's name appears in the published article, either as an author or as a collaborator, the Medline citation for the manuscript will include both author and collaborator names. A search engine such as PubMed will find both types of listings when a user searches via author name.

How Group Authorship Is Presented in the Journal
  1. This shows the byline of a research article in CHEST with group authorship as it appeared in the online version of the Journal:
  2. sample byline

  3. This is the authorship statement at the end of the article:
  4. authorship statement

  5. This is the list of collaborators at the end of the article:
  6. collaborators list

  7. This shows the same article's record on Medline/PubMed, with all collaborators clearly listed as individuals:
  8. Medline/PubMed sample

For further information regarding Medline's presentation of authors and collaborators, visit this site.


Communication related to submissions or submission inquiries should come from the corresponding author or principal investigator. Inquiries regarding manuscripts from non-authors, including inquiries from third-party medical writers and commercial medical writing companies, are strongly discouraged and may not receive a reply.


Authors are welcome to submit manuscripts for exclusive publication in CHEST, provided they have not been published nor are under review elsewhere.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with the 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or disribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third-party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information, including guidelines regarding posting to local servers, see

Please be aware you may be invited by other organizations or companies to upload or share your submitted and/or accepted work. These companies are acting in violation of copyright law, and their activities may obscure the scientific record. If you have questions about any requests received, please contact us at

PubMed Central (NIH-Funded Work/Authors)

Studies (or authors) funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) must be deposited into PubMed Central. The publisher submits the final version of all articles (or authors) funded by the NIH to PubMed Central on the authors' behalf on publication. On submission of NIH-funded work, authors should and include the relevant grant numbers on the title page.

Open Access Options

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open Access

  • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse

  • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder


To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

  • The article will be made free to view on publication to all users of the CHEST websites with an icon denoting open access status; no login credentials or subscription will be necessary for access.

  • CHEST will deposit the article into PubMed Central, where it will be indexed and publicly available.

  • One of two Creative Commons Licenses will be assigned, depending on the open access option exercised:

All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Creative Commons Attribution License. Authors may be required by the funding body to select this option, which is available for a $3,300 fee prior to publication. These articles will be assigned a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) in place of traditional copyright. This allows all users of the article to copy, distribute, and/or adapt the work for commercial and noncommercial purposes, provided the user(s) attribute the source material by noting the citation of the original CHEST work. NOTE: This option is available only to those whose funding bodies mandate a CC BY license.

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report, and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding sources had no such involvement, then this should be stated.

Preliminary Reporting of Data/Embargo

CHEST does not consider the reporting of raw data or results, as required by funding bodies such as government institutions or commercial entities, to constitute prior publication. However, on acceptance for publication in CHEST, the article content is embargoed from media coverage and any media coverage should be coordinated through the American College of Chest Physicians. More information is available in the Media/Embargo Policy.

Please be aware you may be invited by other organizations or companies to upload or share your submitted and/or accepted work. These companies are acting in violation of copyright law, and their activities may obscure the scientific record. Information on article rights is available at If you have questions about any requests received, please contact us at

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.

Online First

Most articles are posted online two to three weeks after acceptance. Online First articles will be updated as they move through the production process, but should not be considered final until they are published within an issue. These articles may have additional changes from Online First publishing to final, issue-assigned version. The article title, author names and affiliations, and abstract will be provided to PubMed for indexing. CHEST will not allow changes to the manuscript from the time of Online First publication until page proofs are received. Although Online First articles are indexed in PubMed, publication information will be updated as needed (ie, title change) at the time of final publication in a numbered issue of CHEST.

Online Only

The following sections are no longer be printed in the Journal: Case Reports/Series, Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians, Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Pearls, and Ultrasound Corner. All online only content is indexed by PubMed, The Web of Science, and all search engines from which the majority of journal visits are derived. Online only articles can be listed on a person's CV. Online only content is available in the Journal apps. The online journal is the journal of record and the primary archive, not the print issue.

Ethical Treatment of Patients/Subjects

For all human research, authors must ensure that studies are in accordance with the amended Declaration of Helsinki. Authors should indicate in their manuscripts that they have obtained informed consent from patients for the procedure/treatment and for their medical data to be used in a study.

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval/Helsinki Declaration

For any studies involving patients (including chart reviews), a statement must be included to the effect that:
This study was conducted in accordance with the amended Declaration of Helsinki. Local institutional review boards or independent ethics committees approved the protocol, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The name of the committee and the approval number should follow this statement in the Methods section. If this is a multicenter study, the list may be provided in a separate Word document to be published as Supplemental Material.

Animal Studies

For all animal studies, research must conform to the National Research Council guidelines as well as local and state regulatory principles or requirements.

Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest is a financial or intellectual relationship or other set of circumstances that might affect, or reasonably be perceived by others to affect, an author’s judgment, conduct, or manuscript. When in doubt, disclose. CHEST asks that authors report any potential conflicts in a three-year period prior to the date of submission and, if known, any upcoming conflicts. Categories to be reported include: royalties or in-kind benefits (eg, travel, accommodations) from a commercial entity, shareholdings, speaker bureau activities, industry advisory committees, expert witness testimony, and litigation related to the subject of the manuscript.

Each author must report conflicts of interest in two places.

  1. Each author should provide a summary conflict of interest statement to be included on the title page of the manuscript. If an author has no conflicts of interest, a statement to this effect should be provided.

  2. Once the corresponding author has completed the submission process (including adding all co-authors and e-mail addresses into the appropriate fields), each author will be notified via e-mail that they need to sign into their account in ScholarOne Manuscripts and complete the combined electronic Authorship Confirmation/Conflict of Interest Disclosure form. Accepted manuscripts will not enter production or be scheduled for an issue until all forms for all authors are received.

It is important for conflict of interest to be reported in both places. The electronic form completed in ScholarOne Manuscripts serves as the official “signed” (electronically) documentation for the Journal’s records, whereas the summary statement included on the title page of the manuscripts is the statement accessible to the Journal peer reviewers throughout the process and ultimately published in the Acknowledgments section of accepted articles in CHEST. Further, it is important to ensure that the information reported on the form and that disclosed on the title page match exactly. The Editorial Office will review this information and will contact the authors to remedy any discrepancies.


Reuse of any previously copyrighted/published material, including material that appears on a website, within an article submitted to CHEST requires written permission from the copyright holder. Information on how to obtain permission for material published in CHEST is available.


It is the author’s responsibility to obtain written permission and, where necessary, pay any fees to the copyright holder for republication in CHEST.

  1. obtain permission for all print, online, and licensed uses from the copyright holder (usually the publisher);

  2. provide copies of the permission with the submission (attach it as “supplemental material” in the file upload area in ScholarOne Manuscripts);

  3. acknowledge the source in the legend of the figure/table with a numbered reference;

  4. provide the full citation in the reference list; and

  5. ensure that any language requirements of the copyright holder have been met (eg, “Reproduced with permission from XXX”).

Survey Instruments/Questionnaires

Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are increasingly used to assess different aspects of patients' health status, such as symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). For instance, results of HRQoL are frequently used as a primary outcome measure in studies. Well-developed PRO measures are precise instruments that accurately assess patients' quality of life and by definition need to meet certain standards in terms of development and psychometric validation. Investigataors should understand that "even small modifications can compromise the reliability and validity of these instruments. Even modifications that may appear innocent, such as changing the format or layout of the instrument, changing the order of the items, or rewording the instructions, may alter the patients' responses. Therefore, it is important to administer only the exact version used in the validation."1

It is not acceptable to adapt, modify in any way, or translate these instruments into another language without the permission of the developer(s) of the instrument.1 Lack of copyright does not imply that researchers are allowed to adapt, modify, or translate instruments.

Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions related to any survey instruments or tools relating to PRO used in their submission and for providing CHEST with a written copy of the permission to use (and modify or translate, if applicable) with the manuscript submission (attach it as “supplemental material” in the file upload area in ScholarOne Manuscripts). The methods section of the paper should include a statement noting that permission has been obtained for use of the instrument or tool.2 References:

  1. 1. Breugelmans MA. Dangers in using translated medical questionnaires: the importance of conceptual equivalence across languages and cultures in patient-reported outcome measures. Chest. 2009;136(4):1175-1177.

  2. 2. Juniper EF. Medical questionnaires are copyrighted to ensure that validity is maintained. Chest. 2009;136(4):951-952.

Privacy and Informed Consent

Authors must omit from their text, tables, figures, and supplemental data any identifying details regarding patients and study participants, including names, initials, date of birth, Social Security numbers, dates, or medical record numbers (even when patient consent has been obtained). Authors must obtain written informed permission from the patient, guardian, or next of kin when individual cases are presented. Copies of the permission must be provided to CHEST prior to publication. If the patient has died or is otherwise unavailable, then permission must be sought from the next of kin. If the next of kin cannot be reached or if other conditions prevail that prevent the author from obtaining permission, and authors have made every reasonable effort to obtain permission, authors may appeal to the Editor in Chief via the cover letter upon submission to consider publication without written permission. Per the Council on Publication Ethics (COPE) Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors ( ) and with proper steps to deidentify the patient, written permission may be waived if 1) public interest considerations outweigh the possible harm, 2) it is impossible to obtain permission, and 3) a reasonable individual would be unlikely to object to publication.

Written patient permission to publish is required for all case-based sections of CHEST, including Case Reports/Series, Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians, Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Pearls and Ultrasound Corner.

Download the CHEST permission form here.

All authors are responsible for ensuring the submission complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or national equivalent.

Scientific Misconduct

When CHEST has concerns, or receives allegations, of scientific misconduct, CHEST reserves the right to proceed according to the procedures described below and to the guidelines issued by the Office of Research Integrity. CHEST recognizes its responsibility to appropriately address concerns and allegations of misconduct. Examples of misconduct include falsification of data, plagiarism (both plagiarism of others and self-plagiarism), improper designations of authorship, duplicate publication, misappropriation of others’ research, failure to disclose conflict(s) of interest, and failure to comply with applicable legislative or regulatory requirements. Misconduct also includes failure to comply with any rules, policies, or procedures implemented by CHEST and other behaviors specified in the Office of Research Integrity guidelines.


In general, CHEST follows the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) when working to address allegations of misconduct. Concerns or allegations of misconduct will be referred to the CHEST Ethics Subcommittee and publisher. Involved parties will be contacted to provide a written explanation of the situation. As needed, CHEST may also contact the institution at which the study was conducted and any other involved journals. CHEST will attempt to determine whether there was misconduct, and the Editor in Chief will respond with an appropriate action. Examples of actions include:

  • Sending a letter of explanation only to the person(s) involved or against whom the allegation is made. (This response might be appropriate if the person(s) seemed to have acted with a genuine and innocent misunderstanding of policy or procedure.)
  • Sending a letter of reprimand to the same person(s), warning of the consequences of future, similar instances. (This response might be appropriate if the misunderstanding of policy or procedure appears to be not entirely innocent.)
  • Sending a letter to the relevant head of the educational institution and/or financial sponsor of the person(s) involved, expressing the concerns and information collected. (This response might be appropriate if actual misconduct seems probable, in which case a formal review and determination are advisable. CHEST might request a written report of the findings of the investigation and might take further action based on the findings.)
  • Publishing in CHEST a notice of duplicate publication, “salami” publishing, plagiarism, or other misconduct, if unequivocally documented. In cases of ghost-written manuscripts, the notice may include the names of the responsible companies as well as the submitting author(s).
  • Providing specific names to the media and/or government organizations, if contacted regarding the misconduct.
  • Formally withdrawing or retracting the article from CHEST, and informing readers and indexing authorities.
  • Banning an author or authors from publishing any manuscript in CHEST for a specified time period, with notice to the author(s)’ institution.

Plagiarism and Overlapping Publication

Submissions will be considered for publication in CHEST only if they are submitted solely to CHEST and do not overlap with other articles. Any manuscript that has similar or near similar hypothesis, sample characteristics, results, and conclusions to a manuscript currently in review, in press, or published in final form is a duplicate article and is prohibited. CHEST is part of CrossCheck, a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. As part of CrossCheck CHEST licenses and uses iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts.

CHEST also prohibits so-called overlapping or “salami” publishing that involves slicing of data collected from a single research process or during a single study period, into different pieces that form the basis of individual manuscripts published in different journals or the same journal.1

If any material related to the submission (other than a meeting abstract or trial registration) has been published previously, is in preparation, or has been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere, authors must provide copies of all such manuscripts and other materials on submission via ScholarOne Manuscripts (attach as “supplemental file”), as well as outline the relationship of the data in the cover letter to avoid any possibility of duplicate publication. For this purpose, authors must disclose also republication of a paper in another language and publications in journals with a different reader base, as well as articles that relate to the same or similar pool of data described in the submitted article. Although CHEST does not treat publication of an abstract as a duplicate publication, CHEST requires disclosure of the publication on the title page of the submission. References:

  1. 1. Block AJ. Duplicate publication. Chest. 1998;114(6):951.

Image Manipulation

If an image must be manipulated to show detail, the manipulation should be applied to the entire figure; it is not acceptable to adjust specific elements of a figure. Any manipulation to the figure must be disclosed and explained in the caption.

CHEST randomly reviews photographic (halftone) images for manipulation via image forensic software. Examples of manipulation include splicing of images so that one image is actually many images, removal or distortion of pixels so that the data are distorted, and removal of background data from an image. If the software detects manipulation, the figure will be sent to an expert reviewer for further scrutiny. This review may delay publication. In some cases, the figure may be returned to the author with an explanation on how to correctly prepare the figure or add information to the legend. In cases where fraud is discovered, CHEST will impose disciplinary action.

Style and Usage

CHEST follows the American Medical Association Manual of Style1 (10th ed) in matters of editorial style and usage. All accepted manuscripts are subject to copyediting for conciseness, clarity, grammar, spelling, and CHEST style.

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author. A link will be provided in the e-mail so that the authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with the PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:

If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


  1. JAMA and Archives Journals. American Medical Association Manual of Style: a guide for authors and editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press


CHEST uses ScholarOne Manuscripts for manuscript submission and peer review. Submissions received by e-mail or mail will not be considered. Technical assistance for ScholarOne Manuscripts is available by phone at +1 434-964-4100, and or via online support that includes tutorials.

Tracking and Correspondence

Receipt of a manuscript is acknowledged via e-mail from ScholarOne Manuscripts. Each submission is assigned a manuscript tracking number that will appear in the e-mail. This tracking number should be provided on all correspondence regarding the manuscript. Although all authors are copied on decision letters, only the corresponding author should communicate with CHEST regarding the manuscript. Authors can also check the status of submitted manuscripts by logging into the ScholarOne Manuscripts Author Center.

Peer Review

All submissions are subject to peer review. CHEST will send manuscripts to outside reviewers selected from an extensive database. Authors are encouraged (and in the case of Original Research required) to provide the names of qualified reviewers who have had experience with the subject matter but who are not affiliated with the same institution(s) as the author(s). If unsure of who to select, authors may search on relevant terms on the CHEST website. The corresponding author and e-mail address are always identified and may be used.

Authors may also suggest names of individuals who they would prefer not to review their paper. CHEST reserves the right to make the final selection of peer reviewers. CHEST also reserves the right, at its discretion, to determine the number and kind of manuscripts sent for review, the number of reviewers, the reviewing procedures, and the use made of reviewer’s opinions. In addition to scientific merit, the Editor in Chief reserves the right to evaluate papers without external peer review. Effort is made to complete the review process in a timely manner.

Tobacco Policy

CHEST will not consider research and manuscripts that have been supported either directly or indirectly by tobacco companies.


When submitting to CHEST, authors will be asked to separately upload several distinct files through ScholarOne Manuscripts. The following list includes the types of files that may be required. More detailed information on each element is provided in the following structured and labeled sections.

  1. Cover letter (either entered as text or uploaded to the “Cover Letter” area)

  2. Manuscript file (uploaded as “Main Document”), inclusive of:

    • Title page

    • Abbreviations list

    • Abstract

    • Text

    • Acknowledgments

    • References

    • Tables

    • Figure legends

  3. Figure files

  4. Supplemental material files for online only publication (upload as “Online Content Only”)

  5. Permissions for republication or survey use (where applicable, upload as “Supplemental File”)

  6. Patient consent for publication (where applicable, upload as “Supplemental File”)

Abbreviation List

An alphabetical list of all abbreviations used in the paper, followed by their full definitions, should be provided on submission. Each abbreviation should be expanded at first mention in the text and noted parenthetically after expansion. Abbreviations should only be used for terms that appear more than three times in text. To aid readers, please use abbreviations sparingly.


For Original Research studies (clinical trials, interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, surveys, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses), the abstract should consist of the following sections:

  • Background

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Conclusions

  • Clinical Trial Registration (registrar, website, and registration number), where applicable

The sections should briefly describe, respectively, the problem being addressed in the study, how the study was performed (including numbers of patients or laboratory subjects), the significant results, and what the authors conclude from the results. For all other manuscript types requiring abstracts, CHEST requires a narrative (unstructured) abstract. More information is available in Guidance for Specific Article Types.


The acknowledgments section will vary slightly by article type. Possible elements include:

  • Guarantor statement, naming one author who takes responsibility for (is the guarantor of) the content of the manuscript, including the data and analysis (Original Research)

  • Author contributions should define the individual contributions each author made to the development of the manuscript and should include at minimum the three criteria required for Authorship as defined by CHEST (required for Original Research). If several authors made the same type of contributions, it is acceptable to combine them. An example author contribution line is: "MLM had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, including and especially any adverse effects. MLM, MT, NAW, DRG, VAD, and EG contributed substantially to the study design, data analysis and interpretation, and the writing of the manuscript."

  • Financial/nonfinancial disclosures should match those provided on the title page

  • Role of the sponsors should detail what input or contributions, if any, were provided by the funding sources in the development of the research and manuscript

  • Other contributions


Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Radiologic or other diagnostic examination figures or other diagnostic testing figures should have all patient-related numbering (including test date or medical record numbers) or wording removed prior to submission.

Virtual Microscope (Content Innovations)

The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. The Virtual Microscope is a web-based viewer that enables users to view microscopic images at the highest level of detail and provides features such as zoom and pan. This feature for the first time gives authors the opportunity to share true high resolution microscopic images with their readers. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will receive an invitation e-mail to create microscope images for use with the Virtual Microscope when their manuscript is first reviewed. If you opt to use this feature, please contact virtual for instructions on how to prepare and upload the required high resolution images.

3D Radiological Data (Content Innovations)

You can enrich your online article by providing 3D radiological data in DICOM format. Radiological data will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article and will enable them to: browse through available radiological datasets; explore radiological data as 2D series, 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D volume rendering and 3D MIP; zoom, rotate, and pan 3D reconstructions; cut through the volume; change opacity and threshold level; and download the data. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the "3D radiological data" submission category. The recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 200 MB or less. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the "Description" field when uploading each ZIP file. Note: all datasets will be available for download from the online article on ScienceDirect. So please ensure that all DICOM are anonymized prior to submission. For more information, see

Figure Legends

All illustrations must be cited in consecutive numerical order within the text of the manuscript. A legend for each illustration should be provided on a separate page of the manuscript, not on the figure itself. Stains and magnifications for all photomicrographs should be included in the legend. Any image manipulation (eg, splicing) should be described in the legend. Permissions for any republished figures and any required patient consent lines for identifiable images also should be noted in the legend.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

How Group Authorship Is Presented in the Journal

  1. This shows the byline of a research article in CHEST with group authorship as it appeared in the online version of the Journal:
  2. CHESTGfafig1.jpg
  3. This is the authorship statement at the end of the article:
  4. CHESTGfafig2Acknowledgments.jpg
  5. This is the list of collaborators at the end of the article:
  6. CHESTGfafig3listofcollaborators.jpg
  7. This shows the same article's record on Medline/PubMed, with all collaborators clearly listed as individuals:
  8. CHESTGfafig4MedlinePubMedsample.jpg

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of citations. In text, references must be given as superscript numerals, numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text. If the first (or only) mention of a reference appears in a Table, place the reference number after the Table call out in text. For example, if a reference is in Table 3 and has not been called out any earlier in the text, then the text call out should be, eg, "Table 327...". This will preserve numbering in citation management software. The full citations must be listed in numerical order at the end of the text. Each reference must contain, in order, the following:

  • Authors (last name initials), listing all when there are up to six; first three followed by “et al” in the case of more than six authors

  • Title of article (sentence case, no quotation marks)

  • Publication source (italicized), when referring to a journal, the journal name should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus

  • Year of publication

  • Volume number

  • Issue number

  • Page numbers (inclusive)

No spaces should be used from the year of publication through the final page number. References to published abstracts may be included but must be noted as such. Please note that no periods should be used after authors’ initials or after journal abbreviations; however, periods should be inserted after the publication name and at the end of each reference. Examples of commonly used reference types are noted below.

Journal Article

  1. Sillen MJH, Speksnijder CM, Eterman R-MA, et al. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of muscles of ambulation in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review of the English-language literature. Chest. 2009;136(1):44-61.

  2. Barker E, Haverson K, Stokes CR, Birchall M, Baily M. The larynx as an immunological organ: immunological architecture in the pig as a large animal model. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143(1):6-14.

In-Press Journal Article

  1. Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA. In press.


  1. Shields TW, LoCicero J III, Reed CE, Feins RH. General Thoracic Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:200-232.

Book Chapter

  1. Stone AC, Klinger JR. The right ventricle in pulmonary hypertension. In: Hill NS, Farber HW, eds. Pulmonary Hypertension. New York, NY: Humana Press; 2008:93-126.


  1. Garg N, Garg G, Christensen G, Singh A. Acute coronary syndrome caused by coronary artery mycotic aneurysm due to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus [abstract]. Chest. 2008;134(suppl):1001S.

For assistance in formatting other types of references, please refer to the American Medical Association Manual of Style.1


  1. JAMA and Archives Journals. American Medical Association Manual of Style: a guide for authors and editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Data References

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplemental Material/Appendices

Authors may submit supplemental material (ie, material that will be published only with the online version of the journal) if it enhances a study. The main text must stand alone, and the use of supplemental material should be judicious.

The same standards for ethics, copyright, permissions, and publication quality for the full-text article apply to all supplemental material. Tables and figures for the main article should be integrated with the main manuscript. The inclusion of a single table and/or figure as supplemental material is not acceptable; that element should be integrated into the text. References in supplemental material should be numbered consecutively beginning with 1; if a reference appears in the main article, it must also be included in the supplemental material and will likely have a different reference number. Supplemental material should be thought of distinctly in this regard.

If any of the material included as supplemental material has been previously published, the authors are responsible for obtaining the required permissions and attributing the source material.

Appendices will no longer appear in CHEST articles, but may be included as supplemental material, labeled e-Appendix. Lists of study participants, multicenter institutional review board data, and the like are appropriate for e-Appendices.

Each component of the supplemental material should be numbered and cited in consecutive order in the text of the article. Authors should not intersperse supplemental material consecutively with material for the print edition. The following convention should be used for labeling and numbering material:

  • e-Table: number as e-Table 1, e-Table 2, etc

  • e-Figure: number as e-Figure 1, e-Figure 2, etc

  • e-Appendix: number as e-Appendix 1, e-Appendix 2, etc

  • Audio: number as Audio 1, Audio 2, etc

  • Video: number as Video 1, Video 2, etc (note, if shorter videos are combined into a single file, label each portion, eg, Video 1A, Video 1B, etc.)

Example: The distribution of missed bronchoscopy skills data points across centers and bronchoscopy milestones are depicted in e-Figure 1.

The manuscript title, author list, and heading “Supplemental Material” should be included at the beginning of each file. The following formats can be uploaded as “Online Content Only” in ScholarOne Manuscripts:

  • Video: Quicktime (.mov), Windows media (.wmv), Audio Video Interleave (.avi), animated GIF (.gif), .mpeg, and .mp4. All movie clips should be provided at the desired size and length (10 MB or 5 min maximum). Before submitting, authors should verify that clips are viewable in Quicktime or Windows Media Player. In addition, a brief text description should be provided in a word processing document explaining the video. Authors are encouraged to supply a still image of the video file for inclusion as reference in the print version of the article

  • Audio: .mp3, .wav, .au. In addition, a brief text description should be provided in a word processing document explaining the audio file.

  • Tables: Must be provided as Word files. The total size of the document cannot exceed 8.5” x 11” inches.

  • Figures: .tiff, .png, .jpeg, and .gif. One word processing file should be provided that contains brief captions for all figures.

  • Text: Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx), .rtf, and .txt files.


Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate text material. They must be numbered and cited in consecutive order in the text. Each must have a succinct title, column and row headings, and (where appropriate) a legend describing abbreviations and lettered footnotes at the bottom of the table. Tables should not contain any shading or special symbols and any special formatting (bold, italics) must be explained in the legend. Tables consisting of more than 10 columns are unacceptable and will not be published. Tables should be provided as word processing documents, not in a spreadsheet file format or as an image file. Tables may be added at the end of the main document file.

Permissions for any republished tables should be noted in the legend.

See References for guidance on how to number and cite references that 1) appear only in tables or 2) are first cited in tables that are called out before other references.

Tables used to describe or compare literature should include a column with the following information from the source publication: lead author last name, year of publication, and a numbered citation that corresponds to the full reference in the manuscript reference list.


Subheadings Within Articles

No more than 8 subheadings per article (in addition to headings such as Methods, Results, Discussion). Each subheading can consist of only 5 words, including words such as a, an, the, and, and.

Subheadings should be explanatory, but there is no need to repeat the title in every heading.

Sample Original
What Is Interdisciplinary Collaboration? | Why Should We Embrace the Concept of Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Delivering Health Care? | Can an Interdisciplinary Collaborative Model of Critical Care Be Successfully Implemented in a Large Academic Medical Center, and Will It Be Associated With Favorable Outcomes? | What Is Our Story? | What Was the New Philosophy and Model of Critical Care That Emerged? | What Were the Building Blocks of Our Critical Care Model? | What Were the Outcomes Associated With the Implementation of Our Interdisciplinary Collaborative Model of Critical Care?

Sample Revised
Interdisciplinary Collaboration | Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Health-Care Delivery | Implementing Collaborative Models | Our Story | New Philosophy and Model | Building Blocks | Outcomes

The Guidance for Specific Article Types section provides more detail on how to format the text.

Title Page

The title page should be submitted as the first page of the main text word processing file and should include the following elements:

  • Word counts for the text and abstract in the upper left-hand corner

  • Title and short title/running head (of 50 characters or less)

  • Author list, showing all names in the order and format that they are to appear on publication. Also, include any middle initials and the highest degree obtained, as well as institutional affiliations. NOTE: Complete author information, including names, e-mail addresses, and institutional affiliations must also be entered in ScholarOne Manuscripts to facilitate the collection of the required forms.

  • Corresponding author information, with full mailing address and e-mail address (will appear on publication). Do not include phone or fax numbers on the title page.

  • Summary conflict of interest statements for each author (or a statement indicating no conflicts exist for the specified author[s])

  • Funding information, including any NIH grant numbers where applicable

  • Notation of prior abstract publication/presentation, including the name, date, and location of the relevant meeting


In addition to following the general manuscript preparation instructions, authors should refer to the specific instructions for the type of article they are submitting.

Section Title Consider Unsolicited (Y/Na) Abstract (wd max) Textd (wd max) Reference (no. max)
Ahead of the Curve N 250 2,500 25
Case Reports (Selected Reports) Y 150 750 20
Case Series Y 150 1,600 20
Chest Imaging & Pathology for Clinicians Y none 1,600 20
CHEST Guidelines Y 250 tbd tbd
Commentary Y 250 2,500 25
Consensus Statementsa N 250c 3,800 75
Contemporary Reviews in Critical Care Medicine N 250 3,500 75
Contemporary Reviews in Sleep Medicine N 250 3,500 75
Correspondence Y none 400 5
Editorials N none 1,000 12
Errata Y none 400 n/a
Medical Ethics Y 250 3,500 75
Original Research Y 250b 2,500 75
Point/Counterpoint Editorials N none 1,000 12
Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Pearls Y none 1,200 10
Recent Advances in Chest Medicine N 250 3,500 75
Retractions N none 400 n/a
Special Featuresa Y 250 3,500 75

Topics in Practice Management N 250 2,500 50
Teaching, Education, and Career Hub (TEaCH) N none 2,500 30
Translating Basic Research Into Clinical Practice N 250 2,500 50
Ultrasound Corner Y none 1,200 10

aThese article types are solicited, but authors with ideas for topics are encouraged to contact CHEST with their proposal via the Contact Us form.
b Original Research articles must have a structured abstract.
c Consensus Statements must also be submitted with an executive summary.
dText word counts exclude abstract, references, figure legends, and tables.
eFor case reports or commentaries follow instructions for those sections.

Ahead of the Curve

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 2,500 words
Reference count 25 references

Ahead of the Curve papers serve to provide glimpses into research that may, in coming years, impact clinicians. "Ahead of the Curve" titles should make declarative statements that describe the topic and the author's perspective. They will be published in the Commentary Section, under the subtopic of "Ahead of the Curve." Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.

Case Reports/Series (Selected Reports) (Online only)

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 150 words, narrative format
Text length 750 words, for a single report; 1,600 words for a series
Reference count 20 references
Format Either (1) Introduction, Case Reports, Discussion; or (2) Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results
Other Written patient permission is required for publication

Case reports for CHEST are meant to describe a new entity, mechanism, or presentation of a disease state. All submissions to this section must be novel and/or unique. Any manuscripts submitted for publication should provide new insights for clinicians. In addition to standard case reports and case series, CHEST will also consider:

Case reports do not need institutional review board approval, but authors must preserve patient privacy and follow the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or national equivalent rules in writing up the case. On acceptance, CHEST will require submission of written patient permission for publication. It is acceptable to submit case reports to CHEST that have been presented at meetings and congresses. This information should be disclosed on the title page and provided in the references.

Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians (Online Only)

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 1,600 words (of which clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings and discussion should be 500 words each)
Reference count 20 references
Format Case Presentation (with distinct Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Findings subsections); Q: What is the Diagnosis; A: Diagnosis; Discussion (with distinct Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Discussion subsections); Conclusion
Other Written patient permission is required for publication

Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians is designed to aid readers in mastering the fundamentals of interpretation and ordering of chest imaging modalities, CHEST publishes case-based articles with characteristic chest imaging and related pathology. Pathology must be included in all cases submitted.

Selection of images should reflect state-of-the-art image quality. Pictures of plain chest radiographs and CT scans taken with a digital camera will not be accepted. For example, cases of interstitial lung disease must be imaged with high-resolution CT techniques. Similarly, CT or MR studies related to vascular disease must be performed with contrast enhancement. Cases illustrating advanced imaging techniques such as volumetric rendered images, or virtual endoscopy are also welcome, provided that these techniques prove critical to radiologic diagnosis.

The format for this series is very important. Authors are encouraged to read the following instructions carefully:

  • Title, should include a short summary of the presenting feature, but not the diagnosis (ie, Dyspnea with slow-growing mass of the left hemithorax)

  • Case Presentation, should include the following sections in sequence without the use of subheadings and without giving away the diagnosis:
    • Clinical findings, should mention the relevant positives and negatives while avoiding detailed description of hospital course

    • Radiologic findings, briefly detailing the plain chest radiograph (no corresponding figure need be submitted) and describing in detail the additional imaging studies performed, emphasizing findings that point to the diagnosis

    • Pathologic findings, should be described in detail and should focus on correlations with the radiologic findingsPathologic findings, should be described in detail and should focus on correlations with the radiologic findings

  • What is the diagnosis? Alternative questions may also be included (ie, What study should be conducted next?) in addition to the diagnosis question.

  • Diagnosis: XXX, should also include the answer to any other questions posed

  • Discussion, should include the following sections in sequence with the use of subheadings
    • Clinical discussion, should illuminate how the clinical findings tie in with the diagnosis, addressing the typical and atypical case features. Authors are encouraged to highlight the clinical features that may alert the clinician to the diagnosis.

    • Radiologic discussion, should highlight specific findings from chest radiographs and CT, PET, MR scans. Authors are encouraged to highlight findings that exclude diagnosis and elaborate on the use of particular modalities.

    • Pathologic discussion, should highlight pathologic patterns of lung involvement that correspond to patterns seen on chest imaging, and the pathologic differential diagnosis of the disease under discussion should be presented. Special staining techniques that may allow the diagnosis to be established should be addressed.
  • Conclusion, should enumerate the patient’s clinical course and treatment given.

CHEST Guidelines

Article Element Requirements
Executive summary Provided in bold text and including one to two paragraphs of introduction, followed by a summary of the data and a bulleted list of all recommendations and suggestions included in the document
Abstract length 250 words, structured format
Text length To be negotiated with CHEST
Text length To be negotiated with CHEST

CHEST Guidelines are generated by the American College of Chest Physicians under a well-defined development process. Committees will work closely with the Section Editor of Guidelines and Consensus Statements and the Editor in Chief of CHEST in developing guideline articles intended for submission to CHEST.

Other organizations are discouraged from submitting guidelines to CHEST. If the authors strongly believe that CHEST is the proper forum for publishing these types of papers, authors should:

  1. Review the existing CHEST Guidelines to ensure there is no overlap;
  2. Contact the Editor in Chief of CHEST before embarking on such projects; and

  3. Be willing to use the same grading system, format, and development process followed by CHEST guidelines. CHEST will likely have any such submissions evaluated by the relevant committees of the organization as part of the review process.


Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 2,500 words
Reference count 25 references

Commentaries provide a forum for presenting an expert's perspective on a specific topic to advance the field. CHEST invites authors to write commentaries who have in-depth knowledge of a topic of interest to the journal. CHEST will consider unsolicited commentaries submitted by authors who have a new or unique viewpoint on an important clinical or research topic. Authors of unsolicited commentaries, however, should contact CHEST with a proposal before submitting their manuscripts to avoid overlap with commentaries already invited but not yet published. Commentary titles should make declarative statements that describe the topic and the author's perspective.

Consensus Statements

Article Element Requirements
Executive summary Provided in bold text and including one to two paragraphs of introduction, followed by a summary of the data and a bulleted list of all suggestions included in the document
Abstract length 250 words, structured format
Text length 3,800 words
Reference count 70 references

Development Process

Development Process

Consensus Statements are developed by the American College of Chest Physicians and follow a detailed development process. See CHEST Guidelines above.


  • NEW: Title, should begin with the topic name followed by a colon and the term "CHEST Guidelines."

  • Executive summary, should be provided in bold text and include one to two paragraphs of introduction, followed by a summary of the data and a bulleted list of all suggestions included in the document. At the discretion of the Journal and depending on the length of the full article, the Executive Summary may appear in print with the full article available online only.

  • Abstract, should be structured, utilizing labels (Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions)

  • Text: writing committee members will be given writing instructions.

  • References

  • Tables, should adhere to CHEST table requirements

Contemporary Reviews in Critical Care Medicine and Contemporary Reviews in Sleep Medicine

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, narrative format
Text length 3,500 words
Reference count 75 references

The purpose of the Contemporary Reviews in Sleep Medicine and Critical Care sections is to publish concise reviews on important topics in medicine. These are to be state-of-the-art reviews, not exhaustive dissertations. There should be a summary of the field as well as a discussion of the most recent advances in the text, and if justifiable, a summary table that lists management advances based upon randomized controlled clinical trials. Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.


Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 400 words
Reference count 5 references
Other Supplemental material may be included. One figure and one table permitted.

The correspondence section is primarily intended for the clarification and edification of articles published in CHEST. While letters that describe research in preliminary terms and announcements of general interest are uncommonly published as letters. It is up to the discretion of the Editor in Chief whether any Correspondence is sent for external peer review and whether to accept any letter for publication.

Commenting on Recent Articles

All letters commenting on previous articles should strive to provide constructive and respectful comments of the original work. Letters should pertain to articles published within the preceding 6 weeks. Any correspondence discussing recent CHEST articles should include a short original title that does not duplicate the title of the article. Authors should include the full citation to the complete article in the reference list. For letters responding to articles published to the Online First section, CHEST will hold publication until the final version of the article is published in a numbered issue of CHEST. All accepted letters will be sent to the corresponding author of the original article with an invitation to submit a response for publication.

Response Letters

Authors are asked to submit all replies to letters on their work within 2 weeks of receiving the invitation. If they do not respond within this time frame, the original letter will be published without a response. Authors should never correspond directly with the authors of correspondence. The replying author should also include the full reference to their original work and should submit the same conflict of interest information relevant to the original work. CHEST reserves the right to update the conflict of interest line in this regard as needed.

General Interest and Announcements

CHEST will occasionally consider correspondence that serves to announce matters of importance to the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine community.

Foote MA. Comments on writing letters to the editor: moving from duels and fencing to belles lettres. Chest. 2010;138(1):228-230.


Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 1,000 words
Reference count 12 references

Editorials are invited by the Editor in Chief.


Errata are published to communicate corrections necessary to previously published versions of articles. All errata are indexed by PubMed and attached to the original article citation.

To request a correction to a published article, authors should contact CHEST, providing details of the error, including the complete article citation, location of the error and corrected text. CHEST will publish corrections in the next available issue and will link the correction to the original article.

Medical Ethics

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, narrative format
Text length 3,500 words
Reference count 75 references

Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.

Original Research

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, structured format, include clinical trial information for randomized controlled trials
Text length 2,500 words
Reference count 75 references
Format Text should include: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions
Acknowledgments Author guarantor statement and contributions required

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Most Original Research manuscripts must include a statement relating to institutional review board (or equivalent) approval in the "Materials and Methods" section. CHEST requires that authors include the committee name and approval number. In multicenter studies, the list of relevant committees and approval numbers may be included as an e-Appendix. See more information on IRB approval here.

Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT)

CHEST defines a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as “any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.” Authors preparing RCTs for submission to CHEST should follow the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) checklist and must include a CONSORT flowchart as Figure 1. Templates for the generation of CONSORT flowcharts are available online.

In addition to following CONSORT, CHEST requires investigators to register their clinical trials in an approved public trials registry(see Registration of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews below). Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) do not require registration.

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

Authors preparing systematic reviews and meta-analyses for submission to CHEST should follow the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) checklist and must include a PRISMA flow diagram as Figure 1 on submission. CHEST strongly encourages registration of systematic reviews with the PROSPERO registry (see Registration of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews below). Additionally, authors are expected to address all items in the checklist in the writing of the manuscript. Those seeking additional guidance regarding the preparation of a systematic review can also consult the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions at and the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Systematic Reviews available at The Institute of Medicine's Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines should also be consulted for guidance when using systematic reviews as the basis for guideline recommendations, available at

Registration of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews

Authors of reports of clinical trials and systematic reviews should record their investigations in a viable registry (eg,, PROSPERO []). Approved public trials registries are those that meet the criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). To register a trial, authors must submit the details directly to any one of the WHO primary registries. CHEST reserves the right to reject papers if it deems the disclosure at the registry to be incomplete. An IRB statement is not a substitute for an approved clinical trial registration.

Authors should update their registrations to reflect any changes in outcomes, including primary and secondary end points, or protocols before participants are enrolled. The methods described in the published report must accord with those previously published in the study registration to avoid even the appearance of scientific misconduct. Furthermore, any changes to the original registration (eg, substituting a secondary outcome as the primary outcome) should be described in detail in the methods section of the manuscript. Authors who modify their methods should post those changes on the online registry before submitting their manuscripts to CHEST.

Surveys/Questionnaire-Based Studies

Investigators who administer surveys and questionnaires as part of their study should obtain copyright permission if needed; no surveys should be adapted without the permission of the of the developer. Any unapproved changes in how PRO instruments are used or approved changes that have not been psychometrically studied and found to be reliable and valid will invalidate the results.

Studies based on surveys or questionnaires should report on data that have been collected within two years of submission, include supporting reliability and validity data, and have response rates of at least 60%. All survey-based studies should describe the method used to achieve the response rate (eg, Dillman's tailored design method) and should provide a convincing rationale for why lower response rates provide important and generalizable information. Surveys with a response rate of less than 60% may be rejected. Nonrespondents should be characterized well enough to allow for assessment of potential for nonresponse. Authors are encouraged to report outcome rates for most surveys using standardized definitions and metrics (eg, those proposed by the American Association for Public Opinion Research. This information must be detailed in the methods section.

Other Study Types

The Equator Network provides checklists for other types of studies such as the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement. Checklists are also available for cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, and authors are encouraged to follow these.

Confidence Interval

For clinical studies, the primary outcome expressed as the difference between groups with a confidence interval (CI) on that difference should be provided in the Abstract and in the main article. In most cases, P values should not be presented without an accompanying effect estimate and CI. The CI is useful to readers because it indicates the precision of an estimated population value.

Matching Language to Level of Evidence

CHEST endorses the recently published HEART Group Statement1 calling for better matching language in Original Research to the evidence found in different study designs.2 In short, in observational studies investigators should use descriptive statements such as "we observed a lower risk" rather than a more definitive statement such as "reduced the risk by" that are more appropriate to RCTs.

  1. Editors of Heart Group Journals. Statement on matching language to the type of evidence used in describing outcomes data. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(23):2420.

  2. Kohli P, Cannon CP. The importance of matching language to type of evidence: Avoiding the pitfalls of reporting outcomes data. Clin Cardiol. 2012:35:714-717.

Poetry (Pectoriloquy)

Poems should not exceed 350 words, should not have been previously published, and should relate to concerns of health-care providers, patients and families, and medicine. Poems should not violate patient privacy (ie, they should be HIPAA compliant). Physicians should refrain from directly referencing specific identifiable situations in their poems. In case of doubt about appropriate content, check with your institution. Poems that have been previously published will be returned to the authors.

Submissions to the Pectoriloquy Section should be sent via e-mail to for review and preliminary acceptance by the Section Editor, Michael Zack, MD, FCCP. Authors of poems that Dr. Zack has approved will be asked to submit the final version to ScholarOne Manuscripts. Authors will be required to complete an Author Agreement form transferring copyright to CHEST. They will also be asked to provide two or three sentences about themselves and about their poem. Final acceptance for publication rests with the Editor in Chief.

All poems published in CHEST are free online, with PDF versions available for downloading.

Point/Counterpoint Editorials

Point/Counterpoint Editorials are submitted in two stages, each with distinct requirements: the point and counterpoint pieces have longer word limits. The rebuttals are intended to be more succinct.


Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 1,300 words
Reference count 20 references
Figure/table limits 3 total tables and figures (not 3 of each)


Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 500 words
Reference count 7 references
Figure/table limits 1 figure or table

Point/Counterpoint Editorials are invited by the Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.

Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Pearls

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 1,200 words (of which case presentation should be 150 to 250 words, with the discussion 850 words, excluding listing of pearls)
Reference count <5 –10 references listed under a heading of "Suggested Readings." List in chronological order. No citations in text.
Format See below
Other Written patient permission is required for publication

Manuscripts for this section are designed to present a case, pose a question, provide the answer, and summarize the main teaching points as Pearls.
  • Title, should include a short summary of the presenting feature, but not the diagnosis.

  • History, provide the recent clinical presentation with relevant past medical history. Provide enough information regarding relevant positives and negatives to allow construction of a reasonable differential diagnosis.

  • Physical Examination Findings, should give the patient's vital signs and other physical findings labeled by organ system (eg, chest: bibasilar rales; cardiac: grade II/VI holosystolic murmur at the apex radiating to the axilla; abdomen: non-tender without organomegaly).

  • Diagnostic Studies, should list all of the relevant normal and abnormal studies required to construct a reasonable differential diagnosis: hemogram, blood chemistry, urine studies, arterial blood gases, microbiology results, tissue biopsy studies, miscellaneous studies (ECG, esophageal motility studies, etc), radiographic studies, polysomnographic studies. Authors should place normal values in parentheses when referring to unusual test results or values that have different normal ranges between laboratories.

  • What is the diagnosis? Additional questions may also be included (ie, What study should be conducted next?) in addition to the diagnosis question. Alternative questions may focus on management alone when a manuscript does not present a diagnostic question (eg, end-of-life management issues).

  • Diagnosis: XXX, state the diagnosis and the answers to any additional questions posed in the preceding "What is the diagnosis?" Do not provide explanatory text here but just mention the answers.

  • Discussion, using the present tense, present a clear discussion of the clinical condition that flows clearly from one topic to another. Most manuscripts should cover sequentially the topics of epidemiology, pathophysiology/etiology, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes. Exceptions, such as manuscripts on end-of-life decision-making, should retain a clearly organized sequence of topics. Do not refer to the present patient in the body of the general discussion but instead refer back to the present patient in the Clinical Course section. Avoid in the Discussion stating the findings or opinions of others (eg, Jones and Smith reported. . .); instead, authors should synthesize the literature and state their views on the topic.

  • Clinical Course, should take the general discussion back to the specific patient presented, informing readers how the diagnosis was established, how the patient was managed and what outcomes occurred.

  • Pearls, 3 to 5 important teaching points extracted from the Discussion. Pearls should represent concise, specific and clinically useful information rather than general statements of fact.

  • Suggested readings, should be listed in chronological order with the oldest first and include a mix of classic and recent journal or book citations. References to general medical or nursing textbooks should be avoided.

Figures are only needed for the case presentation. In discussing figures in the case report, simply refer to their presence when the findings are sufficiently obvious to challenge the reader. If the finding is subtle and difficult to detect, the abnormality can be described in the case report, but in describing the figure do not provide the diagnosis or the answer to the question you will pose in the manuscript. When not mentioned in the case report, the abnormality in the figure should be discussed in the body of the discussion on the following page when referring in general to the condition and in the section on clinical course when providing follow-up for the patient presented.

Sample: Kyle R. Brownback, MD; Michael S. Crosser, MD; Steven Q. Simpson, MD. A 49-Year-Old Man With Chest Pain and Fever After Returning From France. Chest. 141(6):1618-1621.

Recent Advances in Chest Medicine

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, narrative format
Text length 3,500 words
Reference count 75 references

Recent Advances in Chest Medicine are state-of-the-art concise reviews intended to frame a topic and focus on the new developments in this field in the past 2 to 4 years. The audience is intended to be clinicians and clinician-scientists, with emphasis on information that will inform practice. Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.


The main purpose of retractions is to correct the literature. According to the Committee on Publication Ethics, acceptable reasons for retraction include:

  1. Clear evidence that findings are unreliable (either as a result of misconduct or honest error);

  2. The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission, or justification;

  3. It constitutes plagiarism; or

  4. It reports unethical research.

In cases in which one of the above situations arises, authors are required to contact CHEST to explain the situation. Similarly, if CHEST learns of scientific misconduct and believes that an article must be retracted, the Editorial Office will contact all authors.

Published retractions will take the form of a letter, signed by all authors of the original work. The title of the letter will be "Notice of Retraction of…" followed by the full title of the original publication. The letter will include the details on why the article is being retracted and will include the full publication information of the original article both in a parenthetical notation and as a reference. Prior to publication, all authors will be required to submit the Author Agreement and Conflict of Interest Disclosure form. All retractions will be indexed in PubMed and attached to the original article citation.

Special Features

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, narrative format
Text length 3,500 words
Reference count 75 references

Special Features are solicited reviews that do not fit well into other categories. NOTE: Systematic reviews should be submitted as Original Research. CHEST will consider unsolicited Special Feature submissions, but authors must be aware that at any given time CHEST also has a long list of pending invited topics. Authors are encouraged to contact CHEST with a proposal on the topic prior to the writing or submission of any Special Feature articles.

Supplement Issue Proposals

Although CHEST will consider supplements sponsored by third parties for publication, it will publish only those supplements that advance the field or provide information that will significantly impact patient care in a novel way.

  • Proposal: A complete draft table of contents, inclusive of titles, proposed authors, article lengths, and a brief description of what will be covered should be submitted to CHEST prior to the development of any further materials. Funding sources should also be disclosed. The material covered should have a broad interest to one or more constituents served by CHEST and the American College of Chest Physicians. (eg, pulmonologists, critical care physicians, and cardiovascular or thoracic surgeons). The Editor in Chief will make a preliminary determination as to whether the proposal is of interest to CHEST. Final manuscripts will be submitted to peer review, and no guarantee of acceptance can be made.

  • Funding: Supplements must have a commitment of funding, ideally from a nongovernmental organization, philanthropic foundation, or government-funded health-care body. The supporting organization shall not in any way dictate or impact the editorial content of the supplement. No title or article shall have the appearance of a conflict of interest, paid advertisement, or proprietary study. The Editor in Chief will make such determinations. Supplements funded by single commercial entities are strongly discouraged and may not receive approval.

  • Draft Manuscripts: Manuscripts should be written by the named authors. Ghost authorship is not permitted. Any editorial assistance and/or writing support should be noted in the acknowledgments of each article, as should the source of funding for this assistance. Typically, one or more of the organizers of the supplement will provide a preliminary review of all the papers in a supplement for suitability of content, initial quality control, and adherence to agreed-on format (the format will be a coordinated effort of the supplement organizers and CHEST). They will work with authors before papers are formally submitted to the Journal. Once the organizers have met their own standards for submission, they will provide the CHEST Editorial Office with a list of manuscripts, authors, and contact information for a Corresponding Author for each manuscript.

  • Peer Review: A designated supplement material receipt date will be set by the CHEST Editorial Office. All manuscripts and materials must reach the Editorial Office by that date. CHEST will contact all corresponding authors with instructions on finalizing and uploading manuscripts into ScholarOne Manuscripts system. All CHEST requirements for authors also apply to authors of supplement papers. CHEST will send out all papers in a group to an external reviewer for final evaluation. Authors will be responsible for making the requested changes.

  • Editing:CHEST will copyedit all articles for grammar and style. The corresponding author of each article will be responsible for review and approval of final page proofs.

  • Publication: Publication date will be determined by CHEST. An estimated publication date will be set once CHEST offices have received all the supplement material. CHEST reserves the right to move up or delay publication. All supplements will appear online as a standalone issue of CHEST, available to all CHEST subscribers.

  • Reprints & Bulk Orders: Single article reprints, e-prints, and bulk orders will be available on publication.

To submit a supplement proposal, contact CHEST.

Topics in Practice Management

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, narrative format
Text length 2,500 words
Reference count 50 references

The general concept of Topics in Practice Management is to create a short focused article, combining a brief review of a clinical topic with a practice management perspective. References in this section should include or even emphasize available website information from CMS, local Medicare contractors, and even the American College of Chest Physicians or other professional society websites if applicable. Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.

Teaching, Education, and Career Hub (TEaCH)

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length none
Text length 2,500 words
Reference count <30 references listed under a heading of "Suggested Readings." List in chronological order. No citations in text.

Teaching, Education, and Career Hub papers focus on topics of interest to medical educators and trainees. Topics included focus on the process of educating pulmonary and critical care trainees, educational research in pulmonary and critical care, mentorship and mentoring, and career pathways within the field. While unsolicited articles and medical education research are encouraged, many of the topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.

Translating Basic Research Into Clinical Practice

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length 250 words, narrative format
Text length 2,500 words
Reference count 50 references

The purpose of Translating Basic Research into Clinical Practice is to publish short articles that present advances in basic research that are likely to be relevant to clinical practice in the respiratory field. Articles are to explain why this advance is (or will become) important to know about and how it may impact the management of respiratory disease in the future. Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Section Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST.

Ultrasound Corner

Article Element Requirements
Abstract length None
Text length 1,200 words (of which case presentation should up to 300 words, with the discussion 900 words, including take-home points, ie, "Reverberations")
Reference count 10; no references should appear before the Discussion
Videos 2 or 3 video file sets (more than 1 video clip may be compiled for use in each video set),a: sets typically include 1) first step in diagnosis; 2) next step by ultrasonography or determination of diagnosis; 3) discussion video. Authors are responsible for creation and editing of videos, including addition of captioning and labeling.b Section editor will work with authors and CHEST to add voice-over narration of the discussion video on acceptance. Files names must be video1.XXX, video2.XXX, etc. and each Ultrasound Corner manuscript must have discussion video with the file name discussion.XXX (XXX is the file format). See past articles for the Discussion video format.
Format 1) Introduction/case presentation + initial examination video set; 2) One question + one answer and follow-up ultrasonography video set; 3) Discussion + discussion video; 4) "reverberations" (ie, take-home points; 5) references; 6) captions for figures if included; 7) short description of each video
Other Written patient permission is required for publication; waivers may be considered on a case-by-case basis and must be approved by the editor in chief.

aVideo clips may be combined as needed.
bAuthors should combine all needed video clips for each step into a single video file, using software such as Windows MovieMaker or Apple Final Cut Pro. For short ultrasound readings (eg, 2 or 3 seconds), authors should either loop the frames or copy the sequences several times so that viewers have a chance to absorb what they are seeing.

Manuscripts for this section are designed to teach readers, via a case-based article, to learn 1) the best selection and use of ultrasound procedures and 2) use of those procedures for better and more efficient diagnoses. Articles in this section will be online only; the article will be listed in the print issue table of contents.

The following format is required:

  • Title: should include a short summary of the presenting feature, but not the procedural steps or diagnosis. (For example: “A Woman in Her 30s in Respiratory Distress With a History of Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension”)
  • Introduction: should begin with a description of patient presentation and initial tests
  • Video 1: should show initial test findings
  • Question: In the format, eg “Based on these videos and the patient's clinical history and physical examination, what would be the next logical area to examine with ultrasonography?”
  • Answer: In the format, eg, “The next areas to examine are XX and XX that led to the diagnosis of X” (maximum 15 words)
  • Video 2: show next needed ultrasonography tests
  • Discussion: describes in more detail the selection and results of the ultrasonography tests, resulting in a diagnosis and course of treatment
  • Discussion Video: video to be incorporated into the Discussion text that will have added voiceover narration
  • Reverberations: list of 3 to 5 teaching points
  • References
  • Captions if needed for figures
  • Short description of each video file