Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

Introduction
• Types of article
• Contact details for submission
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Changes to authorship
• Clinical trials registry
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Role of the Funding Source
• Language
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
PREPARATION
• Double-blind review
• Article structure
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Proofs
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES



The BJID is an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases (SBI), published by monthly since 1996, from February to December and published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. Produced by the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Carlos Brites, an editorial board and highly competent associate editors, the production staff and advertising board, the articles and communications published in the BJID aim to be relevant in the broadest sense to all aspects of microbiology, infectious diseases and immune response to infectious agents.

The BJID is one of the most influential publications in its field in Brazil and Latin America with a high impact factor, since its inception it has garnered a growing share of the publishing market.

In addition to six regular issues per year, the BJID published special supplements, conference and seminar, annals and reprints of individual articles, as well as advertising courses, competitions and seminars in all fields of medicine.

Scope and policy

The aim of the Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases (BJID) is to be relevant in the broadest sense to all aspects of Infectious Diseases and its fields. The manuscripts submitted to BJID should develop new concepts or experimental approaches; they have to describe new principles or improvement of an existing method and their results; they have to bring new data about a subject which will be important to physicians; so they could not be a single presentation of known data.

Types of article

Manuscripts may be submitted within designated categories of communication, including:
• Original basic or clinical investigation (original papers);
• Brief reports of new methods or observations (brief communications);
• State-of-the-art presentations or reviews (review or mini review papers);
• Case presentation and discussion (case reports);
• Clinical infectious diseases images;
• Letters to the editor concerning previous publications;
• Editor’s corner, containing ideas, hypotheses and comments (Editorial).

Original articles
It is the most important section of the Journal. Original articles present new data about researches, issues and matters in the field of infectious diseases. These articles should conform strictly to the rules of publication, containing the following sections: abstract, objective or hypothesis, experimental design and methods used (statistical data), essential features of any interventions, main outcome measures, main results of the study, discussion and conclusion. An Original Paper should contain:
• An abstract of no more than 300 words;
• No more than 7 keywords;
• The text should be divided into separate sections (Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, References);
• No more than 50 references;
• Number of authors should not exceed 10;
• Authors should state in the cover letter that the manuscript is intended to be an original paper.

Brief communications
A brief communication is focused in a single subject, which should be concise and a new point of view presentation of the subject. The scope of this section is intended to be wide and methods, results and discussion should be in the same text. A brief communication should contain:
• An abstract of no more than 200 words;
• No more than 4 keywords;
• Text should not exceed 12 double-spaced typed pages of 23 lines each;
• A maximum of 2 figures or tables (or one of each);
• No more than 20 references;
• The text should not be divided into separate sections;
• Authors should state in the cover letter that the manuscript is intended to be a brief communication;
• Number of authors should not exceed 5.

Review article
This section is for an updated presentation on a specific topic. This section should contain critical analysis and a new point of view of a relevant area and not a chronological description of the literature. This section aims to raise discussion among readers about controversial issues and the development of concepts in Infectious Diseases. A review article has to bring the new point of view of the focus of the subject. A minireview is focused on a restricted part of a subject. A minireview and review article should contain:
• An abstract of no more than 300 words;
• No more than 7 keywords;
• No more than 80 references;
• The text may be divided into sections with appropriate titles and subtitles;
• Number of authors should not exceed 5;
• Authors should state in the cover letter that the manuscript is intended to be a review or mini review article.

Case reports
Reports of clinical cases must contain a brief introduction about the nature of the case diagnosis, whose focus is the importance of the subject. The case has to be described with data and reports of examinations, treatment and prognosis of the case, discussion about the importance of the findings and presentation of the case in relation to literature. A case report should have a special interest to the clinical research community or it has to be a rare case; or to present a new diagnostic method; or new or modified treatment. A case report article should contain:
• An abstract of no more than 150 words;
• No more than 4 keywords;
• No more than 20 references;
• The text may be divided into sections: brief introduction with a review of literature, case reports, and conclusion;
• Number of authors should not exceed 5;
• Authors should state in the cover letter that the manuscript is intended to be a case report article.

Clinical infectious diseases images
For submission to Clinical Infectious Diseases Images, which is not intended as a vehicle for case reports, all text should contain:
• A minimum of references (no more than 4);
• No abstract;
• The text should be uniform and contain no more than 300 words;
• Number of authors should not exceed 5.

Letters to the editor
Letters may be written in response to previous content published in The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases (BJID) or on any topic of general interest or concern. In the first case, the letter must emphasize the main message of the author of the article, focusing the contribution of that scientific article in the medical practice, drawing attention to the reference and impact it had on the community. The Letter to the Editor should contain:
• Title and the text with no more than 23 line pages;
• No more than 5 references;
• Number of authors should not exceed 5.

Contact details for submission

To submit an article to the journal: http://ees.elsevier.com/bjid If you have problems with sending or reviewing manuscripts, please contact us by email (ayuda-ees@elsevier.com) or by phone (+34 932 406 176) Monday through Friday, from 9:30 to 18:00 (GMT +1).

Page charges
This journal has no page charges.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trials registry

Clinical trials must be registered according to WHO recommendation at http://www.who.int/ictrp/en. The definition of clinical trial include preliminary trials (phase I): any study with prospective recruiting of subjects to undergo any health-related intervention (drugs, surgical procedures, equipment, behavioral therapies, food regimen, changes in health care) to evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes (any biomedical or health-related parameter, including pharmacokinetics measurements and adverse reactions).
The Journal has the right not to publish trials not complying with these and other legal and ethical standards determined by international guidelines.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' to assign to the society the copyright in the manuscript and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript (the "Article") in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the Article is accepted for publication.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information on author rights please see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Role of the Funding Source

Authors: please indicate any financial support in the cover letter.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Language

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

Submission

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/bjid.

Referees
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Additional information

Additional information
All papers must be submitted in English. Instructions for submission can be found on http://www.bjid.org.br/instructions.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means that both the reviewer and author name(s) are not allowed to be revealed to one another for a manuscript under review. The identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names and affiliations, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any Acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Introduction
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Material and methods
• This section should be subdivided by short underscore headings referring to methods used;
• This section cannot contain figures or tables;
• The material and methods used must be carefully described to allow the study repetition and to determine if the results were possible and correct;
• Papers with statistical testing should state the name of the test, the name for each analysis, the comparisons of interest, a justification of that test, the alpha level for all tests, whether the tests were over two-tailes, and the actual p-value for each test;
• Data sets should be summarized with descriptive statistics, which should include then for each data set, a clearly labeled measure of centre (such as the mean or median), and a clearly labeled measure of variability (such as the standard deviation or range).

Theory/calculation
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

Results
Results should be clear and concise.

Discussion
The discussion presents the results comparing and evaluating them to literature and the existing knowledge. References to other studies should appear in the Discussion to compare the data obtained in the methods and results of the paper.

Conclusions
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Appendices
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information
Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. Author affiliations should be presented in decreasing hierarchical order (e.g. Harvard University, Harvard Business School, Boston, USA) and should be written as established in its own language (e.g. Université Paris-Sorbonne; Harvard University, Universidade de São Paulo).
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, references should be avoided. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Keywords

Immediately after the abstract, provide the keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. Please consider the manuscript formats to verify the number of keywords.

Abbreviations

• Do not abbreviate institutions;
• Abbreviations must follow the format of the National Library of Medicine (USA) as in Index Medicus.

Acknowledgements
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Units
Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables

• The data presented in this section have to be oriented by universal units;
• Tables should be clear enough to the readers do not need the text to understand them;
• Tables should be presented on separate pages, portrait orientation, and upright on the page;
• Tables should present a short one-line title in bold;
• Tables have to be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the text;
• Symbols and abbreviations are defined immediately below the table;
• More information about the table should be below the symbols and abbreviations;
• If the table is from another source, the authors must indicate the source and send the permission to the Journal.

References

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884i. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
Please quote all the authors in works with until six authors; after six authors, quote the first three followed by the expression et al. Reference Manager or Endnote programs are strongly recommended for use adopting the “Vancouver” style.
Examples for reference citation are presented below. Authors should consult NLM’s Citing Medicine for additional information on the reference formats.

Article
Turner SW, Young S, Goldblatt J, Landau LI, Le Souëf PN. Child hood asthma and increased airway responsiveness a relationship that begins in infancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:98-104.
Chang ML, Yang CW, Chen JC, et al. Disproportional exaggerated arpartate transaminase is a useful prognostic parameter in late leptospirosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:5553-6.

Book chapter
Taylor DM, Personnet J. Epidemiology and natural history of Helicobacter pylori infection. In: Blaser MJ, Smith PD, Ravdin J eds. Infections of the gastrointestinal tract. New York: Raven Press, 1994.

Book
Polak JM, Van Noordan S. An introduction to immunochemistry: current techniques and problems. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Abstract
Blatt SP, Butzin CA, Lucey DR, Melcher GP, Hendrix CR. Anergy status and CD4 CD29 memory T-cells predict progression to AIDS (abstract PoB 3480). In: Program and abstracts: VIII International Conference on AIDS (Amsterdam). Amsterdam: CONGREX Holland, 1992.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our Support Center.

Proofs

One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop. Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover.



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You are also welcome to contact the Elsevier Support Center.