Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Scientific Checklist
• Types of papers
• Ethics in publishing
• Policy and ethics
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to authorship
• Institutional e-mail address
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
• Classification
• Language
• Use of Word processing Software
• Article structure
• Materials and methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Essential Title Page Information
• Abstract
• Graphical Abstract
• Keywords
• Nomenclature and abbreviations
• Genbank
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Database linking
• AudioSlides
• Submission checklist
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
Author Inquiries

Biochemical Pharmacology is an international journal devoted to publishing original research on the interaction of drugs and nontherapeutic xenobiotics with biological systems. While particular emphasis is placed on reporting findings that relate to the actions and metabolism of drugs and toxic substances at the biochemical and molecular levels, submissions in the areas of behavioral and physiological pharmacology and toxicology are also encouraged if they describe studies directed at defining mechanisms of action. All areas of the field are represented in the journal including, but not limited to, cancer chemotherapy, neuropharmacology, inflammation/immunopharmacology, antimicrobials, behavioral, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and endocrine pharmacology and toxicology. Submissions relating to either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics are considered. Reports based on experiments conducted with mixtures, plant or animal extracts will not be considered for publication unless the chemical structures and concentrations of all substances are known.

Scientific Checklist

The online submission process includes the Scientific Checklist (Table 1). Failure to complete the Checklist, or a lack of a response to any items on the Checklist, automatically disqualifies the work for consideration.

Table 1. Scientific Submission Checklist

Formatting - The submission will automatically be rejected if these first four questions are not marked "yes" Yes No Not applicable
1. As Biochemical Pharmacology does NOT publish supplemental data with the exception of audio or video files, are all necessary data included in the body of the manuscript?
2. Are all tables and figures numbered and appropriately titled with descriptive legends that permit stand-alone interpretation?
3. Are all data shown in the figures and tables also shown in the text of the Results section and discussed in the Conclusions?
4. Does the e-mail address for the corresponding author indicate an affiliation with a research-based institution or has the author provided a separate statement written in English on institutional letterhead and signed by an official responsible for research activities for the institute verifying the affiliation listed by the corresponding author, along with the official's institutional e-mail contact information?
Introduction Yes No Not applicable
5. Is there a clear statement with background describing the hypothesis being tested by this study?
6. Are the primary endpoints clearly described?

Materials and Methods Yes No Not applicable
7. Are the sources of all materials clearly indicated?
8. Is (are) the chemical structure(s) of any new compound(s) presented as a figure in the manuscript or referenced in the peer-reviewed literature?
9. Are the source(s) and passage number of cell lines indicated?
10. Were cell lines authenticated by you or the vendor?
11. If used, has the selectivity of antibodies and/or interference RNA been validated and is/are their source clearly indicated?
12. If used, has the species, strain, sex, weight and source of the animals been provided?
13. Is a statement included in the text indicating compliance with regulations on the ethical treatment of animals including the identification of the institutional committee that approved the experiments?
14. Is the rationale provided for the selection of concentrations, doses, route and frequency of compound administration?
15. Are quantified results (e.g., IC50 and/or EC50 values) of concentration- and dose-response experiments included in the manuscript?

16. If used, is the method of anesthesia described?
17. Are all group sizes approximately the same?
18. Were the criteria used for excluding any data from analysis determined prospectively and clearly stated?
19. Was the investigator responsible for data analysis blinded to which samples/animals represent control and treatment groups?
20. Is the exact sample size (n) for each experimental group/condition clearly indicated in the text and/or in the tables and figures?
21. Are the reported data displayed as the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of three or more independent experimental replications?
22. Is the number of replicates used to generate an individual data point in each of the independent experiments clearly indicated and is it equal to or greater than 3?
23. Were the statistical tests used to analyze the primary endpoints predetermined as part of the experimental design?
24. Is the threshold for statistical significance (P value) clearly indicated?
25. Were the data normalized?
26. Were post-hoc tests used to assess the statistical significance among means?
27. Were human tissues or fluids used in this study?

Results Yes No Not applicable
28. If western blots are shown, are the following included: i)appropriate loading controls for each western blot, ii)replication data, iii) quantification, and iv) the results of a statistical analysis?
29. If PCR and RT-PCR are included, were MIQE guidelines followed?
30. Was a reference standard (positive or negative controls) included in the study to validate the experiment?
Discussion Yes No Not applicable
31. Are all the findings considered within the context of the hypothesis presented in the Introduction
32. Are the primary conclusions and their implications clearly stated?
33. Are any secondary endpoints reported and are these sufficiently powered for appropriate statistical analysis?
34. Are the limitations of the current study or alternative interpretations of the findings clearly stated?
Conflict of Interest/Financial Support
35. Indicate by checking the box at right that a conflict of interest statement is included in the manuscript
36. Indicate by checking the box at right that all organizations providing funding for this work are listed in Acknowledgements.

Please list in the following fields any additional explanation(s) you feel may be necessary on the above questions:

Types of papers

(1) Full-length Research Papers. These contain the results of original research on an issue of relevance to the field of pharmacology.
(2) Commentaries. These are commissioned articles that provide the author's view on a selected topic of interest to pharmacologists. Note that instructions to authors are provided by the editorial office upon confirmation of the topic.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Policy and ethics

The cover letter must contain a statement assuring that the material has not been published or is not under active consideration by another journal. The authors must also indicate in the cover letter that the research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and/or with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals as adopted and promulgated by the United States National Institutes of Health.

Declaration of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Institutional e-mail address

As of January 1st, 2016 manuscripts will not be considered for publication in Biochemical Pharmacology if the e-mail address for the corresponding author does not reflect an affiliation with a research-based institution. Alternatively, the submission must include a separate statement in English on institutional letterhead signed by an official responsible for research activities for the institute from which the manuscript originates verifying the affiliation listed by the corresponding author, along with the official's institutional e-mail contact information.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Author Contributions
To be included as an author of a submission an individual must have made substantive and definable intellectual contributions to the submitted work and be able to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the work. Authorship is not justified for the acquisition of funding, provision of research materials, data generation or provision of space. Individuals involved in making such contributions should be listed under Acknowledgments.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3550, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus ( is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

For submission of articles to Biochemical Pharmacology please go to the journal's online submission site at


Authors must assign the manuscript to one of the following categories at the time of submission:
(1) Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutics
(2) Cardiovascular Pharmacology
(3) Metabolic Disorders and Endocrinology
(4) Gastrointestinal Pharmacology
(5) Inflammation and Immunopharmacology
(6) Toxicology
(7) Neuropharmacology
(8) Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism
(9) Pulmonary, Renal and Hepatic Pharmacology
The category must be listed on the title page.

At revision stage all authors are required to submit, together with the revised manuscript, a zip-file named "" that contains the original, uncropped and unedited photographs of all figures that represent gels, Western blots, microscopic photos, etc. that will be published in the final article. This file will be added to the published paper as online Archival Material but will not be available to readers and is not part of the peer review process of the manuscript. Failure to provide such original photographs will delay, or even preclude, publication of a manuscript in Biochemical Pharmacology.


Biochemical Pharmacology is committed to the publication of science from its designated fields of interest, irrespective of geographical and sponsor source. The peer review process routinely conducted by the Editorial Board and expert reviewers is dedicated to constructive, collegial feedback with the aim of improving the content and clarity of submissions. The Editorial Board and its reviewers will however not undertake to provide major revisions of the grammatical content of submitted manuscripts, irrespective of the scientific merit. Accordingly, authors are advised to ensure that their manuscripts are written in clear, understandable English before submitting these to the journal. American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these. Use decimal points (not decimal commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above).
Biochemical Pharmacology will rapidly reject those manuscripts that lack linguistic clarity and those in which there has been minimal attempt to follow the style guidelines.

Use of Word processing Software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. Reports must be written in English and include an abstract that does not exceed 250 words. Manuscript pages should be numbered sequentially and double-spaced with 1" or 25 mm margins. Size 12 (point) Times Roman or Arial font is preferred. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts, etc. Do not embed "graphically designed" equations or tables, but prepare these using the word processor's facility. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. See also the section on Electronic illustrations. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your wordprocessor.

Article structure

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and methods

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be replicated. Citations to previous publications describing the methods may be employed instead of detailed information. In these cases only modifications to these procedures need to be detailed in the section.


Results should be clear and concise, with little or no discussion of the rationale for each experiment. This should be left for the Discussion section. While representative Western blots can be included, they cannot be modified in any manner and must include a relevant standard house-keeping protein for comparison. They must also be accompanied by quantification appropriate for statistical analysis, indicating the number of experiments used for quantification. Western blots that represent a single experiment (or replicates within a single experiment) will be considered inadequate for peer review. Western blots that are obviously over-exposed or over-loaded will be rejected. The sources of the primary and secondary antibodies must be provided. If these are not from commercial sources but are made in-house or are a gift from a colleague, evidence for their specificity must be provided.

Non-quantitative PCR and RT-PCR must be replaced by quantitative real-time PCR experiments. A complete guideline for Minimal Information about Quantitative Real-time PCR Experiments (MIQE) is available online: A PDF version for all essential components of the checklist can be obtained by the link above. The MIQE guidelines are intended to help authors plan, perform and present qPCR experiments. They are also a guide for reviewers and editors to judge the quality of qPCR data. Microarray data must be MIAME compliant (see The MIAME guidelines are the minimum information needed to enable unambiguous interpretation of micro-array experiments and potentially to reproduce the experiment.


The narrative in this section should focus on explaining the interpretation of the results and the significance of the work. It should not simply be a repetition of the results section. Literature citations must be kept to a minimum, with emphasis on those articles that pertain most directly to research on this topic.

Essential Title Page Information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please indicate the family name clearly in those cases where it may not be obvious (e.g., a double name). Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address for each affiliation, including the country name and the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address"' (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract of 250 or fewer words is mandatory to comply with Internet criteria for searching. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical Abstract

Authors must supply a graphical abstract for all types of articles if invited to submit a revision. The abstract should summarize the contents of the paper in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership and for compilation of databases. Carefully drawn figures that serve to illustrate the theme of the paper are desired. Authors may also provide appropriate text, not exceeding 30 words. The content of the graphical abstract will be typeset and should be kept within an area of 5 cm tall by 17 cm wide (landscape shape). Authors are encouraged to limit graphical abstracts to 189 pixels tall by 642 pixels wide to ensure the image and text will be legible when displayed on-line. Authors must supply the graphic separately as an electronic file. For examples of graphical abstracts, please visit the Biochemical Pharmacology home page of


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Chemical compounds
You can enrich your article by providing a list of chemical compounds studied in the article. The list of compounds will be used to extract relevant information from the NCBI PubChem Compound database and display it next to the online version of the article on ScienceDirect. You can include up to 10 names of chemical compounds in the article. For each compound, please provide the PubChem CID of the most relevant record as in the following example: Glutamic acid (PubChem CID:611). Please position the list of compounds immediately below the 'Keywords' section. It is strongly recommended to follow the exact text formatting as in the example below:
Chemical compounds studied in this article
Ethylene glycol (PubChem CID: 174); Plitidepsin (PubChem CID: 44152164); Benzalkonium chloride (PubChem CID: 15865)
More information.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and abbreviations

The nomenclature used to identify receptors and ion channels should conform to guidelines of the Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification of the International Union of Pharmacology. These are accessible at Use only abbreviations that are generally accepted by the scientific community. Click HERE to view the full list of abbreviations that can be employed without definition. Drugs or other xenobiotics should be identified only by their chemical or generic names. The source, including company name and location, for all chemicals, reagents, cell lines, tissue, and experimental animals must be provided in the text.


DNA sequences and GenBank Accession numbers. Many Elsevier journals cite "gene accession numbers" in their running text and footnotes. Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine. Every accession number cited in an article should be typed in bold, underlined text. Letters in the accession number should always be capitalized. Example: a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)
Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully. An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link. Note that in the final version of the electronic copy, the accession number text will be linked to the appropriate source in the NCBI databases enabling readers to go directly to that source from the article.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Line drawings, including graphs, should be black on a white background. Lettering should be large enough to permit photographic reduction. For those not to be reduced, the format should not exceed 16x20 cm. Photographs (or halftone illustrations) must be of good quality with as much contrast as possible. The magnification of micrographs should be indicated by a scale bar in the figure. Illustrations should be numbered with Arabic numerals. The legends should be typed separately with double spacing.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


All tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and cited in the text. Titles should be brief but descriptive. Tables should be compiled on separate pages, together with a legend and/or footnotes. Tables should not have vertical lines, and horizontal lines must be kept to a minimum. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2010) 51–59.
Reference to a book:
[2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, fourth ed., Longman, New York, 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 281–304.
Reference to a website:
[4] Cancer Research UK, Cancer statistics reports for the UK., 2003 (accessed 13.03.03).

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in MPEG format with a maximum size of 10 MB. Contact the Editorial Office [] for instructions on how to submit your file(s). Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary files
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Generally, only audio or video files will be considered for this purpose and will be peer-reviewed. All other types of data must appear in the manuscript. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the audio or video file(s) in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the audio or video file(s) together with the article. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Database linking

Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). More information and a full list of supported databases.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our Support Center.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available) please visit this journal's homepage or contact the Editorial Office []. You can track accepted articles at and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an article's status has changed. Also accessible from here is information on copyright, frequently asked questions and more. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher.