Guide for Authors

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• Ethics in publishing
• Submission of Manuscripts
• Use of inclusive language
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Peer review
• Double-blind review
• Sections of the Manuscript
• Research data
• Offprints

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Submission of Manuscripts

1. Electronic submission
Articles submitted for review must be original works, and may not be submitted for review elsewhere whilst under review by Australasian Emergency Care.
All manuscripts, correspondence and editorial material for publication should be submitted online via the Elsevier Editorial System at Authors simply need to "create a new account" (register) by following the instructions at the website, and using their own e-mail address and selected password. Authors can then submit manuscripts containing text, tables, and images (figures) online. The entire peer-review process will then be managed electronically to ensure timely review and publication. Authors can expect an initial decision on their submission within 6 weeks.
Following Registration, Enter the "Author area" and follow the instructions for submitting "Entry data" and a complete manuscript, including abstract, tables, figures and the cover letter.
Do not include your name in the body of the manuscript to ensure blind review.
Under "Entry data," indicate the number of authors in the box and justify more than 7 authors. If you wish to publish colour figures and agree to pay the "colour charge" check the appropriate box. Colour illustrations incur a colour charge of USD 312 for the first page and USD 208 for every additional page containing colour. Figures can be published in colour at no extra charge for the Online version. If you wish to have figures in colour online and black and white figures printed, please submit both versions.

Every submission, regardless of category, must include:
a Cover letter, stating: the category of article, sources of outside support for research, including funding, equipment, and drugs, and disclosing any provenance and conflicts of interest.

Provenance and Conflicts of Interest: All authors are required to submit Provenance and Conflicts of Interest statements on manuscript submission. When the proposed publication concerns any commercial product, either directly or indirectly, the author must include in the cover letter a statement (1) indicating that he or she has no financial or other interest in the product or distributor of the product or (2) explaining the nature of any relation between himself or herself and the manufacturer or distributor of the product. Other kinds of associations, such as consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interests or patent-licensing arrangements, also must be disclosed. If, in the Editor's judgment, the information disclosed represents a potential conflict of interest, it may be made available to reviewers and may be published at the Editor's discretion; authors will be informed of the decision before publication.
Note that the online manuscript submission program requires separate entries of some information that also appears in the manuscript. These separate entries are needed to manage processing and reviewing your manuscript and correspondence.

Research Ethics

  • Manuscripts must state that the study protocol was approved by an appropriate ethics committee
  • For human-based research, all work must conform to the "National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans" by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, or the equivalent in other countries, or the Declaration of Helsinki. The ethical guidelines that were followed by the investigators must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. State clearly that the subject gave informed consent. Anonymity should be preserved.
  • For animal-based research, all work must contain a statement (if applicable) assuring that all animals received humane care in accordance with the "Statement on Animal Experimentation" by the National Health and and Medical Research Council of Australia, or its equivalent in other Countries (for example the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" published by the National Institutes of Health).
Authorship: All manuscripts must comply the authorship guidelines estasblished by the International Committee on Medical Journal Editors. Authorship is credited to all named individuals based on their (i) substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (iii) final approval of the version to be published in accordance with the International Committee on Medical Journal Editors. All papers with more than one author must include a statement contributorship that outlines the contribution of each author. For example:
MS and RS conceived and designed the study. RS and MS secured funding. KS, RS, MS and ED developed the study protocol. KS, RS, MS and ED designed and tested the study instruments. KS, RS, MS and ED supervised data collection. KS, RS, MS, and ED analysed the data.KS, RS, MS and ED prepared and approved the manuscript.

Support materials
In addition, the following must be submitted in Hard Copy direct to the Editorial Office if applicable:
Two sets of original illustrations with manuscript number, first author and figure number on back. (If originals are not electronic files).
Written permission from the publisher (copyright holder) to reproduce any previously published table(s), illustration(s) or photograph(s) in both print and electronic media.
Written permission from unmasked patients appearing in photographs.

Preparation of Manuscript
Microsoft Word is the preferred software program. Manuscripts in 11 point Arial or Times New Roman fonts are preferred and more reliably convert to PDF files during electronic submission.
Manuscripts should be double-spaced throughout (including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and legends) with 2.5 cm margins all around.
Arrange manuscript as follows: (1) title page, (2) abstract and keywords, (3) text, (4) acknowledgments, (5) disclosures if required, (6) references, (7) tables (each complete with title and footnotes) (8) Figures and (9) figure legends. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page as page 1 and ending with the legend page.

Manuscript Style and Word Limits by Category
Original articles maximum 4500 words including title page, abstract, text, figure legends and references.
Case reports and "how to do it" maximum 1500 words including title page, abstract, text, references and figure legends. A "how to do it" article should be a description of a useful Clinical technique and contain descriptive, illustrative material.
Review articles are limited to 6500 words including title page, abstract, text, figure legends and all references. The total number of references should not exceed 80. Subtract 100 words for each illustration and 300 words for each table.For information about the review article style please consult this publication publication
Correspondence (Letters to the Editor), commentaries and updates are limited to 500 words. Subtract 100 words for each illustration and 300 words for each table.
Editorials are limited to 2500 words including references. Subtract 100 words for each illustration and 300 words for each table.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.


Papers accepted for publication become the copyright of the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd., and authors will be asked to sign a transfer of copyright form, on receipt of the accepted manuscript by Elsevier. This enables the Publisher to administer Copyright on behalf of the Authors and the College, whilst allowing the continued use of the material by the Author for Scholarly communication.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

Sections of the Manuscript

Sections of the Manuscript
(Items in order from top to bottom)
• Title Page (first page) should contain:
A. Title. Short and informative
B. Running Head. Short title of 30 characters and spaces
C. Authors. List all authors by first name, all initials, family name and highest academic degree using "RN, PhD" for holders of both degrees
D. Institution and Affiliations. List the name and full address of all institutions where the work was done. List departmental affiliations of each author affiliated with that institution after each institutional address. Connect authors to departments using numbered superscripts.
E. Corresponding Author. Provide the name, exact postal address with zip or postal code, telephone number, fax number and e-mail address of the author to whom communications, proofs, and requests for reprints should be sent.

• Abstract & Keywords
Purpose, procedures, findings and principle conclusions must be covered in under 200 words. Avoid abbreviations and acronyms. For Original Research and Quality Articles, the Abstract should be divided into: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions.Provide up to 6 keywords, at least five of which should be selected from those recommended by the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list (

• Main Body Text
For Original Research and Quality Articles, text should be organized as follows: Introduction (purpose of study and brief review of background); Material (or Patients) and Methods (described in detail) Results (concisely reported in tables and figures, with brief text descriptions), and Discussion (clear and concise interpretation of results).Cite references, illustrations and tables in numeric order by order of mention in the text.Avoid abbreviations. Define abbreviations at first appearance in the text. Measurements and weights should be given in standard metric units.Footnotes. Type footnotes at the bottom of the manuscript page on which they are cited.

• Acknowledgments
Authors are encouraged to acknowledge persons other than co-authors who have made substantial contributions to the development of their study or manuscript. Permission from all persons named in the acknowledgements must be obtained prior to submission to the Journal and authors must inform the Editor in writing that such permission has been obtained. This statement can be included in the "comments" section when submitting a manuscript online. Any personal acknowledgements should also be submitted as a separate attached page with the manuscript.

• References
Consecutive numbers in superscript should be used to indicate references in the text, e.g., ... in nursing practice guidelines21,46.

The full reference should be cited in a numbered list essentially according to the Vancouver Uniform Requirements (5th ed., Ann Intern Med 1997;126(1):36-47).

Journal References should contain names of all authors in small letters (surnames first followed by initials), Title of communication in lower case lettering, Title of Journal [abbreviated according to International Serials Data System-List of Serial title Word Abbreviations, 1985 (ISDS-ISO International Centre, 20 rue Bachaumont, 75002 Paris, France)], year of publication; volume number (issue number in brackets): first and last page number. For communications which have been accepted for publication, but not yet printed, the reference must contain the journal name and year.
Book References should contain Author Name(s) in the same format as above: Title. Publisher's location: Name; Year of publication. page range.
References to multi-author books with editor(s) should contain Author Name(s) in the same format as above: Title of contribution. In: Name(s) of editor(s). Title of book. Publisher's location: Name; Year of publication. If necessary page range (see Ref. 4)Material referred to by the phrase "personal communication" or "submitted for publication" are not considered full references and should only be placed in parentheses at the appropriate place in the text, e.g., (Hessel 1997 personal communication).

Examples of references are shown below.
1. Baker D, Stevens C, and Brook R. Patients who leave a public hospital emergency department without being seen by a physician JAMA 1991;266: 1085-1099
2. Copley AL. The endoendothelial fibrin lining. Thromb Res 1983;(SV):1-154.
3. Bhimani M, Li G, Chanmugam A, Scheulen J, Liang H, Tang N, and Kelen G. The impact of physician rapid assessment program at triage on ED overcrowding. Academic Emergency Medicine; 2001. p. 578
4. Angulo P, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In: Clouston AD, and Powell EE. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: is all the fat bad. Intern Med J; 2004
[dataset] 5. Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.

Internet address
3. Health Care Financing Administration. 1996 statistics at a glance. Available at: Accessed December 2, 1996.

• Tables
Tables should be double-spaced on separate sheets (one to each page). Do not use vertical lines. Each table should be numbered (Arabic) and have a title above. Legends and explanatory notes should be placed below the table. Abbreviations used in the table follow the legend in alphabetic order. Lower case letter superscripts beginning with "a" and following in alphabetic order are used for notations of within-group and between-group statistical probabilities. Tables should be self-explanatory, and the data should not be duplicated in the text or illustrations. Tables must be submitted as part of the text file and not as illustrations.

• Figure Legends
Figure legends should be numbered (Arabic) and double- spaced in order of appearance beginning on a separate sheet. Identify (in alphabetic order) all abbreviations appearing in the illustrations at the end of each legend. Give the type of stain and magnification power for all photomicrographs. All abbreviations used on a figure and in its legend should be defined in the legend. Cite the source of previously published (print or electronic) material in the legend.

• Illustrations
Images or figures are submitted online as one or more separate files that may contain one or more images. Within each file containing images, use the figure number (eg, Figure 1A) as the image filename. The system accepts image files formatted in TIFF and EPS. Powerpoint (.ppt) files are also accepted, but you must use a separate Powerpoint image file for each Powerpoint figure.
Symbols, letters, numbers and contrasting fills must be distinct, easily distinguished and clearly legible when the illustration is reduced in size.

Black, white and widely crosshatched bars are preferable; do not use stippling, gray fill or thin lines.
Written permission from unmasked patients appearing in photographs must be obtained by the authors and must be surface mailed or faxed to the editorial office once the manuscript is submitted online.

Regulatory Requirements
• Research Protocol
Authors must state that the protocol has been approved by the appropriate Ethics Committee (state which)
• Human Investigation
All work should conform to the "National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans" by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, or the equivalent in other countries, or the Declaration of Helsinki. The ethical guidelines that were followed by the investigators must be included in the Methods section of the manuscript. State clearly that the subject gave informed consent. Anonymity should be preserved.
• Humane Animal Care
The Methods section must contain a statement (if applicable) assuring that all animals received humane care in accordance with the "Statement on Animal Experimentation" by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, or its equivalent in other Countries (for example the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" published by the National Institutes of Health).

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it.

Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files.

For papers reporting the development of scales, measures, questionnaires or other instruments we will only publish if authors are willing and able to provide a copy of the scale in the original language and (where relevant) in English. Authors may retain copyright and if they wish to do so should include a copyright line. They can also give details on permissions and restrictions for use and / or add a creative commons license (see

Where authors do not own the copyright, they are responsible for gaining permission from the copyright holder and giving full acknowledgement. This includes permission to translate scales where a third party holds the copyright.

If accepted for publication, then any additional material to be made available online should include a reference to the Australasian Emergency Care paper and we ask that you add a preliminary reference to your article with "to be published in Australasian Emergency Care " at the point of submission, updating later if needed.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.