Carbohydrate Research publishes reports of original research in the following areas of carbohydrate science: action of enzymes, analytical chemistry, biochemistry (biosynthesis, degradation, structural and functional biochemistry, conformation, molecular recognition, enzyme mechanisms, carbohydrate-processing enzymes, including glycosidases and glycosyltransferases), chemical synthesis, isolation of natural products, physicochemical studies, reactions and their mechanisms, the study of structures and stereochemistry, and technological aspects.
Papers on polysaccharides should have a "molecular" component; that is a paper on new or modified polysaccharides should include structural information and characterization in addition to the usual studies of rheological properties and the like. A paper on a new, naturally occurring polysaccharide should include structural information, preferably detailed analysis of monosaccharide components and linkage sequence.
Papers devoted wholly or partly to X–ray crystallographic studies, or to computational aspects (molecular mechanics or molecular orbital calculations, simulations via molecular dynamics), will be considered if they meet certain criteria. For computational papers the requirements are that the methods used be specified in sufficient detail to permit replication of the results, and that the conclusions be shown to have relevance to experimental observations – the authors' own data or data from the literature. Specific directions for the presentation of X–ray data are given below under Results and "discussion".Types of paper
Contributions to Carbohydrate Research may be in the form of the following article types:
Full Papers - these should be substantial completed pieces of original research that are of significance and which, in addition, are presented clearly and concisely.
Notes - these are concise but complete descriptions of an investigation of a limited scope that will not be included in a later paper.
Mini-Reviews - these are critical reports reviewing important research in that field. While manuscripts usually are submitted at the invitation of Editors, contributions can be made by interested individuals if they contact an Editor to ensure that a suggested topic is both suitable and not already in process. Mini-reviews are often solicited for a Special Issue on a particular topic.
Link to full guide for authors
Some of the notes shown here are a shortened version of the guide for authors. The full instructions to authors, including all special characters are available for download as a pdf file. pdf link
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Article transfer service
This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3300, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.
This journal has an embargo period of 24 months.
Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/car/
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Subdivision - numbered sections
The body of the text (including tables, charts, and figures, and a bibliography). Typically the body comprises sections labelled Introduction, Results and discussion, and Experimental, but this specific structure is not obligatory. Authors are free to vary the organization of articles as needed for optimal presentation of their subject matter.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
You can enrich your article by providing a list of chemical compounds studied in the article. The list of compounds will be used to extract relevant information from the NCBI PubChem Compound database and display it next to the online version of the article on ScienceDirect. You can include up to 10 names of chemical compounds in the article. For each compound, please provide the PubChem CID of the most relevant record as in the following example: Glutamic acid (PubChem CID:611). Please position the list of compounds immediately below the 'Keywords' section. It is strongly recommended to follow the exact text formatting as in the example below:
Chemical compounds studied in this article
Ethylene glycol (PubChem CID: 174); Plitidepsin (PubChem CID: 44152164); Benzalkonium chloride (PubChem CID: 15865)
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
The nomenclature of all carbohydrates and glycoconjugates should follow the recommendations of the IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature: "Nomenclature of Carbohydrates (Recommendations 1996)" published in Pure Appl. Chem., 1996, 68, 1919-2008 as well as Carbohydr. Res. 1997, 297, 1-92 and elsewhere, including the World-Wide Web at http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iupac/2carb/.For any enzyme having a substantial role in an article, the EC number should be cited when the enzyme is first mentioned. A complete and definitive list of EC numbers, which updates the printed version (Enzyme Nomenclature, Academic Press, 1992), can be found on the World-Wide Web at http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme.
Title Compounds3.1.1. Methyl 6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-&bgr;-D-allopyranoside (4).
Note that the (numbered) compound is an example of a title compound, which should satisfy certain criteria if it is to be listed this way. Convincing evidence for identity and purity must be presented for all new carbohydrate derivatives listed as title compounds. Ordinarily, identity is established by NMR and mass spectral data. As evidence of purity authors are required to include an elemental (combustion) analysis (minimally C and H), with values deviating from the theoretical not more than 0.4% absolute. When a C and H analysis is not feasible (e.g., very small amounts of material available), the criteria used to assess purity should be specified; these should include NMR observations (absence of extraneous lines in a spectrum run at high sensitivity) and chromatographic data (GLC, HPLC, or TLC at high sensitivity). Also desirable are m/z values from mass spectra.It is not expected that all the intermediates in a synthetic sequence will be purified to the point of giving satisfactory elemental analyses. Many compounds will be used in a subsequent step without being refined to ultimate purity. However, the description of the preparation of such compounds should be consolidated with the description of the next title compound in the series.
Listing of Physical DataThe preferred order is: mp (if applicable); [&agr;]D (normally required for chiral compounds); Rf values (if pertinent): electronic-spectral data (UV, IR, if recorded); NMR data (if not presented in a table); MS. Note the use of semicolons to separate the successive items, and the use of ACS-approved abbreviations (see ACS Style Guide). Please see the PDF version of the full Instructions to Authors, including all special characters, for an example of how the elemental analysis results will follow the last spectral data (in the same paragraph). pdf link
NMR data - Please see the PDF version of the full Instructions to Authors, including all special characters, for an example. pdf linkArtwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
These should be so constructed as to be intelligible without reference to the text. Every table should have a heading, as should every column in a table. Every figure should have a caption (which should be provided on a separate page from the figure). Where the figure is a graph, all axes should be labelled and provided with a scale if appropriate. All graphics must be labelled with the figure or scheme number and the corresponding author's name with a clear file name if using online submission.
Charts and drawings produced by computer must be prepared at a resolution of 300 dpi or better. All graphics (including chemical structures) must be supplied as computer files, for reproduction at single or double column width (83 mm or 176 mm, respectively). Authors should take particular care to ensure that lettering on a figure will remain legible after reduction. Proper format for those using ChemDraw is set by using "File, Apply Document, Settings from, ACS Document 1996".Note 1: ChemDraw/IsisDraw files need to be embedded in the manuscript text and uploaded as seperate ChemDraw/IsisDraw files as part of your submission. All other figures, graphics and photos may be embedded in the manuscript text file. Please upload separate figure files; preferred formats are EPS, TIFF, JPEG.
Note 2: If a figure or table is uploaded as a separate file, then please exclude this from the manuscript text file, otherwise it will be shown in the PDF twice.Note 3: For each figure and table please include the appropriate figure/table number in the description field. This helps the Editor to identify the figure/table in the PDF.
Bibliographic references should be numbered in the order in which they are cited, being identified in the text by superscript Arabic numerals, and listed in a section at the end of the paper. Titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI). For a list of frequently cited journals see http://www.cas.org/expertise/cascontent/caplus/corejournals.html
1. Borén, H. B.; Garegg, P. J.; Wallin, N.H. Acta Chem. Scand., 1972, 26, 1082-1086. [Inclusive pages are required].
2. Ledrut, H. U.S. Patent 2 551 982, 1951; Chem. Abstr., 1952, 51, 7128i. [If possible include a reference to Chemical Abstracts, or to the World Patent Index (Derwent Publishers).]
3. Wolfrom, M.L.; Szarek, W.A. Halogen Derivatives. In The Carbohydrates, Chemistry and Biochemistry , 2nd ed; Pigman, W., Horton, D., Eds; Academic Press: New York, 1972; Vol. 1A, pp 239-251.
The References section should not be used for non-bibliographic comments, which ideally should be included in the text but, if absolutely necessary, may be treated as footnotes...
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.
Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). More information and a full list of supported databases.
The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.
Chemical Compound Viewer (Reaxys)
You can enrich your article with visual representations, links and details for those chemical structures that you define as the main chemical compounds described. Please follow the instructions to learn how to do this.
This journal enables you to show an Interactive Plot with your article by simply submitting a data file. Full instructions.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our Support Center.
A title - this should be concise, but specific enough to alert the readers to whom the article is directed when seen in a table of contents, database, etc.
A listing of the author(s) with the address(es) of their institutions - please provide one fully spelled-out given name (forename) for each author (s). The corresponding author(s) should always be indicated by an asterisk.Formula charts and Schemes
Particular attention should be paid to current conventions for drawing sugar ring structures (tapered thickening of forward edges, etc.). Structural formulas should be grouped for insertion in the text at appropriate points. Such groups need not have a caption, but those showing reaction sequences (i.e., containing arrows) may be designated Scheme 1, Scheme 2, etc. In charts and schemes formula numbers must follow in sequence across the page, except where a single structure with R groups represents two or more compounds. The sequence then follows the listing below the structure, which should be in "tabular" format.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
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