Aims and scope- The Aims and Scope of Carbohydrate Polymers must be complied with in order for submissions to be considered for review and possible publication. The Aims and Scope have been modified as of 24 July 2018.
Carbohydrate Polymers is a major journal within the field of glycoscience, and covers the study and exploitation of polysaccharides which have current or potential application in areas such as bioenergy, bioplastics, biomaterials, biorefining, chemistry, drug delivery, food, health, nanotechnology, packaging, paper, pharmaceuticals, medicine, oil recovery, textiles, tissue engineering and wood, and other aspects of glycoscience.
The role of the well-characterized carbohydrate polymer must be the major proportion of the work reported, not a peripheral . At least one named carbohydrate polymer must be cited and be the main focus of the paper and its title. Research must be innovative and advance scientific knowledge.
Hypothesis–Nearly all scientific papers benefit from inclusion of a statement of hypothesis. Such statements should be clear, concise, and declarative. The statement should describe the one or more key hypotheses that the work described in the manuscript was intended to confirm or refute. Inclusion of a hypothesis statement makes it simple to contrast the hypothesis with the most relevant previous literature and point out what the authors feel is distinct about the current hypothesis (novelty). It also permits the authors to describe why they feel it would be important to prove the hypothesis correct (significance).Topics of interest to the journal:
- structure-property relationships
- analytical methods
- chemical, enzymatic and physical modifications
- natural functions
- interactions with other materials
Topics not of interest to the journal:
- biological, physiological and pharmacological aspects of non-carbohydrate; molecules attached to, or mixed with, carbohydrate polymers, unless the polysaccharide has a relevant and specific role;
- materials science of biocomposites where there is no mention of any specific carbohydrate polymer, or the role of the carbohydrate polymer is not the major proportion of the study;
- polyalkanoates, polylactic acid, or lignin;
- routine studies of extraction yields without characterisation of the extracted polysaccharide under the different conditions;
- routine studies of complexation of a drug with a single cyclodextrin;
- studies of newly discovered natural polysaccharides or new polysaccharide derivatives where the structure of the polysaccharide (derivative) is unknown;
- production and isolation of enzymes which act on polysaccharides (studies on the mode of action of an enzyme on a polysaccharide are within the journal scope);
- carbohydrate oligomers where the degree of polymerization is less than four;
- treatments of cotton fabrics and cellulose-based paper where the research is largely not about the component cellulose itself;
- use of carbohydrate polymers as a support material (e.g. in enzyme immobilization, chromatography, etc.) where there is no specific involvement of the chemistry of the carbohydrate polymer.
Types of paper
Original full-length research papers should contain material that has not been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form. These papers should not exceed 6000 words of text (including references) and generally not more than 10 figures/tables. The same information should not be repeated in a figure and a table.
Review papers will be accepted in areas of topical interest and will normally emphasise literature published over the previous five years. They should not exceed 12,000 words (not including references) and should contain no more than 8 figures and 6 Tables. The same information should not be repeated in a figure and a table.
Contact details for submission
Contributors must submit their articles electronically via the Elsevier Editorial System http://ees.elsevier.com/carbpol. This is the only method of submission, and facilitates processing of your article.
A peer review system is used to ensure high quality of papers accepted for publication. The Editors will reject papers without formal review when it is deemed that the paper is
- on a topic outside the scope of the Journal,
- lacking technical merit or lacking appropriate characterization,
- missing a hypothesis
- containing data which are non-reproducible (another scientist from a third-party laboratory must be able to reproduce your work)
- of narrow regional scope and significance,
- lacking novelty, or does not advance scientific knowledge
- poorly written.
Previous publication of a paper on a particular topic does not guarantee publication of subsequent papers in that area, as the Aims and Scope of the journal are regularly updated. Please see the Current Aims and Scope before you submit.
Any revised papers returned later than three months after being sent to authors with the reviewers' comments will be treated as a new submission. When submitting a revised paper authors must list all of the reviewer's comments and indicate how they have responded to the comment, and where in the paper they have made appropriate revisions. All modifications in the paper must be shown in red.Resubmitted Manuscripts
It is the author's choice whether or not to resubmit a rejected manuscript to the journal. The expectation of the journal and its editors is that any resubmission will be the result of significant rewriting and perhaps additional experimentation as required to address all prior reviewer and editor concerns. Authors resubmitting previously rejected manuscripts are required to; 1) identify the manuscript as a resubmitted manuscript in the cover letter to the editor, including identification of the prior title and manuscript number, 2) address all reviewer concerns from the final reviews of the previous, rejected manuscript, and 3) include a "Response to Reviewers" document that includes those reviews from the previous version and your responses to those reviews; clearly identify what are reviewer comments and what are your responses, often the use of color is a convenient way to do so. You will also be requested to indicate this status during the submission process in EES.Studies in humans and animals
If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly.
Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and where appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study.
• Plagiarism and Ethical Concerns
By submitting this manuscript, the authors agree that text, equations, or figures from previously published articles or books have been clearly identified in full and their origin clearly explained in the adjacent text, with appropriate references given at the end of the paper. Duplication of text is rarely justified, even with diligent referencing. Exceptions may be made for descriptions of standard experimental techniques, or other standard methods used by the author in the investigation; but an appropriate citation is mandatory. Authors who duplicate material from their own published work in a new article, without clearly identifying the repeated material and its source as outlined above, are self-plagiarising.
If an author is found to have plagiarized content from another author or submits a duplicate publication the paper will be rejected without review. These actions may result in sanctions such as retraction of the article (along with the publication of a corrective notice with a direct link to the original article explaining the reason for the retraction) and a possible ban on future publications from the author. In addition, the scientific community at large, including the author's work place, may be notified about the case and the decision reached. Committing plagiarism or submitting a duplicate publication can have a negative impact on an author's scientific career.Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, source files containing the accepted revisions are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
Authors are required to submit with their articles, the names, complete affiliations (spelled out), country and contact details (including current and valid (preferably business) e-mail address) of three potential reviewers. Email addresses and reviewer names will be checked for validity. Your potential reviewers must not be from your institute, and at least two should be from a different country. Authors must not suggest reviewers with whom they have collaborated within the past two years. Your submission will be rejected if these are not supplied. Names provided may be used for other submissions on the same topic. Reviewers must have specific expertise on the subject of your article and/or the techniques employed in your study. Briefly state the appropriate expertise of each reviewer. Do not select a referee only because they have expertise on polysaccharides, this is not specific enough. For each reviewer you suggest you must include details of two recent relevant research or review papers authored by the potential reviewer which have appeared in good quality scientific journals. Authors cited in your paper can be useful suggested reviewers, provided that they have published in the field over the last few years. Peer review
This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.
Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Carbohydrate Polymers requires authors to include tables and figures in the body of the article at the appropriate position, not at the end of the article. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Pages must be numbered, and lines must be numbered consecutively throughout the manuscript.
(The abstract is not included in section numbering; see specific instructions below.)
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Focus on a number of key references; do not overlook the earlier, seminal work.
Nearly all scientific papers benefit from inclusion of a statement of hypothesis. Such statements should be clear, concise, and declarative. The statement should describe the one or more key hypotheses that the work described in the manuscript was intended to confirm or refute. Inclusion of a hypothesis statement makes it simple to contrast the hypothesis with the most relevant previous literature and point out what the authors feel is distinct about the current hypothesis (novelty). It also permits the authors to describe why they feel it would be important to prove the hypothesis correct (significance). The hypothesis shall be stated in the introductory section, and the conclusion section shall include your conclusion about whether the hypothesis was confirmed or refuted, as well as describing any new hypotheses generated by the work described. Here is an example of a famous, excellent hypothesis statement; declarative, concise, clear, and testable:
"Equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules."
Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quareqa e di Carreto (Avogadro), 1811
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section. The Conclusion should not be a summary, but should illustrate the advances and claims of innovative aspects of the research work done.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise, attractive and informative. The title should not exceed 120 characters excluding spaces and should make clear the focus of the paper and the fact that the focus is within the scope of the journal. Specifically name the carbohydrate polymer or group of carbohydrate polymers that is the main focus of the research. Because titles are used in information-retrieval systems, avoid abbreviations and formulae, avoid general terms when specific ones are available, avoid strings of names. Check for syntax and spelling. If your paper is a review paper, please include the word "review" somewhere in the title.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the e-mail address of each author. Authors must provide and use an email address unique to themselves and not shared with another author registered in EES, or a department. Institutional email addresses, rather than personal email addresses such as gmail, are strongly preferred for all authors who are affiliated to an institution; this is particularly important for the corresponding author.
• Corresponding author. Carbohydrate Polymers allows only one corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of reviewing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
A concise and factual abstract is required, and should be a maximum of 150 words in length. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. Numerical values for the most important findings should be reported. An abstract is often presented separately from the article in databases, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, vague terms and references should be avoided. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a minimum of 3 and maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field or approved by learned societies in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Abbreviations, except for very common terms (e.g. DNA, NMR), should not be used in the title of the paper.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Data used in tables and figures must be legible and relevant to the stated aims of your paper and related to a specific point. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Please ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Do not exceed a total of 10 tables/figures; any additional figures or tables can be included in the supplementary data. Please note that over half the papers submitted to Carbohydrate Polymers in 2017 were sent back to authors because of poor figure resolution or exceeding the number of figures permitted.
Carbohydrate Polymers requires authors to include tables and figures in the body of the article at the appropriate position, not at the end of the article Citation in text
All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication (Smith, 2003);
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication (Smith & Jones, 2004);
3. Three, four or five authors: all authors names and year of publication (Smith, Jones, & Brown, 2005). For all subsequent citations of this work use et al. (Smith et al., 2005).
4. Six or more authors: first author's name followed by et al. and the year of publication (Black et al., 2007).
Citations may be made directly or parenthetically. Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, b, 1999; Allan & Jones, 1995; Allen et al., 1994). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown..."
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Text: Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association.
List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J., & Lupton, R. A. (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51–59.
Reference to a book:
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4).
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., & Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281–304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.
[dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Your article will be checked for plagiarism by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check. If the editors find an unacceptable level of similarity between your article and an existing paper in any journal, your article will be rejected, In cases of significant similarity, the Editors will consider further action, including contacting your institution and/or ethics committee.
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