The Canadian Journal of Diabetes is Canada's only diabetes-oriented, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal for diabetes healthcare professionals. The Canadian Journal of Diabetes is the official publication of the Professional Section of the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA). Published bimonthly, the journal invites submission on matters relevant to the practice of diabetes care and education.
The mission of the Canadian Journal of Diabetes is to promote the sharing of interdisciplinary research and evidence-based knowledge, from basic or clinical science to public health and education, which leads to advances in the care of diabetes.
Types of paper
1. Original Research Articles
2. Review Articles
3. Case Reports
4. Practical Diabetes
5. Perspectives in Practice
6. Innovations in Diabetes Care Comments
7. Diabetes Dilemmas
8. Letters to the Editor
The title of all articles should clearly indicate the population and type of diabetes referred to in the article (for example: Eye Color in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes).Please contact the editorial board prior to submission if you are unable to adhere to the word and reference limits detailed below.
Please note that all of the word counts exclude references, unless otherwise noted.1. Original Research (≤4000 words): Original research articles report basic science and clinical investigation in areas relevant to diabetes. Authors should take care to clearly establish the link of the work to diabetes, keeping in mind the broad readership of the journal by healthcare providers. Original research articles should include the following subsections: introduction, methods, results, discussion and brief conclusion. Original research articles must include a structured abstract (250 words maximum). Original research articles may be up to 4000 words and contain up to 4 figures and/or tables. Reference list must not exceed 50 references.
2. Review (≤5000 words): Review articles report basic science and clinical investigation in areas relevant to diabetes. Review articles must also include an abstract, although it need not be structured (maximum 250 words). Review articles should provide answers to clinically relevant questions that have not been well-answered to date, or bring readers up to date on useful concepts in a rapidly changing field. Review articles should provide a balanced presentation of the issues and evidence on the topic. Review articles may be up to 5000 words and contain up to 4 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 75 references. (Please note: Literature reviews conducted using a scientific method, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses, should be submitted as original research).3. Case Reports (≤1000 words): Case reports should outline a clinical situation that illustrates unique or atypical features or provide a lesson to be learned that is relevant to diabetes care. Case reports should include a brief introduction, a description of the case and discussion, including relevance, implications and recommendations. Case reports do not require an abstract. Articles in this section should not exceed 1000 words in length and may contain up to 2 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 20 references. Written informed consent from the patient(s) or their guardians(s) should be obtained before submission.
4. Practical Diabetes(≤2000 words): Articles under this section should be structured like review articles, be well-referenced and focus on any aspect of the care of people with diabetes. Practical diabetes articles could include review of new resources relevant to the care and education of people with diabetes. Articles in this section should not exceed 2000 words in length and may contain up to 2 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 25.
5. Perspectives in Practice (≤2000 words): This section provides a format for authors to discuss new programs or services, ideas, insights or practical approaches to diabetes care and education or professional development. Papers in this section should be well-referenced. Articles in this section should not exceed 2000 words in length and may contain up to 2 figures and/or tables. The reference list should not exceed 25 references.
7. Diabetes Dilemmas (≤850 words): This feature is intended to highlight interesting and challenging cases in diabetes. This may include: diagnostic considerations, a picture to illustrate a clinical feature, management challenges and complications. The case should illustrate an approach to the problem and provide a succinct summary of take-home points. The case presentation should be 250 words (maximum) and clearly demonstrate the clinical diabetes challenge. Alternatively, a picture or illustration can be submitted instead of the case presentation provided it demonstrates the challenge. The case presentation should be followed by a discussion that is 600 words (maximum) outlining the approach to the clinical diabetes challenge. One figure or table may be included. Reference list should not exceed 10 references. Written informed consent from the patient(s) or their guardians(s) should be obtained before submission.8. Letter to the Editor (≤500 words): Letters to the editor comment on a recently published article (which must be cited in the reference list) and should be submitted within 2 months of printed publication of the article. Letters do not have abstracts and may have a maximum of 5 references. The author(s) of the article under discussion will be invited to respond to the comment letter using the same format guidelines.
|Abstract (word count)||Word Count*||References (maximum)||Tables/Figures|
|Original Research||Required (250)||≤ 4000||50||4 tables or figures|
|Review||Required (250)||≤ 5000||75||4 tables or figures|
|Case Reports||No||≤ 1000||20||2 tables or figures|
|Practical Diabetes||Required (250)||≤ 2000||25||2 tables or figures|
|Perspectives in Practice||No||≤ 2000||25||2 tables or figures|
|Innovations in Diabetes Care||No||≤ 750||10||1 table or figure|
|Diabetes Dilemmas||No||≤ 850||10||1 table or figure|
|Letter to the Editor||No||≤ 500||5||N/A|
* excludes abstract and referencesHuman and animal rights
Work on human beings that is submitted to the Canadian Journal of Diabetes should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects, adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964 (and successive amendments)(http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/). The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines.
Patients and Study Participants
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, and should be documented in the manuscript.
Although complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, all efforts towards this goal must be taken. Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning, and editors should so note.Permissions
Written consent from the author and publisher of any submitted material previously published must accompany the manuscript.
Declaration of interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
* All randomised controlled trials submitted to Canadian Journal of Diabetes whose primary purpose is to affect clinical practice (phase 3 trials) must be registered in accordance with the principles outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; http://www.icmje.org/). ICMJE-approved registries currently include the following: http://www.anzctr.org.au, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, http://www.ISRCTN.org, http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index/htm, http://www.trialregister.nl, and https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/. Please include the unique trial number and registry name on manuscript submission.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
• The Canadian Journal of Diabetes accepts original articles not previously published or currently submitted for publication in another journal.
• All authors must sign and submit the copyright release form for the Canadian Journal of Diabetes.
• Manuscripts are accepted for review on the understanding that they are for publication solely in the Canadian Journal of Diabetes.
• Published manuscripts become the property of the CDA. Permission to reprint the published manuscript in another publication must be obtained. For information on how to seek permission, visit http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3300, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.
This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
To complete the submission you must include:
• cover letter - include the names and e-mail addresses of 4 potential reviewers for your manuscript
• original manuscript in Microsoft Word
• figures and tables if required
• letter(s) of permission to reproduce material previously published elsewhere
• signed release for publication of identifiable subjects in photos and/or people acknowledged by name in the manuscript
• copyright release form, signed by all authors
• for each author a completed ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest
Submit your article
Please submit your article via https://www.evise.com/evise/jrnl/CJD.
Authors must suggest 4 potential reviewers for their manuscript and, to avoid delay in processing the submission, please ensure that email addresses given for reviewers are correct. These reviewers should be experts in their field who will be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Any suggested peer reviewers should not have published with any of the authors of the manuscript within the past 2 years, should not be current collaborators and should not be members of the same clinical unit, academic department or research group. The Canadian Journal of Diabetes editorial board reserves the right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used. Note: Submissions will not be considered for review unless the names of the 4 reviewers are included in the submission.
Patient Consent Form
Studies on patients or volunteers require informed consent, which should be documented within the manuscript. In addition, patient consent form(s) need to be completed and uploaded with the original manuscript. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients.
A statement regarding authors' conflicts of interest must be included in the manuscript. This should be under the heading Author Disclosures. This statement should follow the Author Contribution Statement.
All authors listed in the manuscript are required to submit a completed ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. All authors must disclose possible conflicts of interest at the time of submission. This information will remain confidential while the paper is under review and will not influence editorial decision. The information will be published with the article.
Manuscripts must be written in English. All materials (including tables) must be typed and double-spaced in Times New Roman 11 pt font. Use 1.0" margins on all sides, and number all pages in the bottom right corner. Separate each paragraph with a blank line. The term "diabetic" should not be used as a noun. Use lowercase for "diabetes", "type 1" and "type 2". Use numerals in the text rather than writing out numbers. Report all measurements in SI units. Report blood glucose in mmol/L. The abbreviation for hemoglobin A1C/glycated hemoglobin is A1C and values should be reported in derived NGSP units (% to one decimal point).References must be accessible to the readership and should ideally be in English or French. References in other languages may only be used on an exceptional basis. Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor. Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'. Methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Discussion
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. Acknowledgments
People who contributed substantially to the work but do not meet the authorship criteria should be recognized in the acknowledgements as well as funding support for the work. The Author Contribution Statement and Author Disclosures should also be included in this section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text). Electronic artwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may appear in parentheses in the body of the paper. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication and a copy of the title page of the relevant article must be submitted.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.
A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
 Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
 Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
 Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
 Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK, http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/; 2003 [accessed 13.03.03].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset]  Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also Samples of Formatted References).
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:1. One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
>• Full postal address
2. All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• All figure captions
•All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
3. Further considerations
•Manuscript has been "spell checked" and "grammar checked"
•References are in the correct format for this journal
•All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
•Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
4. Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black and white
•Indicate clearly whether or not color or black and white in print is required.
For any further information, please visit the Elsevier customer Support Centre.Offprints
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
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