Guide for Authors

Authors are required to follow the article guidelines set forth in the submission checklist. Manuscripts that do not conform to the points listed in the checklist will be returned for correction and resubmission. CARBON Submission Checklist

For the Chinese Version of the Guide for Authors please CLICK HERE.

General: Manuscripts must be word processed, double−spaced or 1.5-spaced with a font size of 12 pt (Times or Times New Roman preferred). The corresponding author or authors should be identified by an asterisk (*) and contact details (telephone number and e−mail address) given as a footnote to the first page. Full addresses and affiliations must be given for all co−authors. The Editors reserve the right to adjust style to certain standards of uniformity.

Types of Articles: CARBON accepts three types of articles, each with its own format.

Letters to the Editor are short communications that are no more than five double-spaced manuscript pages (including references) in length, and should include no more than five tables and figures combined. A maximum of 10 references is suggested. Letters should include an abstract of no more than 100 words and should not be divided into sections. The figures should be provided in a form suitable for reproduction in a single column of the journal. Letters to the Editor may be used (a) as a brief research report or (b) to comment on papers previously published in the journal.

Research Papers may be of any length. They should include an abstract of no more than 200 words and should be divided into numbered sections, as described below.

Review Articles are usually solicited by the Editors, and it is strongly suggested that the Editor-in-Chief be contacted before such an article is submitted. Reviews should give an extensive, up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of a current important research topic. The article should be formatted as is a Research Paper but contain a list of contents immediately after the abstract.

NOTE that all papers are now published "on demand" and no preference is given to Letters. The current average time from a paper being accepted to its availability on-line is six days. Any submission that is deemed by the Editor to be of special importance can be made available in two days.

Article transfer service: This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. More information about this can be found here:

Abstracts: Abstracts are required for all submissions. For Letters to the Editor these should be no longer than 100 words. For all other submissions the abstract should be no longer than 200 words. For Letters to the Editor make sure the abstract is clearly separated from the text using an extra line space or a horizontal line.

A graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

Title Page: A title page is required for all submissions. This should include the title of your manuscript and the author information including all affiliation details.

Text: Follow this order when preparing manuscripts: Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, (Please note that Keywords are no longer used), Main text with imbedded figures and tables, Acknowledgements, Appendix, and References. All footnotes (except for table footnotes and that giving the corresponding author contact details) should be identified with superscript Arabic numbers. The paper should only contain a detailed technical description of methods used when such methods are new. Figures and tables should be embedded at an appropriate place in the text, after their introduction.

Sections: Sections should be given Arabic numbers with subsections numbered using the decimal system. For example:
1. Introduction
2. Experimental
2.1 Sample preparation
2.1.1 Sample modification
Roman numerals are not used. The Editors reserve the right to combine sections when subdivisions have been used to excess.

Units: The SI system should be used for all scientific and laboratory data.


Reference links

Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Data references

This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference formatting

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume and issue/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also
[dataset] [4] M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015.

Journal Article
[1] Dresselhaus MS, Dresselhaus G. Saito R. Physics of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 1995; 33(7):883−91.
[2] Kaneko K, Katoris T, Shimizu N, Maeda T. Changes in the molecular adsorption properties of pitch−based activated carbon fibers by air oxidation. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1993; 88(9):1305−9.
[3] Fonseca A, Hernadi K, Pioedigrosso P, Colomer JF, Mukhopadhyay K, Doome R, et al. Synthesis of single− and multi−wall carbon nanotubes over supported catalysts. Appl Phys A 1998;67(1):11−22.
[4] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2000;163:51−9.

Entire special issue of journal
[18] McEnaney B, Mays TJ, Rodriguez−Reinoso F, editors. Fundamental aspects of active carbons. Special issue. Carbon 1998;36(10).

[7] Pierson HO. Handbook of carbon, diamond and fullerenes. Park Ridge NJ: Noyes. 1993: 87−94.
[8] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan; 1979.

Chapter in edited book
[12] Radovic LR, Rodriguez−Reinoso F. Carbon materials in catalysis. In: Thrower PA, editor. Chemistry and physics of carbon, vol 25, New York; Dekker; 1975 p. 243−358.
[13] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E−Publishing Inc; 1999, p. 281−304.

Papers in published proceedings
[13] Brown DK, Garner CE, Mueller J. Unidirectional carbon/carbon for ion engine optics. Extended abstracts, 22nd biennial conf. on carbon. UC San Diego (California. USA): American Carbon Society, 1995; p. 152−3.

[16] Henson RW. A simple theory of the thermal expansion of graphite. Harwell UK, AERE R6652, 1970.

[14] Jones LE. The effect of boron on carbon fiber microstructure and reactivity. University Park PA USA, Penn State Univ, PhD thesis, 1987.

[8] Brunmore RT. Process for producing carbon fibers of high strength. US patent 358697, 1995.

List all authors in each reference. For references with more than six authors give the first six names followed by et al. (e.g. [3] above).
Give each reference a different number, do not use 14a. b. c etc.
The page span (first − last pages) is required for each article.
Article titles must be supplied for all references.

When referencing a paper that is part of a run-on section, for example a paper that forms part of the 'Letters to Editor' section, please be sure to reference the page span of only the paper you are referencing and not the page span of the entire run-on section


General : Charts, diagrams, schemes and photographs are all to be referred to as "Figures", and should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are referred to. Low resolution figures should be embedded at the appropriate point in the text, with captions placed immediately below the figure. If the manuscript is accepted you will later be asked to submit individual, original high resolution figures to be used in the production process.

Preferred Image Formats : For the production of your paper we require high resolution graphic files in one of the preferred formats, TIFF or EPS. For detailed information about electronic artwork visit We will always aim to use the electronic artwork provided; however, electronic artwork files are not always usable due to stringent format, resolution, and font size requirements. We therefore ask you to be prepared to send high quality originals of your figures with captions on a separate sheet, after your paper has been accepted, to: Login Department, Elsevier, Stover Court, Bampfylde Street, Exeter, Devon, EX1 2AH, UK. Please ensure that all figures are labelled with the relevant figure number and with the unique code of your manuscript (allocated at submission stage).

Line Drawings : All lettering, graph lines and points on graphs should be sufficiently large and bold to permit reproduction when the diagram has been reduced to a size suitable for inclusion in the journal. Do not use any type of shading on computer generated illustrations.

Photographs : Photographs should only be included where they are essential and must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Micrographs must have a clear scale mark in one corner.

Color Artwork: Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to "gray scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Tables : Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are referred to. Tables should be included at the appropriate point in the text. Footnotes to tables should be typed below the table and should be referred to by superscript lower case letters. No vertical rules should be used. Tables should not duplicate results presented elsewhere in the manuscript, (e.g. in graphs).

Supplementary Data : Elsevier now accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high−resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data is provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit and follow the link to "Multimedia Files".


This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the “References” section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article.

When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data:

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution.

If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data statement page.

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Video Data
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a maximum size of 30 MB and running time of 5 minutes. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content. Files can be stored on diskette, ZIP-disk or CD (either MS-DOS or Macintosh).

Electronic proofs (PDF format) of all manuscripts will be sent as an e−mail attachment to the submitting author. Corrections should be returned within 48 hours on a printed copy (by fax), or by e¿mailing a list of corrections. Corrections should be restricted to typesetting errors; any others may be charged to the author. Please note that authors are urged to check their proofs carefully before return, since the inclusion of late corrections cannot be guaranteed.

Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.

If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.

We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e−mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.

All authors must sign the "Transfer of Copyright" agreement before the article can be published. This transfer agreement enables Elsevier Ltd to protect the copyrighted material for the authors, but does not relinquish the author's proprietary rights. The copyright transfer covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microfilm or any other reproductions of similar nature and translations. This includes the right to adapt the article for use in conjunction with computer systems and programs, including reproduction or publication in machine−readable form and incorporation in retrieval systems. Authors are responsible for obtaining from the copyright holder permission to reproduce any figures for which copyright exists.

Open Access
This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research;

1. Open Access

  • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
  • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
2. Subscription
  • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
  • No Open Access publication fee

All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access.

The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $USD 3600, excluding taxes.

Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy

Elsevier supports responsible sharingFind out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals. Ethics Statement
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Changes to authorship
This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Conflict of Interest
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Furthermore, each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Author Enquiries

Authors can keep track of the progress of their accepted article, and set up e−mail alerts informing them of changes to their manuscript status, by using the "Track a Paper" feature of the Author Gateway,

The Author Gateway, also contains detailed submission instructions, artwork guidelines and other author-related information. For specific enquires on the preparation of electronic artwork, consult

Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, are provided when an article is accepted for publication.