GENERAL POLICIES & PROCEDURES
All manuscripts submitted to CHEST should be prepared in accordance with the instructions for authors, which adhere to the latest International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.
CHEST follows ICMJE recommendations for attributing authorship, which is based on the following 4 criteria:
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
The final author lineup and order should be determined by all authors before submission and may not be changed without a written explanation and signed permission of all authors post submission. This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
- Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Managing Editor from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the authors' names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author whose name is being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Managing Editor to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that (a) the Managing Editor will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (b) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
- After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and will result in a corrigendum.
Communication related to submissions or submission inquiries should come from the corresponding author or principal investigator. Inquiries regarding manuscripts from non-authors, including inquiries from third-party medical writers and commercial medical writing companies, are strongly discouraged and may not receive a reply.
Conflict of Interest
A conflict of interest is a financial or intellectual relationship or other set of circumstances that might affect, or reasonably be perceived by others to affect, an author's judgment, conduct, or manuscript. When in doubt, disclose. CHEST asks that authors report any potential conflicts in a three-year period prior to the date of submission and, if known, any upcoming conflicts. Categories to be reported include royalties or in-kind benefits (eg, travel, accommodations) from a commercial entity, shareholdings, speaker bureau activities, industry advisory committees, expert witness testimony, and litigation related to the subject of the manuscript.
- Each author should provide a summary conflict of interest statement to be included on the title page of the manuscript. If an author has no conflicts of interest, a statement to this effect should be provided.
- Once the corresponding author has completed the submission process (including adding all co-authors and e-mail addresses into the appropriate fields), each author will be notified via e-mail that they need to sign in to their account in ScholarOne Manuscripts and complete the combined electronic Authorship Confirmation/Conflict of Interest Disclosure form. Accepted manuscripts will not enter production or be scheduled for an issue until all forms for all authors are received.
It is important for conflict of interest to be reported in both places. The electronic form completed in ScholarOne Manuscripts serves as the official signed (electronically) documentation for the journal's records, whereas the summary statement included on the title page of the manuscripts is the statement accessible to the journal peer reviewers throughout the process and ultimately published in the Acknowledgments section of accepted articles in CHEST. Further, it is important to ensure that the information reported on the form and that disclosed on the title page match exactly. The Editorial Office will review this information and will contact the authors to remedy any discrepancies.
Ethical Treatment of Patients/Subjects
For all human research, authors must ensure that studies are in accordance with the amended Declaration of Helsinki. Authors should indicate in their manuscripts that they have obtained informed consent from patients for the procedure/treatment and for their medical data to be used in a study.
Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval/Helsinki Declaration
For any studies involving patients (including chart reviews), a statement of review and approval must be included. For example: “This study was conducted in accordance with the amended Declaration of Helsinki. Local institutional review boards or independent ethics committees approved the protocol, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients.”
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or customer support site for more information.
All submissions are subject to peer review. Authors are encouraged (and in the case of Original Research required) to provide the names of qualified reviewers who have had experience with the subject matter, but who are not affiliated with the same institution(s) as the author(s). CHEST will make the final selection of peer reviewers.
Reuse of any previously copyrighted/published material, including material that appears on a website, within an article submitted to CHEST requires written permission from the copyright holder. Information on how to obtain permission for material published in CHEST is available via https://journal.chestnet.org/content/permission.
It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission and, where necessary, pay any fees to the copyright holder for republication in CHEST.
- Obtain permission for all print, online, and licensed uses from the copyright holder (usually the publisher);
- Provide copies of the permission with the submission (attach it as supplemental material in the file upload area in ScholarOne Manuscripts);
- Acknowledge the source in the legend of the figure/table with a numbered reference;
- Provide the full citation in the reference list; and
- Ensure that any language requirements of the copyright holder have been met (eg, Reproduced with permission from XXX).
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are increasingly used to assess different aspects of patients' health status, such as symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). For instance, results of HRQoL are frequently used as a primary outcome measure in studies. Well-developed PRO measures are precise instruments that accurately assess patients' quality of life and by definition need to meet certain standards in terms of development and psychometric validation. Investigators should understand that “even small modifications can compromise the reliability and validity of these instruments. Even modifications that may appear innocent, such as changing the format or layout of the instrument, changing the order of the items, or rewording the instructions, may alter the patients' responses. Therefore, it is important to administer only the exact version used in the validation.”1
Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions related to any survey instruments or tools relating to PRO used in their submission and for providing CHEST with a written copy of the permission to use (and modify or translate, if applicable) with the manuscript submission (attach it as supplemental material in the file upload area in ScholarOne Manuscripts). The Methods section of the paper should include a statement noting that permission has been obtained for use of the instrument or tool.2References:
- Breugelmans MA. Dangers in using translated medical questionnaires: the importance of conceptual equivalence across languages and cultures in patient-reported outcome measures. Chest. 2009;136(4):1175-1177.
- Juniper EF. Medical questionnaires are copyrighted to ensure that validity is maintained. Chest. 2009;136(4):951-952.
Preliminary Reporting of Data/Embargo
CHEST does not consider the reporting of raw data or results, as required by funding bodies such as government institutions or commercial entities, to constitute prior publication. However, on acceptance for publication in CHEST journal, the article content is embargoed from media coverage and any media coverage should be coordinated through CHEST. More information is available in the Media/Embargo Policy.
Privacy and Informed Consent
Authors must omit from their text, tables, figures, and supplemental data any identifying details regarding patients and study participants, including names, initials, date of birth, Social Security numbers, dates, or medical record numbers (even when patient consent has been obtained). Authors must obtain written informed permission from the patient, guardian, or next of kin when individual cases are presented. Copies of the permission must be provided to CHEST prior to publication. If the patient has died or is otherwise unavailable, then permission must be sought from the next of kin.
All authors are responsible for ensuring the submission complies with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or national equivalent.
When CHEST has concerns, or receives allegations, of scientific misconduct, CHEST reserves the right to proceed according to the procedures described below and to the guidelines issued by the Office of Research Integrity. CHEST recognizes its responsibility to appropriately address concerns and allegations of misconduct. Examples of misconduct include falsification of data, plagiarism (both plagiarism of others and self-plagiarism), improper designations of authorship, duplicate publication, misappropriation of others' research, failure to disclose conflict(s) of interest, and failure to comply with applicable legislative or regulatory requirements. Misconduct also includes failure to comply with any rules, policies, or procedures implemented by CHEST and other behaviors specified in the Office of Research Integrity guidelines.
CHEST follows the policies and recommended procedures outlined by the Committee on Publication Ethics in its approach to identifying and handling misconduct.
Supplement Issue Proposals
Although CHEST will consider supplements sponsored by third parties for publication, it will publish only those supplements that advance the field or provide information that will significantly impact patient care in a novel way.
- Proposal: A complete draft table of contents, inclusive of titles, proposed authors, article lengths, and a brief description of what will be covered should be submitted to CHEST prior to the development of any further materials. Funding sources should also be disclosed. The material covered should have a broad interest to one or more constituents served by CHEST journal and CHEST (eg, pulmonologists, critical care physicians, cardiovascular or thoracic surgeons, and sleep physicians). The Editor in Chief will make a preliminary determination as to whether the proposal is of interest to CHEST. Final manuscripts will be submitted for peer review, and no guarantee of acceptance can be made.
- Funding: Supplements must have a commitment of funding, ideally from a nongovernmental organization, philanthropic foundation, or government-funded health-care body. The supporting organization shall not in any way dictate or impact the editorial content of the supplement. No title or article shall have the appearance of a conflict of interest, paid advertisement, or proprietary study. The Editor in Chief will make such determinations.
- Draft Manuscripts: Manuscripts should be written by the named authors. Any editorial assistance and/or writing support should be noted in the acknowledgments of each article, as should the source of funding for this assistance. Typically, one or more of the organizers of the supplement will provide a preliminary review of all the papers in a supplement for suitability of content, initial quality control, and adherence to agreed-on format. The format will be a coordinated effort of the supplement organizers and CHEST, who will work with authors before papers are formally submitted to the journal. Once the organizers have met their own standards for submission, they will provide the CHEST Editorial Office with a list of manuscripts, authors, and contact information for a Corresponding Author for each manuscript.
- Peer Review: A designated supplement material receipt date will be set by the CHEST Editorial Office. All manuscripts and materials must reach the Editorial Office by that date. CHEST will contact all corresponding authors with instructions on finalizing and uploading manuscripts into the ScholarOne Manuscripts system. All CHEST requirements for authors also apply to authors of supplement papers. CHEST will send out all papers to external reviewers for evaluation. Authors will be responsible for making the requested changes. Decisions about publication will be made by the appropriate subspecialty Associate Editor and the Editor in Chief.
- Editing: CHEST will copyedit all articles for grammar and style. The corresponding author of each article will be responsible for review and approval of final page proofs.
- Publication: Publication date will be determined by CHEST. An estimated publication date will be set once CHEST offices have received all the supplement material. CHEST reserves the right to move up or delay publication. All supplements will appear online as a standalone issue of CHEST, available to all CHEST subscribers.
- Reprints & Bulk Orders: Single article reprints, e-prints, and bulk orders will be available on publication.
To submit a supplement proposal, contact CHEST at firstname.lastname@example.org.
CHEST will not consider research and manuscripts that have been supported either directly or indirectly by tobacco companies.
ACCEPTANCE AND PUBLICATION PROCESS
After acceptance, one set of PDF page proofs will be emailed to the corresponding author. A link will be provided in the email so that the authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier provides authors with PDF proofs that can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also provided online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
If you are not able to use the PDF annotations function, you may email a list of corrections (including replies to the Query Form) to Elsevier. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and either return via fax or scan and email the pages. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables, and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will be considered at this stage only with permission from the Editor in Chief. CHEST will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
Authors are welcome to submit manuscripts for exclusive publication in CHEST, provided they have not been published nor are under review elsewhere.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a journal publishing agreement (for more information on this and copyright, see https://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An email will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with the Journal Publishing Agreement form or a link to the online version of this agreement.Authors may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult https://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an Exclusive License Agreement (for more information see https://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement. Permitted third-party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information, including guidelines regarding posting to local servers, see https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/submit-your-paper/sharing-and-promoting-your-article.
Please be aware you may be invited by other organizations or companies to upload or share your submitted and/or accepted work. These companies are acting in violation of copyright law, and their activities may obscure the scientific record. If you have questions about any requests received, please contact us at email@example.com.
PubMed Central (NIH-Funded Work/Authors)
Studies (or authors) funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) must be deposited into PubMed Central. The publisher submits the final version of all articles (or authors) funded by the NIH to PubMed Central on the authors' behalf on publication. On submission of NIH-funded work, authors should and include the relevant grant numbers on the title page.
Open Access Options
CHEST offers an open access publishing option, with a publication fee, payable by authors or their research funder. When this option is exercised:
- The article will be made free to view on publication to all users of the CHEST websites with an icon denoting open access status; no login credentials or subscription will be necessary for access.
- CHEST will deposit the article into PubMed Central, where it will be indexed and publicly available.
- One of two Creative Commons Licenses will be assigned, depending on the open access option determined:
- Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND):Available for noncommercial purposes ($3,000), this option lets others distribute and copy the article, and include it in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
- Creative Commons Attribution License. Authors may be required by the funding body to select this option ($5,000). These articles will be assigned a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) in place of traditional copyright. This allows all users of the article to copy, distribute, and/or adapt the work for commercial and noncommercial purposes, provided the user(s) attribute the source material by noting the citation of the original CHEST work. NOTE: This option is available only to those whose funding bodies mandate a CC BY license.
CHEST also makes articles available to subscribers in developing countries and patient groups through the Elsevier access programs (https://www.elsevier.com/access).
Most articles are posted online two to three weeks after acceptance. Online First articles will be updated as they move through the production process, but should not be considered final until they are published within an issue. These articles may have additional changes from Online First publication to the final, issue-assigned version. The article title, author names and affiliations, and abstract will be provided to PubMed for indexing. CHEST will not allow changes to the manuscript from the time of Online First publication until page proofs are received. Although Online First articles are indexed in PubMed, publication information will be updated as needed (ie, title change) at the time of final publication in a numbered issue of CHEST.
The following sections are published online only: Novel Reports; Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians; CHEST Pearls; and Ultrasound Corner. All online only content is indexed by PubMed, The Web of Science, and all search engines from which the majority of journal visits are derived. Online-only articles can be listed on a person's CV. The online journal is the journal of record and the primary archive.
GENERAL MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
CHEST uses ScholarOne Manuscripts (https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/chest) for manuscript submission and peer review. Submissions received by email or mail will not be considered. Technical assistance for ScholarOne Manuscripts is available by phone at +1-434-964-4100, and via online support (includes tutorials). Each submission is assigned a manuscript tracking number that will appear in the email that confirms your submission has been received. Please provide this tracking number on any correspondence regarding the manuscript.
- Cover letter (either entered as text or uploaded to the Cover Letter area)
- Manuscript file (uploaded as Main Document), inclusive of
- Title page
- Abbreviations list
- Figure legends
The title page should be submitted as the first page of the main manuscript file and should include the following elements:
- Word counts for the text and abstract in the upper left-hand corner
- Title and short title/running head (of 50 characters or less) to be used in mobile formats
- Author list showing all names in the order and format that they are to appear on the publication. Also, include any middle initials and the highest degree obtained, as well as institutional affiliations. NOTE: Complete author information, including names, email addresses, and institutional affiliations must also be entered in ScholarOne Manuscripts to facilitate the collection of the required forms.
- Corresponding author information with full mailing address and email address (will appear on publication). Do not include phone or fax numbers on the title page.
- Summary conflict of interest statements for each author (or a statement indicating no conflicts exist for the specified author[s])
- Funding information including any NIH grant numbers where applicable
- Notation of prior abstract publication/presentation including the name, date, and location of the relevant meeting
An alphabetical list of all abbreviations used in the paper, followed by their full definitions, should be provided on submission. Each abbreviation should be expanded at first mention in the text and noted parenthetically after expansion. Abbreviations should only be used for terms that appear more than three times in text. To aid readers, please use abbreviations sparingly.
For Original Research studies (clinical trials, interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, surveys, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses), the abstract should consist of the following sections:
- Research Question
- Study Design and Methods
- Clinical Trial Registration (registrar, website, and registration number), where applicable
For all other manuscript types requiring abstracts, CHEST requires a narrative (unstructured) abstract. More information is available in Guidance for Specific Article Types.
Subheadings Within Articles
No more than 8 subheadings per article (in addition to headings such as Methods, Results, Discussion, and Interpretation). Each subheading can consist of only 5 words, including words such as a, an, the, and and.
The acknowledgments section will vary slightly by article type. Possible elements include:
- Guarantor statement, naming one author who takes responsibility for (is the guarantor of) the content of the manuscript, including the data and analysis (Original Research)
- Author contributions should define the individual contributions each author made to the development of the manuscript and should include at minimum the three criteria required for Authorship as defined by CHEST (required for Original Research). If several authors made the same type of contributions, it is acceptable to combine them. An example author contribution line is: ‘MLM had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis, including and especially any adverse effects. MLM, MT, NAW, DRG, VAD, and EG contributed substantially to the study design, data analysis and interpretation, and the writing of the manuscript.’
- Financial/nonfinancial disclosures should match those provided on the title page
- Role of the sponsors should detail what input or contributions, if any, were provided by the funding sources in the development of the research and manuscript
- Other contributions
Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of citations. In text, references must be given as superscript numerals, numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text. If the first (or only) mention of a reference appears in a Table, place the reference number after the Table call out in text. For example, if a reference is in Table 3 and has not been called out any earlier in the text, then the text call out should be, eg, "Table 327...". This will preserve numbering in citation management software. The full citations must be listed in numerical order at the end of the text. Each reference must contain, in order, the following:
- Authors (last name initials), listing all when there are up to six; first three followed by et al in the case of more than six authors
- Title of article (sentence case, no quotation marks)
- Publication source (italicized), when referring to a journal, the journal name should be abbreviated according to Index Medicus
- Year of publication
- Volume number
- Issue number
- Page numbers (inclusive)
- Sillen MJH, Speksnijder CM, Eterman R-MA, et al. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of muscles of ambulation in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review of the English-language literature. Chest. 2009;136(1):44-61.
- Barker E, Haverson K, Stokes CR, Birchall M, Baily M. The larynx as an immunological organ: immunological architecture in the pig as a large animal model. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143(1):6-14.
In-Press Journal Article
- Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA. In press. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.7.862
- Shields TW, LoCicero J III, Reed CE, Feins RH. General Thoracic Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:200-232.
- Stone AC, Klinger JR. The right ventricle in pulmonary hypertension. In: Hill NS, Farber HW, eds. Pulmonary Hypertension. New York, NY: Humana Press; 2008:93-126.
- Garg N, Garg G, Christensen G, Singh A. Acute coronary syndrome caused by coronary artery mycotic aneurysm due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [abstract]. Chest. 2008;134(suppl):1001S.
For assistance in formatting other types of references, please refer to the American Medical Association Manual of Style.1References:
- American Medical Association. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
We encourage you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate text material. They must be numbered and cited in consecutive order in the text. Each must have a succinct title, column and row headings, and (where appropriate) a legend describing abbreviations and lettered footnotes at the bottom of the table. Tables should not contain any shading or special symbols and any special formatting (bold, italics) must be explained in the legend. Tables consisting of more than 10 columns are unacceptable and will not be published. Tables should be provided as word processing documents, not in a spreadsheet file format or as an image file. Tables may be added at the end of the main document file.
Permissions for any republished tables should be noted in the legend.Tables used to describe or compare literature should include a column with the following information from the source publication: lead author last name, year of publication, and a numbered citation that corresponds to the full reference in the manuscript reference list.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, JPEG, or EPS) and with the correct resolution. Color figures are published free of charge. For further information on figure preparation, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
The journal encourages authors to supplement in-article microscopic images with corresponding high-resolution versions for use with the Virtual Microscope viewer. We also allow authors to enrich the online article by providing 3D radiological data in DICOM format. For more information on these Content Innovations, click here.
All illustrations must be cited in consecutive numerical order within the text of the manuscript. A legend for each illustration should be provided on a separate page of the manuscript, not on the figure itself. Stains and magnifications for all photomicrographs should be included in the legend. Any image manipulation (eg, splicing) should be described in the legend. Permissions for any republished figures and any required patient consent lines for identifiable images also should be noted in the legend.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Authors may submit supplemental material (ie, material that will be published only with the online version of the journal) if it enhances a study. The main text must stand alone, and the use of supplemental material should be judicious.
The same standards for ethics, copyright, permissions, and publication quality for the full-text article apply to all supplemental material. If any of the material included as supplemental material has been previously published, the authors are responsible for obtaining the required permissions and attributing the source material.Appendices no longer appear in CHEST articles, but may be included as supplemental material, labeled e-Appendix. Lists of study participants and multicenter institutional review board data are examples of content that is appropriate for e-Appendices.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Each component of the supplemental material should be numbered and cited in consecutive order in the text of the article. Authors should not intersperse supplemental material consecutively with material for the print edition. The following convention should be used for labeling and numbering material:
- e-Table: number as e-Table 1, e-Table 2, etc
- e-Figure: number as e-Figure 1, e-Figure 2, etc
- e-Appendix: number as e-Appendix 1, e-Appendix 2, etc
- Audio: number as Audio 1, Audio 2, etc
- Video: number as Video 1, Video 2, etc (note, if shorter videos are combined into a single file, label each portion, eg, Video 1A, Video 1B, etc.)
Example: The distribution of missed bronchoscopy skills data points across centers and bronchoscopy milestones are depicted in e-Figure 1.
The manuscript title, author list, and heading Supplemental Material should be included at the beginning of each file. The following formats can be uploaded as Online Content Only in ScholarOne Manuscripts:
- Video: Quicktime (.mov), Windows media (.wmv), Audio Video Interleave (.avi), animated GIF (.gif), .mpeg, and .mp4. All movie clips should be provided at the desired size and length (10 MB or 5 min maximum). Before submitting, authors should verify that clips are viewable in Quicktime or Windows Media Player. In addition, a brief text description should be provided in a word processing document explaining the video. Authors are encouraged to supply a still image of the video file for inclusion as reference in the print version of the article
- Audio: .mp3, .wav, .au. In addition, a brief text description should be provided in a word processing document explaining the audio file.
- Tables: Must be provided as Word files.
- Figures: .tiff, .png, .jpeg, and .gif. One text document (in Microsoft Word) should be provided that contains brief captions for all figures.
- Text: Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx), .rtf, and .txt files.
References in supplemental material should be numbered consecutively beginning with 1; if a reference appears in both the main article and the supplemental material, it will likely have a different reference number. Supplemental material should be thought of distinctly in this regard.
Style and Usage
CHEST follows the AMA Manual of Style (10th ed) in matters of editorial style and usage. All accepted manuscripts are subject to copyediting for conciseness, clarity, grammar, spelling, and CHEST style.
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using ‘he or she’, ‘his/her’ instead of ‘he’ or ‘his’, and by making use of job titles that are gender neutral (eg, “chairperson” instead of “chairman” and “flight attendant” instead of “stewardess”).
GUIDANCE FOR SPECIFIC ARTICLE TYPES
In addition to following the general manuscript preparation instructions, authors should refer to the specific instructions for the type of article they are submitting.
|Section||Consider Unsolicited (Y/Na)||Abstract (wd max)||Textb (wd max)||References (max)|
|Guidelines and Consensus Statements||Y||300||4,000||150|
|How I Do It||N||250||3,000||50|
|Chest Imaging & Pathology for Clinicians||Y||None||1,600||10|
|Letter to the Editor||Y||None||400||5|
|Response to Letter to the Editor||N||None||400||5|
|General Interest Commentary and Announcement||Y||None||1,000||5|
aThese article types are invited. Authors with ideas for topics are encouraged to contact CHEST with proposals at firstname.lastname@example.org. bText word counts exclude abstract, references, figure legends, and tables.
|Abstract length||300 words, structured format, include clinical trial information for randomized controlled trials|
|Text length||3,200 words|
|Reference count||75 references|
A structured abstract should be provided. The abstract should be divided into the following sections: Background, Research Question, Study Design and Methods, Results, Interpretation, and Clinical Trial Registration Number (where applicable). The body of the text should be divided into the following sections: Introduction (not labeled), Methods, Results, Discussion, and Interpretation. Acknowledgements can follow (including author guarantor statement and contributions), then References. Finally, a Take Home Point pullout will be published. Please provide a sentence for the Study Question, Results, and Interpretation.
Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval
Most Original Research manuscripts must include a statement relating to institutional review board (or equivalent) approval in the "Methods" section. CHEST requires that authors include the committee name and approval number. In multicenter studies, the list of relevant committees and approval numbers may be included as an e-Appendix. See more information on IRB approval here.
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs)
CHEST defines a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as“any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes.” Authors preparing reports of RCTs for submission to CHEST should follow the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) checklist and must include a CONSORT flowchart as Figure 1. Templates for the generation of CONSORT flowcharts are available online.
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
Authors preparing systematic reviews and meta-analyses for submission to CHEST should follow the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) checklist and must include a PRISMA flow diagram as Figure 1 on submission. CHEST strongly encourages registration of systematic reviews with the PROSPERO registry (see Registration of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews below). Additionally, authors are expected to address all items in the checklist in the writing of the manuscript. Those seeking additional guidance regarding the preparation of a systematic review can also consult the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions at http://www.cochrane.org/handbook and the Institute of Medicine's Standards for Systematic Reviews available at http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2011/Finding-What-Works-in-Health-Care-Standards-for-Systematic-Reviews.aspx.
Registration of Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews
Authors of reports of clinical trials and systematic reviews should record their investigations in a viable registry (eg, ClinicalTrials.gov, PROSPERO [https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/]). Approved public trials registries are those that meet the criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO). To register a trial, authors must submit the details directly to any one of the WHO primary registries. CHEST reserves the right to reject papers if it deems the disclosure at the registry to be incomplete. An IRB statement is not a substitute for an approved clinical trial registration.
Authors should update their registrations to reflect any changes in outcomes, including primary and secondary end points, or protocols before participants are enrolled. The methods described in the published report must accord with those previously published in the study registration to avoid even the appearance of scientific misconduct. Furthermore, any changes to the original registration (eg, substituting a secondary outcome as the primary outcome) should be described in detail in the Methods section of the manuscript. Authors who modify their methods should post those changes on the online registry before submitting their manuscripts to CHEST.
Investigators who administer surveys and questionnaires as part of their study should obtain copyright permission if needed; no surveys should be adapted without the permission of the developer. Any unapproved changes in how PRO instruments are used or approved changes that have not been psychometrically studied and found to be reliable and valid will invalidate the results.
Authors of studies based on surveys or questionnaires should report on data that have been collected within two years of submission, including supporting reliability and validity data. All survey-based studies should describe the method used to achieve the response rate (eg, Dillman's tailored design method) and should provide a convincing rationale for why lower response rates provide important and generalizable information. Nonrespondents should be characterized well enough to allow for assessment of potential for nonresponse. Authors are encouraged to report outcome rates for most surveys using standardized definitions and metrics (eg, those proposed by the American Association for Public Opinion Research). This information must be detailed in the methods section.
Other Study Types
The Equator Network provides checklists for other types of studies such as the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement. Checklists are also available for cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies, and authors are encouraged to follow these.
For clinical studies, the primary outcome should be expressed as the difference between groups with a confidence interval (CI) around that difference provided in the Abstract and in the main article. In most cases, P values should not be presented without an accompanying effect estimate and CI. The CI is useful to readers because it indicates the precision of an estimated population value.
Matching Language to Level of Evidence
CHEST endorses the HEART Group Statement1 calling for better matching language in original research to the evidence found in different study designs.2 In short, in observational studies investigators should use descriptive statements such as “we observed a lower risk” rather than a more definitive statement such as “reduced the risk by” that are more appropriate to RCTs.
- Editors of Heart Group Journals. Statement on matching language to the type of evidence used in describing outcomes data.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(23):2420.
- Kohli P, Cannon CP. The importance of matching language to type of evidence: avoiding the pitfalls of reporting outcomes data. Clin Cardiol. 2012:35:714-717.
Guidelines and Consensus Statements
|Executive summary||Provided in bold text and including one to two paragraphs of introduction, followed by a summary of the data and a bulleted list of all recommendations and suggestions included in the document|
|Abstract length||300 words, structured format|
|Text length||4,000 words (may be negotiated with CHEST)|
CHEST will work with other guideline-producing organizations where the possibility of mutual benefit exists. This includes guidelines and consensus statements where CHEST (the organization) has either agreed to participate in the development process, or has agreed to endorse the guideline or statement, or has been uninvolved in the development process.
Guideline-producing organizations that are not connected to a journal may submit their guideline for publication in CHEST. The submission will undergo peer review to include review by an internal methodologist and member of the CHEST Guideline Oversight Committee. For guidelines produced by organizations that publish in a subspecialty journal, a summary of the guideline publication with implementation tools may be published in CHEST with the goal of reaching our broad clinical audience. For these types of projects, authors should
- Contact the Editor in Chief of CHEST prior to submission.
- Recognize that a formal review of the submission will take place before a publication decision is made.
- Consider including implementation tools in the document or as a supplement.
|Abstract length||250 (narrative)|
|Text length||3,500 words|
|Reference count||75 max|
CHEST reviews are state-of-the art concise reviews on focused clinical, translational, ethics, education, and practice management topics. These should include a description of the importance of the topic and a summary of what is known about the topic with special attention to the most recent advances impacting practice. When relevant, authors should consider including sections on anticipated future advances, the authors' perspective on the topic, and summary tools that could assist with the application of the review in practice (eg, summary tables, algorithms). Topics in this section are developed and invited by the CHEST Associate Editors and Editor in Chief. Authors with suggestions for a topic are encouraged to contact CHEST at email@example.com.
How I Do It
|Abstract length||250 words (unstructured)|
|Text length||3,000 words|
|Reference count||50 max|
The How I Do It Section includes practical reviews of well-defined clinical questions with tools to assist with addressing the question when faced in practice. A relevant clinical question may have good evidence and guidelines available to support the approach, but implementation assistance is needed, or have weak evidence to support an approach but is a question with which clinicians struggle in practice.Articles should be organized as follows:
- A well-defined clinical or procedure-related question.
- Case example.
- Review of relevant literature. Comment on nuances when applying to patient care.
- Review of relevant guidelines. Comment on nuances when applying to patient care.
- A summary table or algorithm whenever relevant.
- Summary of the approach to the question.
Manuscript for the How I Do It section are invited by the subspecialty editorial teams.
Unsolicited contributions will not commonly be considered. Authors with ideas for topics should contact CHEST at firstname.lastname@example.org before preparing a manuscript.
Point/Counterpoint editorials are submitted in two stages, each with distinct requirements: the Point and Counterpoint pieces have longer word limits, and the rebuttals are intended to be more succinct.
|Text length||1,200 words|
|Reference count||12 references|
|Figure/table limits||3 total tables and figures (not 3 of each)|
|Text length||500 words|
|Reference count||7 references|
|Figure/table limits||1 figure or table|
Point/Counterpoint Editorials are invited by the editorial team. Authors with suggestions for a topic should contact CHEST at email@example.com prior to developing a manuscript.
|Text length||1,000 words|
|Reference count||12 max|
Editorials are invited by the editorial team. They are meant to allow a content expert to discuss the findings of an original research article, sharing their perspective on how the publication advances the field, impacts practice, and highlights further research needs.
|Abstract length||250 words, narrative format|
|Text length||3,500 words|
|Reference count||75 references|
Novel Reports (Online only)
|Abstract length||150 words, narrative format|
|Text length||750 words, for a single case report; 1,600 words for multiple cases|
|Reference count||20 references|
|Format||Introduction, Case Report(s), Discussion|
|Other||Written patient permission is required for publication|
Case report submissions to CHEST should describe a new entity, mechanism, presentation, means of diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. All submissions to this section must be novel and/or unique. It is appropriate to submit a single case or multiple cases highlighting the same message. Studies with a research question that is addressed by a case series should be submitted as original research.Case reports do not need institutional review board approval, but authors must preserve patient privacy and follow the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act or national equivalent rules in writing up the case. On acceptance, CHEST will require submission of written patient permission for publication. It is acceptable to submit case reports to CHEST that have been presented at meetings and congresses. This information should be disclosed on the title page and provided in the references.
Chest Imaging and Pathology for Clinicians (Online Only)
|Text length||1,600 words (of which clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings and discussion should be approximately 500 words each)|
|Reference count||10 references|
|Format||Case Presentation (with distinct Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Findings subsections); Q: What is the Diagnosis; A: Diagnosis; Discussion (with distinct Clinical, Radiologic, and Pathologic Discussion subsections); Bulleted list (3-4 lines at the most) of the take-home message from the case.|
|Other||Written patient permission is required for publication|
The format for submission to this section is as follows:
- Title: should include a short summary of the presenting feature, but not the diagnosis (ie, Dyspnea with slow-growing mass of the left hemithorax)
- Case Presentation: should include the following sections in sequence without the use of subheadings and without giving away the diagnosis:
- A clinical findings section should mention the relevant positives and negatives while avoiding detailed description of hospital course. The focus should be on the approach taken by the authors to make the diagnosis. Comments on the differential diagnosis and a table summarizing the clinical and radiologic features of the differential diagnoses are desirable.
- A radiologic findings section should briefly detail the plain chest radiograph (no corresponding figure need be submitted) and describe in detail the additional imaging studies performed, emphasizing findings that point to the diagnosis
- A pathologic findings section should describe these findings in detail and should focus on correlations with the radiologic findings. The pathology presented should confirm the diagnosis. Gross pathology or high-quality, low-power images that capture the radiologic and pathologic correlation are recommended.
- What is the diagnosis? Alternative questions may also be included (ie, What study should be conducted next?) in addition to the diagnosis question.
- Diagnosis: XXX; should also include the answer to any other questions posed
- Discussion should include the following sections in sequence with the use of subheadings
- Clinical discussion should illuminate how the clinical findings tie in with the diagnosis, addressing the typical and atypical case features. Authors are encouraged to highlight the clinical features that may alert the clinician to the diagnosis. In case of a rare disease, and brief description as well as diagnostic tests/criteria should be included. These may be tabulated. In the last paragraph, the outcomes of the case and the result of described intervention are useful.
- Radiologic discussion should highlight specific findings from chest radiographs and CT, PET, and MR scans. Authors are encouraged to highlight findings that exclude diagnosis and elaborate on the use of particular modalities.
- Pathologic discussion, should highlight pathologic patterns of lung involvement that correspond to patterns seen on chest imaging, and the pathologic differential diagnosis of the disease under discussion should be presented. Special staining techniques that may allow the diagnosis to be established should be addressed.
- Conclusion: a bulleted list (3-4 lines at the most) of the take home message from the case for clinicians is encouraged.
- Image Quality Considerations
- Sizing: Images should be appropriately sized to minimize superfluous information—including, in particular, any surrounding structures outside the body.
- Labeling/Figure legends: Legends should include baseline information: slice thickness (in mm), orientation (axial, coronal), and reconstruction algorithm (in the case of lung, either “smooth” or “edge enhanced” or their equivalent). For contrast-enhanced pulmonary artery studies, provide the rate, timing, volume and type of contrast as appropriate.
- Additional Imaging techniques: of particular interest is the addition of “movie” files (AVI or equivalent) when these augment image interpretation (eg, cardiac, aortic, or general vascular cases).
- The inclusion of other standard imaging formats, such as volumetrically rendered images and maximum (MIPS) and minimum (MinIPS) projection images, can be helpful.
|Text length||1,600 words (of which case presentation should be under 300)|
|Reference count||Up to 10 references listed under a heading of “Suggested Readings.” in chronological order; no citations in text.|
|Other||Written patient permission is required for publication|
- Title should include a short summary of the presenting feature, but not the diagnosis.
- History should provide the recent clinical presentation with relevant past medical history, with enough information regarding relevant positives and negatives to allow construction of a reasonable differential diagnosis.
- Physical Examination Findings should give the patient's vital signs and other physical findings labeled according to organ system (eg, chest: bibasilar rales; cardiac: grade II/VI holosystolic murmur at the apex radiating to the axilla; abdomen: non-tender without organomegaly).
- Diagnostic Studies, should list all of the relevant normal and abnormal studies required to construct a reasonable differential diagnosis: hemogram, blood chemistry, urine studies, arterial blood gases, microbiology results, tissue biopsy studies, miscellaneous studies (ECG, esophageal motility studies, etc), radiographic studies, polysomnographic studies. Authors should place normal values in parentheses when referring to unusual test results or values that have different normal ranges between laboratories.
- What is the diagnosis? Additional questions may also be included (ie, What study should be conducted next?) in addition to the diagnosis question. Alternative questions may focus on management alone when a manuscript does not present a diagnostic question (eg, end-of-life management issues).
- Diagnosis: State the diagnosis and the answers to any additional questions posed in the preceding “What is the diagnosis?". Do not provide explanatory text here but just mention the answers.
- Discussion, using the present tense, present a clear discussion of the clinical condition that flows clearly from one topic to another. Most manuscripts should cover sequentially the topics of epidemiology, pathophysiology/etiology, clinical manifestations, approach to diagnosis, treatment and outcomes. Exceptions, such as manuscripts on end-of-life decision-making, should retain a clearly organized sequence of topics. Do not refer to the present patient in the body of the general discussion but instead refer back to the present patient in the Clinical Course section. Avoid in the Discussion stating the findings or opinions of others (eg, Jones and Smith reported…); instead, authors should synthesize the literature and state their views on the topic.
- Clinical Course, should take the general discussion back to the specific patient presented, informing readers how the diagnosis was established, how the care was managed and what outcomes occurred.
- Pearls, 3 to 5 important teaching points extracted from the Discussion. Pearls should represent concise, specific and clinically useful information rather than general statements of fact.
- Suggested readings, should be listed in chronological order with the oldest first and include a mix of classic and recent journal or book citations. References to general medical or nursing textbooks should be avoided.
Figures are needed only for the case presentation. In discussing figures in the case report, simply refer to their presence when the findings are sufficiently obvious to challenge the reader. If the finding is subtle and difficult to detect, the abnormality can be described in the case report, but in describing the figure do not provide the diagnosis or the answer to the question you will pose in the manuscript. When not mentioned in the case report, the abnormality in the figure should be discussed in the body of the discussion on the following page when referring in general to the condition and in the section on clinical course when providing follow-up for the patient presented. Authors may consider including an algorithm describing an approach to the clinical presentation.Sample:Brownback KR, Crosser MS, Simpson SQ. A 49-year-old man with chest pain and fever after returning from France.Chest. 2012;141(6):1618-1621.
|Text length||1,600 words (of which case presentation should be up to 300 words, with the discussion being 900 words, including take-home points [ie, “Reverberations”])|
|Reference count||10; no references should appear before the Discussion|
|Videos||2 or 3 video file sets (more than 1 video clip may be compiled for use in each video set),a: sets typically include 1) first step in diagnosis; 2) next step by ultrasonography or determination of diagnosis; 3) discussion video. Authors are responsible for creation and editing of videos, including addition of captioning and labeling.b Section editor will work with authors and CHEST to add voice-over narration of the discussion video on acceptance. Files names must be video1.XXX, video2.XXX, etc. and each Ultrasound Corner manuscript must have discussion video with the file name discussion.XXX (XXX is the file format). See past articles for the Discussion video format.|
|Format||1) Introduction/case presentation + initial examination video set (do not describe the ultrasonagram in a manner that would provide the answer to your question in #2; do mention the part of the body from which the ultrasonogram was obtained); 2) One question + one answer and follow-up ultrasonography video set; 3) Discussion + discussion video; 4) 3-4 “reverberations” (ie, take-home points); 5) references; 6) captions for figures if included; 7) short description of each video|
|Other||Written patient permission is required for publication; waivers may be considered on a case-by-case basis and must be approved by the Editor in Chief.|
bAuthors should combine all needed video clips for each step into a single video file, using software such as Windows MovieMaker or Apple Final Cut Pro. For short ultrasound readings (eg, 2 or 3 seconds), authors should either loop the frames or copy the sequences several times so that viewers have a chance to absorb what they are seeing.
Letter to Editor, Response to Letter to Editor
|Text length||400 words|
|Reference count||5 references|
|Other||No No supplemental material. One figure or table permitted.|
Letters to the Editor are intended for the clarification and edification of articles published in CHEST. It is up to the discretion of the Editor in Chief whether any Correspondence is sent for external peer review and whether to accept any letter for publication.
Commenting on Recent Articles
All letters commenting on previous articles should strive to provide constructive and respectful comments of the original work. Letters should pertain to articles published within the preceding 6 weeks. Any correspondence discussing recent CHEST articles should include a short original title that does not duplicate the title of the article. Authors should include the full citation of the complete article in the reference list. For letters responding to articles published to the Online First section, CHEST will hold publication until the final version of the article is published in a numbered issue of CHEST. All accepted letters will be sent to the corresponding author of the original article with an invitation to submit a response for publication.
Authors are asked to submit all replies to letters on their work within 2 weeks of receiving the invitation. If they do not respond within this time frame, the original letter will be published without a response. Authors should never correspond directly with the authors of correspondence. The replying author should also include the full reference to their original work and should submit the same conflict of interest information relevant to the original work. CHEST reserves the right to update the conflict of interest line in this regard as needed.
|Text length||1,000 words|
|Reference count||10 references|
|Other||No No supplemental material; up to two figures and/or tables permitted.|
Research Letters should be descriptions of focused research findings. The findings should be of high quality, be novel, or have potential clinical impact, but should not be advanced or large enough to warrant publication of a complete original research manuscript. Research Letters do not require an abstract. The text should include Introduction (not labeled), Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. They should follow the guidelines for Manuscript Preparation and Submission Requirements.
General Interest Commentary and Announcements
|Text length||1,000 words|
|Reference count||5 references|
|Other||No No supplemental material; one figure or table permitted.|