Guide for Authors

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The Asian Nursing Research (ANR) is the official journal of the Korean Society of Nursing Science. ANR is an international, peer reviewed, open access (free submission and free access), scientific journal that seeks to promote the development and dissemination of knowledge that is directly relevant to all spheres of nursing practice, policy and professional issues. Asian Nursing aims to support evidence, informed policy and practice by publishing research, systematic and other scholarly reviews, critical discussion, and commentary of the highest standard. Invited papers that contribute to nursing knowledge and debate are published at the discretion of the Editor. The ISO abbreviated title of the journal is Asian Nurs Res. It is published by Elsevier beginning in June 2007, and indexed/abstracted in CINAHL, Embase, Science Direct, SCOPUS, Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences (SBS), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition and Social Sciences Edition for five times (28th February, 31st May, 31st August, 31st October, 31st December) in a year. It has been indexed in Medline since 2014.


Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revisions, will be processed via the system or e-mail. EM provides a fully online workflow for getting your manuscript published. It is understood that submitted manuscripts are prepared specifically and solely for ANR. Accepted manuscripts become the property of the Korean Society of Nursing Science and may be reproduced in other publications in whole or in part only with the permission of the Korean Society of Nursing Science. The Korean Society of Nursing Science has exclusive rights to the article and to its reproduction and sale in all countries.
The Korean Society of Nursing Science reserves the right to edit all manuscripts to its style and space requirements and to clarify the presentation. Declined manuscripts will not be returned.

Types of paper

ANR publishes high quality papers to report research findings, research-based reviews and commentaries which are of interest to an international readership of practitioners, educators, administrators and researchers in all areas of nursing. In addition ANR publishes editorials and letters.

Editorials: These include comments by organizations or individuals on topics of current interest by invitation only.

Research Articles: These include full papers reporting original research. These are reports of empirical findings from the highest quality basic and clinical research studies within the scope of focus of ANR. Findings from studies utilizing diverse approaches are relevant,including: qualitative methods; measurement including development and evaluation of instrumentation; observational, quasi-experimental, and experimentalstudies; e-science, information-based studies; and mixed method designs. Research papers should adhere to recognized standards for reporting guidelines. Analysis by gender is recommended.

Review Articles: These include critical presentations of topics of interest to those relevant to nursing theory, practice, and education. The unsolicited reviews will be considered for publication if topical, of high quality and subject to peer review. The body of a review article should be a comprehensive, scholarly evidence-based review of the literature, accompanied by critical analysis and leading to reasonable conclusions. Wherever appropriate, details of the literature search methodology should be provided, i.e. the databases searched, the search terms and inclusive dates, and any selectivity criteria imposed. Wherever possible, use primary resources, avoiding "Data on File", "Poster" or other unpublished references.

Letters to the Editor: These include responses to previous articles and editorials.

Commentaries: All commentary topics must be checked with the editor prior to submission. These include knowledge-based or consensus-type articles (e.g,working group statement) expressing objective opinions, experiences or perspectives on an important area related to nursing.

Announcements: These include announcements to pertinent forthcoming meetings or events.


Files uploaded to the online submission system are ultimately used in final production through a completely paperless system. Authors should submit to the journal online via the journal's home page or at You will be guided through the creation and uploading of the various files, including the Manuscript Checklist and the form of Open Access Publication Policy. Once the uploading is completed, the system automatically builds an electronic proof in the PDF format, which is then reviewed after your submission. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revisions, will be made by e-mail. Submitted papers should be relevant to international audience and Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data. Manuscripts must be prepared according to the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers ( If there are any discrepancies between these author instructions and the NLM Manual, the ANR guidelines shall prevail. All authors will be required to complete the Manuscript Checklist during the submission process to assist them in ensuring that the basic requirements of manuscript submission are met, including details of the roles of funding sources and any conflicts of interest. The Manuscript Checklist is designed to be a self-assessment checklist to assist authors in preparing their manuscript. A completed form must be submitted to show that you have included all the necessary parts in your submission.

Manuscript Preparation Manuscripts should be typewritten, double-spaced, using a standard sized typeface and margins of at least 1 inch. Place three returns after every element, such as title, headings, paragraphs, and figure and table callouts. Manuscripts are accepted for publication with the understanding that their contents, or their essential substance, have not been published elsewhere, except in abstract form or by the express consent of the Editors. Materials taken from other sources must be accompanied by written permissions for reproduction, obtained from the original copyright holder. Statistical methods should be identified. Priority claims are discouraged. Authors must link ORCID to the submissions. (To register, visit

Research Reporting guidelines

ANR requires that manuscripts adhere to recognized reporting guidelines relevant to the research design used and requires author(s) to submit a checklist verifying that essential elements have been reported for all primary researches and systematic reviews.

Reporting guidelines endorsed by the journal are listed below:

  • Observational cohort, case control and cross sectional studies

  • Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology
    Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology(MOOSE)

  • Qualitative studies

  • Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research(COREQ)
    Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR)

  • Quasi-experimental/ non-randomized trials

  • Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomized Designs(TREND)

  • Randomized (and quasi randomized) controlled trials

  • Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials(CONSORT)

  • Study of Diagnostic accuracy/assessment scale

  • Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies(STARD)

  • Systematic Review and meta-analysis

  • Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
    Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology(MOOSE)

  • Quality improvement studies

  • Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence(SQUIRE)

    Ethics in publishing

    Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

    Research Ethics

    All studies must be conducted to a high ethical standard and must adhere to local regulations and standards in order to be assessed and approved.

    All work on humans submitted to this journal must have been carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association?s Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects (Declaration of Helsinki). Manuscripts will only be considered if they comply with internationally recognized standards of ethical research. Authors must submit a written approval that includes the approval number and research title from the Institutional Review Board when requested by the editorial board.

    The authors must be able to state that:

    Their research involving humans or animals was approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) and conducted in accordance with accepted national and international standards. Informed consent was obtained from human subjects or their guardians prior to their participation in the study, when applicable. The privacy of study subjects was maintained or informed consent was obtained if they were in any way identifiable. Any potential conflicts of interest have been disclosed.

    Submission Declaration
    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright holder.

    Authors should get permission to use measurements for their studies from the copyright owners. Permission to reproduce previously published material must be obtained in writing from the copyright holder (usually the publisher) and acknowledged in the manuscript.

    Trial or other study registration
    We encourage the prospective registration of studies.

    Where a study has been registered please give the number in your title page and include the registration number within the body of the paper as appropriate.

    ANR accepts registration in any of the primary registries that participate in the WHO International Clinical Trials Portal (;;;;;

    Scientific Misconduct and Redundant Publication

    Scientific misconduct includes but is not necessarily limited to data fabrication; data falsification including deceptive manipulation of images; and plagiarism. Redundant publication is defined as “reporting (publishing or attempting to publish) substantially the same work more than once, without attribution of the original source(s)”. Characteristics of reports that are substantially similar include the following: (1) at least one of the authors must be common to all reports (if there are no common authors, it is more likely plagiarism than redundant publication), (2) the subjects or study populations are the same or overlapped, (3) the methodology is typically identical or nearly so, and (4) the results and their interpretation generally vary little, if at all.

    ANR will follow the guidelines by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, for settlement of any misconduct. If an author violates ethical guidelines, the detailed matters related to this issue will be determined by the editorial committee and the editorial committee will be able to refer to the ethics committee of the Korean Society of Nursing Science for determination of penalty.

    Use of inclusive language

    Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

    All individuals named as author qualify for authorship. All people listed as is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work. The Corresponding Author must submit a completed Author Consent Form to the ANR editorial office ( after acceptance. All authors must sign the Author Consent Form.

    According to the International Committee on Medical Journal Editor (ICMJE), an author is defined as one who has made substantial contributions to the conception and development of a manuscript. Adhere to the ICMJE guidelines ( which state that “authorship credit should be based on all of the following: (1) substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition analysis or interpretation of data for the work; AND (2) drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND (3) final approval of the version to be published; AND (4) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved”. All other contributors should be listed as acknowledgments.

    Changes to authorship

    Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (1) the reason for the change in author list and (2) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgments section. General acknowledgements for consultations, statistical analysis and so forth, should be listed concisely at the end of the text, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. All financial and material support for the research and work from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified.

    Elsevier supports responsible sharing
    Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Conflict of Interest

    Authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. If there is no conflict of interest, this should also be explicitly stated as none declared.


    Authors are required to sign the copyright transfer agreement to the society. All accepted manuscripts, artwork, and photographs become the permanent property of the society. The copyright agreement form will be sent to corresponding authors of accepted manuscripts with proofs. This should be signed and returned to the society. Authors must obtain permission to reproduce or adapt all or part of copyrighted materials from other journal or book sources.

    Open access

    Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication. To provide open access, this journal has an open access fee (also known as an article publishing charge APC) which needs to be paid by the authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution.
    A CC user license manages the reuse of the article (see All articles will be published under the following license:

    Open access

    Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivs(CC BY-NC-ND):for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Open Access Publication Fee
    A fee of USD 1,000 (excluding taxes) is payable by the author or research funder to cover the costs associated with publication. It applies to the submissions from July 1, 2016. Please submit a signed Open Access Policy Agreement with your manuscript.


    Peer review

    This journal operates a double anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.

    Double anonymized review

    This journal uses double anonymized review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
    Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
    Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

    General Style and Format

    Papers must adhere to the style and format described in the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (

    Manuscripts must be electronic files. You will need to prepare the following files for submission:

    Cover letter
    To the editor in which you detail authorship contributions and other matters you wish the editors to consider. Submission declaration should be included in cover letter.

    Title Page

    On the title page include: (1) title of the article; (2) all author names and ORCIDs (with highest academic degrees and affiliations including titles, department, and name and location of institutions to which the work should be attributed); (3) corresponding author’s name and complete address including email, phone, FAX numbers and ORCID (4) any acknowledgments, credits, or disclaimers, including funding sources and conflicts of interest. Acknowledgments of aid or criticism (e.g., source of research fund or grant; any conflicts of interest) should be approved by the person whose help is being recognized. Authors are required to sign a statement conferring the copyright to the manuscript to ANR.

    Abstract and Keywords

    An abstract of up to 250 words for articles (including reviews) should be typed double-spaced on a separate page. It should cover the main factual points, including statements of the purpose, methods, results, and conclusions. The abstract should be accompanied by a list of three to five keywords for indexing purposes; be very specific in your word choice. Use MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) keywords ( mesh/meshhome.html).

    Headings and subheadings should be provided in the methods and results sections, and, where appropriate, in the discussion section. Please keep the text clear and concise. Because the readership of ANR spans many disciplines, jargon should be avoided as it may not be familiar to some readers. Organize the manuscript in the following order: title page, acknowledgments, abstract, text, references, tables, figure legends and figures. Do not use appendices. The text of articles is usually divided into sections with the headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion(s). Articles may need subheadings within some sections to clarify their content.

    Introduction: Clearly state the need for this study and the main question or hypothesis of the study. Summarize the literature review or background in the area of the study.
    Methods: Describe the study design, setting and samples, ethical considerations, measurements/instruments, data collection/procedure and data analysis used. If it is qualitative research instrument can be omitted. Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identify, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, justify why, except in obvious cases, (e.g., prostate cancer). Define how you determined race or ethnicity and justify the relevance.
    Results: Describe the main results in a concise paragraph. This section should be the most descriptive. Note levels of statistical significance and confidence intervals where appropriate.
    Discussion: Discussion should be based only on the reported results. Discussion for advances in nursing practice, nursing knowledge development, and nursing implication is strongly recommended.
    : State the conclusions and recommendations for further study. Do not summarize the study results.


    Tables/Figures should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Tables/Figures should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. Each table and figure should be placed on a separate page and in English. There should be no more than five tables and figures in total.

    The title of the table shall be placed on top of the table and the first letters of important words shall be capitalized. The title of the figure shall be placed below the figure with the first letter capitalized.

    Always, define abbreviations in a legend at the bottom of a table/figure as a note, even if they have already been defined in the text. List abbreviations in alphabetical order; do not include the word "and" before the last abbreviation.

    For footnotes to appear in the legend, use roman superscript alphabets. Asterisks (*, **) should be reserved for p-values. All units of measurements and concentrations should be abbreviated using Systeme International (SI) units.

    When reporting decimal numbers, the significance level shall be shown up to three decimal places; means, standard deviations, and a test statistic, to two decimal places; and percentages, to one decimal place (e.g, p=.002, 23.98±3.47, 45.7%). Only if the value can be more than 1, 0 shall be placed in front of the decimal point (e.g, t=0.26, F=0.92, r=.14, R2=.61).

    When reporting p-values, which refer to significance probability, footnotes shall not be used but the actual p-values shall be provided. If a p-value is .000 and 1.000, it shall be indicated as p < .001 and p < .999, respectively. If p-values have to be reported using footnotes, *, ** shall be used (e.g. *p < .05, **p < .01).

    Do not indicate placement of tables or figures in the text—the editor will automatically place your tables and figures.

    Data references
    This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

    Reference style
    References follow the NLM style. Reference should be numbered serially in the order of appearance in the text, with numbers in brackets [ ]. When multiple references are cited together, use a hyphen to indicate a series of inclusive numbers. Use commas to indicate a series of non-inclusive numbers. A citation with these references [4,5,6,14] is abbreviated to [4-6,14]. If a reference is cited more than once, use the original reference number. References should be listed on a separate sheet at the end of the paper in the order of citation. If the reference is written in a language other than English, specify the language at the end. Journal names should be abbreviated according to the journal list of United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) available from: journals and the List of Korea Med Journals available from:

    Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. Software packages make citing literature particularly easy.

    If a DOI has been assigned to the article that authors are using, authors should include this after the page numbers for the article, preceded by – see for more information.

    References should be listed according to the examples below. For citations from other sources, refer to "The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers". 2nd Edition, 2007. (

    Reference Examples


    Journal Articles: For six or fewer authors, list all authors
    Kim SW. Outcomes of Home Monitoring after Palliative Cardiac Surgery. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2014;44(2):228–36. Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005;85(2):679–715.

    Journal Articles:For more than six authors, list the first six followed by et al.
    Huang D, Dai L, Zeng T, Huang H, Wu M, Yuan M, et al. Exploring contributing factors to psychological traumatic childbirth from the perspective of midwives: a qualitative study. Asian Nurs Res. 2019;13(4):270–6.

    Forthcoming Journal Articles
    Savinainen KJ, Helenius MA, Lehtonen HJ, Visakorpi T. Overexpression of EIF3S3 promotes cancer cell growth. Prostate. Forthcoming 2017.

    Journals on the Internet
    Happell B. The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from:


    Reference to an Entire Book
    Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food chemistry. 3rd rev. ed. Burghagen MM, translator. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 1070.

    Chapter in an Edited Book
    Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p. 1103–33.

    Entire Books on the Internet
    Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2016 Nov 1]. Available from:

    Scientific and Technical Reports
    Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. Report No.: HETA2000-0139-2824. Barker B, Degenhardt L. Accidental drug-induced deaths in Australia 1997-2001. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre; 2003.


    Complementary. Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; 2007 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from:

    AMA. helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from:

    Système International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass and volume.

    Names of drugs, devices, and other products
    Generic names should be used. When proprietary brands are used in research, include the name of brand and the manufacturer, city (state), and nationality in parentheses after the first mention of the generic name in the Methods section.

    Research data

    This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

    Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

    Data linking
    If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

    There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

    For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

    In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

    Mendeley Data
    This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

    For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

    Data statement
    To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.


    Review Process
    Initially all papers are assessed by an associate editor and editor-in-chief. The prime purpose is to decide whether to send a paper for peer review and to give a rapid decision on those that are not. Authors can expect a decision from this stage of the review process within 2-3 weeks of submission.

    Manuscripts are reviewed by members of an international expert panel. All such papers will undergo a double-blind peer review by three reviewers and the Editor. The Editorial Board reserves the right to refuse any material for publication. The Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to the final decision regarding acceptance. Authors will receive of the reviewer’s comments. If the manuscript is subjected to publish, the author will be asked to respond the reviewer’s comment within 30 days.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal):
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


    The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services.

    Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
    You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.


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