Guide for Authors

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The Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology/Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia (BJAN) is the official journal of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia, SBA), which supports the journal completely - the cost of publishing is on behalf of the Society, with no charges to authors.
The BJAN publishes original work in all areas of anesthesia, surgical critical care, perioperative medicine and pain medicine, including basic, translational and clinical research, as well as education and technological innovation. In addition, the Journal publishes pictorial and systematic reviews, relevant case reports, clinical images, clinical reports, editorials and letters to the editor. Special articles such as guidelines and historical manuscripts are published under invitation only, and authors should seek for the subject approval by the Editorial Office before submission. Before submitting a manuscript, authors should read the present Instructions to authors carefully and adhere to them. Manuscripts must be submitted electronically via the jounals online submission system and a receipt will be acknowledged by e-mail. Problems with submissions should be reported to the Editorial Office (

Decisions on submissions are final and will take place in approximately eight to 12 weeks.

The BJAN accepts only original articles that are not under consideration by any other journal and that have not been published before, except as academic theses or abstracts presented at conference or meetings. A cloud-based intuitive platform is used to compare submitted manuscripts to previous publications, and submissions must not contain any instances of plagiarism. Authors must obtain and send the Editorial Office all required permissions for any overlapping material and properly identify them in the manuscript to avoid plagiarism.
All articles submitted for publication are assessed by two or more members of the Editorial Board or external peer reviewers, assigned at the discretion of the Editor-in-chief or the Associate editors.
All editorial communications should be addressed to the Editor-in-Chief (

Types of article

Articles must follow the specifications presented below regarding the maximum number of words in the manuscript and abstract, references, tables, and figures, as well as the format of the abstract.

  • Clinical research: primary clinical, observational or experimental research information. Each kind of study will contain different elements. Authors can include supplementary material for exclusive online publication, and such material should be part of the submission letter. A copy or link of the ethical approval of the study, as well as its registry, must be submitted along with the manuscript. For a list of registry platform for clinical trials, access: Brazilian researches are advised to register at ReBEC. Keep reading for additional details regarding ethical requirements for publishing.
    Maximum of 3,000 words, 30 references, 6 tables or figures. Must present a structured abstract up to 250 words.

  • Narrative review: as a rule, narrative reviews are written by invitation from the Editor-in-chief. If you were not invited, before submitting a review you should contact the Editor-in-chief, who will evaluate the appropriateness of the proposal to the Journal, avoiding publishing duplications. Systematic review, as well as scoping review, rapid review, state of art review and overview of reviews can be considered for publication.
    Maximum of 4,000 words, 100 references, 4 tables or figures. Must present an unstructured abstract up to 250 words.

  • Systematic review: authors should register the review protocol in PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). Also, authors must state the review protocol in the Methods section and indicate where it can be accessed. Summarize sections by pulling together the implications of main findings, avoiding just the repetition of the results of previously published studies, searching for an expanded evidence-based conclusion. Incorporating the results of a new study with previous relevant studies in a meta-analysis is encouraged.
    Maximum of 4,000 words, 60 references, 6 tables or figures. Must present a structured abstract up to 250 words.

  • Case report: the journal only accepts for publication clinical information or case reports that describe innovations, novelties or new clinical approaches for already established clinical problems. They must contain impactful information, other than just the introduction of techniques, methods or medical devices. A copy of the Institutional Research Board approval must be submitted along with case reports. If any kind of patient image is used, it must be unidentified and anonymized and a specific signed authorization for publication should be obtained from the patient, legal guardians or family and submitted along with the report.
    Maximum of 1,500 words, 5 references, 2 tables or figures. Must present an unstructured abstract up to 100 words.

  • Letter to the editor: should include constructive, objective and educational comments on already published BJAN papers or be ″freestanding″. Reporting research findings or cases reports as letters to the editor is not advised. ″Freestanding″ letters to the editor may discuss matters of interest to readers without linkage to papers already published in BJAN. Letters will be published at the sole discretion of the Editor-in-chief.
    Maximum of 1,000 words, 5 references, 1 table or figure. No abstract is needed.


English is the official language of BJAN. The journal receives submissions in English and Portuguese. After acceptance, articles will be published both in English and Portuguese.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in the Instructions to Authors document for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present at the submission:

  • Cover letter;
  • Title page;
  • Designation of the corresponding author with contact details: e-mail address; full postal address; ORCID iD;
  • All authors must add their e-mail and ORCID in the submission system. More information about this in the AUTHORSHIP section;
  • Copy or link for the Institutional Research Board approval of the submission, if applicable;
  • The link for the study registry, if applicable;
  • Upload of all specific files for the study design: abstract including keywords; manuscript including references; all figures (include relevant captions); all tables (including titles, description, footnotes) - ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided -; supplemental files (where applicable);
  • Manuscript has been ″spell checked″ and ″grammar checked″;
  • All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa;
  • Completed reporting guideline checklist;
  • Link for the data repository, if applicable;
  • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet);
  • Relevant declarations of interest have been made.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Studies in humans and animals

  • Studies in animals: All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines' and should be carried out in accordance with the local country regulation. It is fundamental to clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed. The sex of animals must be indicated, and when appropriate, the influence (or association) of sex on the results of the study. The article must provide the genotype, strain, source, and number of backcrosses and age of animals studied.
  • Studies in humans:If the article involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the research described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. Privacy rights must always be observed.
  • The manuscript should be in line with the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals and aim for the inclusion of representative human populations (sex, age and ethnicity) as per those recommendations. The terms sex and gender should be used correctly. It is recommendable to use the words "male" and "female" (and other sexes/genders as appropriate) when speaking about a patient's sex. The numbers and percentages of both male, female and other sexes/genders must be reported in the text and/or tables. The manuscript must contain data on the age (mean with range), height (m), weight (kg), sex, criteria for selection, health conditions, among others there are significant to the study results. It is better to present more complex information in a table to facilitate the understanding of the data.
  • Informed consent and patient's details:Studies on patients or volunteers require Institutional Ethical Committee or Internal Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details, other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals. If any kind of patient image is used, it must be deidentificated and annonymized, and a specific signed authorization for publication should be obtained from the patient, legal guardians or family and submitted along with the manuscript or case report. Unless you have written permission from the patient or patient's relatives (when applicable), personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.
  • The author must retain written consents before submitting the article, but copies should not be provided to the journal. If specifically requested by the journal in exceptional circumstances (for example, if a legal issue arises), the author must provide copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained.

For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals.

Reporting guidelines
BJAN mandates the use of an appropriate reporting guideline when writing any health research manuscript. Guidance on each type of study can be found on the EQUATOR(Enhancing the Quality and Transparency Of health Research) Network website or below in the secton What reporting guideline to use.
Authors must submit completed checklists for the relevant reporting guidelines (and flow diagram if applicable) that they followed along with the manuscript, indicating the manuscript page on which each checklist item is found. Editable checklists for reporting guidelines can be found on the EQUATOR Network website, which also gives general information on how to choose the correct reporting guideline and why the guidelines are important. Using a checklist helps to ensure that the reporting guideline was used correctly.
Your article should report at least the content addressed by each item of the identified checklist or state that the item was not considered in the study and, if relevant, the reason why not (for example, if you did not use blinding, your article should explain it). Meeting these basic reporting requirements will greatly improve the value of your manuscript, may facilitate/enhance the peer review process, and may enhance its chances for eventual publication. Checklists are not simply an administrative hurdle. We ask you to complete a checklist because this helps you to notice if you have not included all of the important information in your article, and because it helps our editors and reviewers to complete the same check. If the checklist indicates an item that you have not addressed in your manuscript, please either explain in the manuscript text why this information is not relevant to your study or add the relevant information.

What reporting guideline to use

If you are reporting research on an intervention, treatment, exposure, or protective factor on human subjects:
Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies

Use the CONSORT guideline or one of its extensions:

  • If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND
  • You controlled which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received, AND
  • You used a random allocation method to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. they each received (ie: a randomized controlled trial).

Use the STROBE guideline or one of its extensions:
  • If you selected your participants after they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, OR
  • You selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study AND you did not control which intervention/exposure/etc. they received (they decided/their doctor decided/life just happened) (ie: an observational study)

Use the TREND guideline:
  • If you selected your participants before they received the intervention/exposure/etc. under study, AND
  • If CARE, CONSORT, and STROBE are not applicable to your research AND
  • You used a non-random way to decide which intervention/exposure/etc. your participants received, such as which hospital they went to or what their clinical symptoms were (ie: a non-randomized trial).
If you are reporting a protocol:
Use the SPIRIT guideline for the protocol of a clinical trial Use thePRISMA-P guideline for the protocol of a systematic review If you are reporting literature review:
Use the ENTREQ guidelinefor a review of studies that use descriptive data, such as unstructured interviews (qualitative data) Use the MOOSE guideline for a review of observational studies Use the PRISMA guidelinefor any other kind of systematic review or meta-analysis
If you are reporting an animal research: Use the ARRIVE guidelinefor research on animals in a lab Use the REFLECT guideline for research on livestock If you are reporting descriptive data (either alone or alongside quantitative data):
Use the COREQ guidelinefor reporting unstructured interviews and focus groups
Use the CARE guideline for reporting one case study or a series of case studies
Use the SRQR guidelinefor any other descriptive data (qualitative research)
If you are reporting research into diagnosis:
Use the STARD guidelineif you compared the accuracy of a diagnostic test with an established reference standard test Use the REMARK guidelineif you evaluated the prognostic value of a biomarker
Use the TRIPOD guidelineif you developed, validated, or updated a prognostic or diagnostic prediction modelling tool
If you are reporting research into an intervention or treatment on people:
Use the TIDIER guidelineto fully describe your intervention
Use the CHEERS guidelinefor an economic evaluation of the interventions

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state: ″Conflicts of interest: none″. More information.

Submission declaration
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously, except in the form of an abstract, as part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or as an electronic preprint.
It also means that the manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out.
If accepted, it must not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English, Portuguese or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check. See Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication for more information.

At the discretion of the Editorial board, preprints can be shared any time and will not count as prior publication.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


Along with the submission process, authors will be asked to complete a Journal Publishing Agreement(see more information on this) to assign copyright of the manuscript to the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia, SBA). This document includes any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication, as part of the manuscript, in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed) throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the submitted manuscript with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights

As an author, you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information here.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via

Peer review

BJAN operates a double-blind review process, so remove all data that can identify you or your institution from the text. Reviewers will not know who is responsible for the work when they are reviewing, and the authors will not know who has reviewed their manuscript in any stage of the publication process as well. Thus, the manuscript should not include any identifying information, such as the authors names or affiliations. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.
All peer reviewers will be initially assessed by the Editor-in-chief for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewersto assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor-in-chief is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles and his or hers decision is final.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns.
The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the spell-check and grammar-check functions of your word processor.
If English is not your native language and the Editor-in-chief asks you to revise orthography of your text, please submit your article for grammar correction of a qualified company, such as American Journal Experts (AJE), Enago and Proof-Reading-Service (PRS), before acceptance for publication. You can also do that before submitting your text for the first time if it makes you feel more comfortable, as well as if English is your native language.
The editor may require a linguistic revision of articles submitted in Portuguese or adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (e.g. Keimelion, Atha Editorial, GN1).
Cover letter An accompanying succinct cover letter should be submitted for every manuscript, focusing on the novelty and value of author?s work, the relation to the scope of BJAN, and stating why the editor should consider the article for publication. The cover letter will not be part of the final published manuscript.

Article structure

Subdivision - unnumbered heads
Manuscripts should be subdivided into clearly defined and unnumbered sections. Each subsection must have a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Specify the hypothesis which justify the study. State the objectives of the trial.

Material and methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published in detail elsewhere should be indicated by a reference citation. However, the authors should describe the methods concisely, assuming that the reader might not have access to the original protocol publication, especially if it is not open access. All modifications from the study protocol should be described.

Results should be clear, concise and contextualized. Avoid the repetition of data in the text and in the tables or figures.

In this subsection, explore the significance of the results of the study, not repeat them. Confront your data with the previous findings, avoiding extensive citations and discussion of already published literature. Discuss the limitation of the study and critically justify them. Emphasize the importance of the study for the current state of art as well as the future perspectives related to the study.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section.


The title page should include:

  • The actual title and the running title: the title must be concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae if you can. Write the title in the simplest way possible, thinking, how would I search for this subject in a database or on the internet. Do not forget to add the study design in the title, for instance: randomized clinical trial, case report, prospective cohort study, systematic review, narrative review, among others. Suggest a running or short title, which can be used at the discretion of the Editorial Board.
  • Authorship: must contain details of author's contributions. Describe names anf affiliations of all authors, including the ORCID iD and e-mail. Clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that the spellings for all names are accurate. Please, do not abbreviate the author's names. Present the author's affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done). See above more details about the authorship and copyright.
  • Corresponding author:clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries regarding the study or the report. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.


An abstract, with the headings background, methods, results and conclusion, should provide the context for the research and state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and main conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations. Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords in alphabetical order and separated by commas, to represent the content of the article.
There is a specific reporting guideline for abstracts.
The descriptors or keywords should be based on the Health Science Descriptors (Descritores em Ciencias da Saude, DECS) or on the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in a standard format to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements.
For instance: This work was supported by the CNPq [grant number xxxx] and FAPESP [grant number xxxx].
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding. If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Footnotes should be used sparingly. It is preferable the use of references.


Image manipulation
In the process of acceptance, the authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, although editing for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly.
For graphical images, BJAN applies the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.
Before submitting any kind of images or graphics, be sure that the resolution of the material isproper for printing and publishing (300 dpi). You can confirm this data in the image details. If your image is with any number less than 300 dpi, it will not be printed properly and will not be accepted. If there is 300 dpi or more you can submit us promptly.

Electronic artwork
General points: ake sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork; "

  • Preferred fonts are Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, and Courier.
  • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
  • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage
  • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.

A detailed guide on electronic artworkis available. You are urged to visit this site, some excerpts from the detailed information are given here. Formats:Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below)
  • EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as graphics;
  • TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs. For halftones, always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.

  • Please do not:
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files and with the correct resolution. If, with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then the journal will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online only (e.g. ScienceDirect and other sites). The illustrations in color online will be reproduced black & white only in the printed version. The authors should assure the resolution of illustrations both colored and black & white before publication.

Illustration services
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.


All references must be presented accordingly to the Vancouver Style, as you can see bellow or accessing the website of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Only the references used in the text, numbered in Arabic numerals and in the order in which they were quoted, should be indicated.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK,; 2003 [accessed 13 March 2003].
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34)(see also Samples of Formatted References).

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Full Online Submission
Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office file, as these will appear in the published supplementary file. For more detailed instructions, please visit our artwork instruction pages. See below for more details about research data repository.

Research data

This journal encourages you to share data that supports your research publication in an appropriate data repository, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. If you are sharing data, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation.

Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.