The journal of Artificial Intelligence (AIJ) welcomes papers on broad aspects of AI that constitute advances in the overall field including, but not limited to, cognition and AI, automated reasoning and inference, case-based reasoning, commonsense reasoning, computer vision, constraint processing, ethical AI, heuristic search, human interfaces, intelligent robotics, knowledge representation, machine learning, multi-agent systems, natural language processing, planning and action, and reasoning under uncertainty. The journal reports results achieved in addition to proposals for new ways of looking at AI problems, both of which must include demonstrations of value and effectiveness.
Papers describing applications of AI are also welcome, but the focus should be on how new and novel AI methods advance performance in application areas, rather than a presentation of yet another application of conventional AI methods. Papers on applications should describe a principled solution, emphasize its novelty, and present an indepth evaluation of the AI techniques being exploited.
Apart from regular papers, the journal also accepts Research Notes, Research Field Reviews, Position Papers, and Book Reviews (see details below). The journal will also consider summary papers that describe challenges and competitions from various areas of AI. Such papers should motivate and describe the competition design as well as report and interpret competition results, with an emphasis on insights that are of value beyond the competition (series) itself.
From time to time, there are special issues devoted to a particular topic. Such special issues must always have open calls-for-papers. Guidance on the submission of proposals for special issues, as well as other material for authors and reviewers can be found at http://aij.ijcai.org/special-issues.Types of Papers
Regular PapersAIJ welcomes basic and applied papers describing mature, complete, and novel research that articulate methods for, and provide insight into artificial intelligence and the production of artificial intelligent systems. The question of whether a paper is mature, complete and novel is ultimately determined by reviewers and editors on a case-bycase basis. Generally, a paper should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance of the research to Artificial Intelligence, clarify what is new and different, anticipate the scientific impact of the work, include all relevant proofs and/or experimental data, and provide a thorough discussion of connections with the existing literature. A prerequisite for the novelty of a paper is that the results it describes have not been previously published by other authors and have not been previously published by the same authors in any archival journal. In particular, a previous conference publication by the same authors does not disqualify a submission on the grounds of novelty. However, it is rarely the case that conference papers satisfy the completeness criterion without further elaboration. Indeed, even prize-winning papers from major conferences often undergo major revision following referee comments, before being accepted to AIJ.
AIJ caters to a broad readership. Papers that are heavily mathematical in content are welcome but should include a less technical high-level motivation and introduction that is accessible to a wide audience and explanatory commentary throughout the paper. Papers that are only purely mathematical in nature, without demonstrated applicability to artificial intelligence problems may be returned. A discussion of the work's implications on the production of artificial intelligent systems is normally expected.There is no restriction on the length of submitted manuscripts. However, authors should note that publication of lengthy papers, typically greater than forty pages, is often significantly delayed, as the length of the paper acts as a disincentive to the reviewer to undertake the review process. Unedited theses are acceptable only in exceptional circumstances. Editing a thesis into a journal article is the author's responsibility, not the reviewers'.
Research NotesThe Research Notes section of the Journal of Artificial Intelligence will provide a forum for short communications that cannot fit within the other paper categories. The maximum length should not exceed 4500 words (typically a paper with 5 to 14 pages). Some examples of suitable Research Notes include, but are not limited to the following: crisp and highly focused technical research aimed at other specialists; a detailed exposition of a relevant theorem or an experimental result; an erratum note that addresses and revises earlier results appearing in the journal; an extension or addendum to an earlier published paper that presents additional experimental or theoretical results.
ReviewsThe AIJ invests significant effort in assessing and publishing scholarly papers that provide broad and principled reviews of important existing and emerging research areas, reviews of topical and timely books related to AI, and substantial, but perhaps controversial position papers (so-called "Turing Tape" papers) that articulate scientific or social issues of interest in the AI research community.
Research Field Reviews: AIJ expects broad coverage of an established or emerging research area, and the articulation of a comprehensive framework that demonstrates the role of existing results, and synthesizes a position on the potential value and possible new research directions. A list of papers in an area, coupled with a summary of their contributions is not sufficient. Overall, a field review article must provide a scholarly overview that facilitates deeper understanding of a research area. The selection of work covered in a field article should be based on clearly stated, rational criteria that are acceptable to the respective research community within AI; it must be free from personal or idiosyncratic bias.Research Field Reviews are by invitation only, where authors can then submit a 2-page proposal of a Research Field Review for confirmation by the special editors. The 2-page proposal should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance of the research to artificial intelligence, clarify what is new and different from other surveys available in the literature, anticipate the scientific impact of the proposed work, and provide evidence that authors are authoritative researchers in the area of the proposed Research Field Review. Upon confirmation of the 2-page proposal, the full Invited Research Field Reviews can then be submitted and then undergoes the same review process as regular papers.
Book Reviews: We seek reviewers for books received, and suggestions for books to be reviewed. In the case of the former, the review editors solicit reviews from researchers assessed to be expert in the field of the book. In the case of the latter, the review editors can either assess the relevance of a particular suggestion, or even arrange for the refereeing of a submitted draft review.Position Papers: The last review category, named in honour of Alan Turing as a "Turing Tapes" section of AIJ, seeks clearly written and scholarly papers on potentially controversial topics, whose authors present professional and mature positions on all variety of methodological, scientific, and social aspects of AI. Turing Tape papers typically provide more personal perspectives on important issues, with the intent to catalyze scholarly discussion.
Turing Tape papers are by invitation only, where authors can then submit a 2-page proposal of a Turing Tape paper for confirmation by the special editors. The 2-page proposal should include a convincing motivational discussion, articulate the relevance to artificial intelligence, clarify the originality of the position, and provide evidence that authors are authoritative researchers in the area on which they are expressing the position. Upon confirmation of the 2-page proposal, the full Turing Tape paper can then be submitted and then undergoes the same review process as regular papers.Competition Papers
Competitions between AI systems are now well established (e.g. in speech and language, planning, auctions, games, to name a few). The scientific contributions associated with the systems entered in these competitions are routinely submitted as research papers to conferences and journals. However, it has been more difficult to find suitable venues for papers summarizing the objectives, results, and major innovations of a competition. For this purpose, AIJ has established the category of competition summary papers.Competition Paper submissions should describe the competition, its criteria, why it is interesting to the AI research community, the results (including how they compare to previous rounds, if appropriate), in addition to giving a summary of the main technical contributions to the field manifested in systems participating in the competition. Papers may be supplemented by online appendices giving details of participants, problem statements, test scores, and even competition-related software. Although Competition Papers serve as an archival record of a competition, it is critical that they make clear why the competition's problems are relevant to continued progress in the area, what progress has been made since the previous competition, if applicable, and what were the most significant technical advances reflected in the competition results. The exposition should be accessible to a broad AI audience.
The journal Artificial Intelligence (AIJ) welcomes basic and applied papers describing mature work involving computational accounts of aspects of intelligence that is both complete and novel. The question of whether a paper is complete is ultimately determined by reviewers and editors on a case-by-case basis. Generally, a paper should include all relevant proofs and/or experimental data, a thorough discussion of connections with the existing literature, and a convincing discussion of the motivations and implications of the presented work. A paper is novel if the results it describes were not previously published by other authors, and were not previously published by the same authors in any archival journal. In particular, a previous conference publication by the same authors does not disqualify a submission on the grounds of novelty. However, it is rarely the case that conference papers satisfy the completeness criterion without the addition of new material. Indeed, even prize winning papers from major conferences often undergo major revision following referee comments before being accepted to AIJ.
AIJ welcomes papers on: AI and Philosophy, automated reasoning and inference, case-based reasoning, cognitive aspects of AI, commonsense reasoning, constraint processing, heuristic search, high-level computer vision, intelligent interfaces, intelligent robotics, knowledge representation, machine learning, multiagent systems, natural language processing, planning and theories of action, reasoning under uncertainty or imprecision.
The journal reports results achieved; proposals for new ways of looking at AI problems must include demonstrations of effectiveness. Papers describing systems or architectures integrating multiple technologies are welcomed. AIJ also invites papers on applications, which should describe a principled solution, emphasize its novelty, and present an in-depth evaluation of the AI techniques being exploited. The journal publishes an annual issue devoted to survey articles and also hosts a "competition section" devoted to reporting results from AI competitions. From time to time, there are special issues devoted to a particular topic; such special issues will always feature open calls-for-papers. Guidance on the submission of proposals for special issues, as well as other material for authors and reviewers can be found at http://www.aijd.org.Artificial Intelligence caters to a broad readership. Papers that are heavily mathematical in content are welcome but should be preceded by a less technical introductory section that is accessible to a wide audience. Papers that are only mathematics, without demonstrated applicability to Artificial Intelligence problems may be returned: a discussion of the work's implications on the production of artificially intelligent systems is normally expected.
Types of Paper
There is no restriction on the length of submitted manuscripts. However, authors should note that publication of lengthy papers, typically greater than forty pages, is often significantly delayed, as the length of the paper acts as a disincentive to the reviewer to undertake the review process. Unedited theses are acceptable only in exceptional circumstances. Editing a thesis into a journal article is the author's responsibility, not the reviewer's.
The Research Notes section of the journal Artificial Intelligence will provide a forum for short communications with a quick turnaround for publication. The maximum length should not exceed 4500 words (typically a paper with 5 to 14 pages). The intention is that a note, if accepted, will have a guaranteed publication within one year of submission, aiming for 6-9 months. Some examples of suitable Research Notes include, but are not limited to the following:
crisp technical research aimed at
other specialists, e.g. a theorem or an experimental result; short position papers on AI methodologies or technologies;
a critique of a position or claim made in the literature;
an extension or addendum to an earlier published paper that presents additional experimental or theoretical results.
Communications, however, that merely report about ongoing or completed work rather than present technical content will not be considered for publication.
The following types of contributions are currently published:
2. refereed research field reviews;
3. refereed position papers (in the "Turing Tapes" section)
AI Journal Competition Section
Competition Section Papers will describe the competition, its criteria, why it is interesting to the AI research community, the results (including how they compare to previous rounds, if appropriate), and give a summary of the main technical contributions to the field manifested in systems participating in the competition. Papers may be supplemented by online appendices giving details of participants, problem statements, test scores, and even competition-related software. Acceptance criteria: although Competition Section Papers serve as an archival record of a competition, it is critical that they make clear why the competition's problems are relevant to continued progress in the area, what progress has been made since the previous competition, if applicable, and what were the most significant technical advances reflected in the competition results. The exposition should be accessible to a broad AI audience.
Contact Details for Submission
Full-length manuscripts and Research Notes must be submitted online using the "Submit online to this journal" facility at the following website: https://www.editorialmanager.com/artint/default.aspx. Enquiries about papers submitted there should be made via the Editorial Manager email function (preferably) or to email@example.com. Enquiries about possible reviews should be sent to the Review Editors: Randy Goebel at firstname.lastname@example.org or Giuseppe De Giacomo at email@example.com. Queries related the Competition Section should be directed to the Competition Editor at firstname.lastname@example.org.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
Declaration of competing interest
All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should complete the declaration of competing interest statement using this template and upload to the submission system at the Attach/Upload Files step. Note: Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required. If there are no interests to declare, please choose the first option in the template. This statement will be published within the article if accepted. More information.
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.
Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.
The editors of the journal Artificial Intelligence notify reviewers in advance that by accepting a manuscript for review they also accept an obligation to maintain confidentiality of the manuscript's contents; this obligation ends only when the manuscript becomes lawfully available to them through another channel without an obligation of confidentiality.
It is the Journal's policy that, except in extenuating circumstances, only one revision of a submitted manuscript will be considered for publication in the Journal.
Use of wordprocessing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: https://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). All figures and tables should be embedded in the text to facilitate reviewing. Please also supply the source files of figures, tables and text graphics. See also the section on Electronic illustrations.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your wordprocessor.
You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class elsarticle.cls to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX to generate your bibliography.
Our LaTeX site has detailed submission instructions, templates and other information.
Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Material and methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced by an independent researcher. Methods that are already published should be summarized, and indicated by a reference. If quoting directly from a previously published method, use quotation marks and also cite the source. Any modifications to existing methods should also be described.
A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.
Results should be clear and concise.
This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.
The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.
Essential title page information
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 10 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).
Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Submit colour illustrations as original photographs, high-quality computer prints or transparencies, close to the size expected in publication, or as 35 mm slides. Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. Polaroid colour prints are not suitable. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in th eprinted version. Color illustrations will be printed in color if, in the opinion of the Editors, the color is essential. If this is not the case, you will receive information regarding the costs for colour reproduction in pribnt from Elsevier, after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see https://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting colour figures to "grey scale" (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.
Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is highly encouraged.
A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000884. Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.
References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
All references are to be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order under the first author's name and numbered consecutively by arabic numbers. Chronological order is used if there is more than one publication by the same author or team of authors.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication" Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
The information provided under References must include:
Example: W. Stallings, Local networks, ACM Comput. Surveys 16 (1) (1984) 3-41.
[dataset]  M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
• Monographs: Names and initials of all authors, title of the monograph, publisher, publisher's residence, year of publication.
Example: A.S. Troelstra, D. van Dalen, Constructivism in Mathematics, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988.
Example: K. Eda, T. Kiyosawa, H.Ohta, N-compactness and its applications, in: K. Morita, J. Nagata, (Eds.), Topics in General Topology, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1989, pp. 65-78.
• Conference proceedings papers: Names and initials of all authors, title of paper, name of the conference, conference site and country (publisher, publisher's residence), year of publication, and first and last page numbers of the paper.
Example: E. Katona, Assembly-level programming of cellular processors, in: Proceedings 3rd Workshop on Parallel Processing by Cellular Automata and Arrays, Berlin, Germany, 1986, pp. 94-100.
Example: J. Goldstine, Abstract families of languages generated by bounded languages, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1970.
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into a data article published in Data in Brief. A data article is a new kind of article that ensures that your data are actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and made publicly available to all upon publication (watch this video describing the benefits of publishing your data in Data in Brief). You are encouraged to submit your data article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed, published open access and linked to your research article on ScienceDirect. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief data article.
You have the option of converting relevant protocols and methods into one or multiple MethodsX articles, a new kind of article that describes the details of customized research methods. Many researchers spend a significant amount of time on developing methods to fit their specific needs or setting, but often without getting credit for this part of their work. MethodsX, an open access journal, now publishes this information in order to make it searchable, peer reviewed, citable and reproducible. Authors are encouraged to submit their MethodsX article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your methods article will automatically be transferred over to MethodsX where it will be editorially reviewed. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in MethodsX. Full details can be found on the MethodsX website. Please use this template to prepare your MethodsX article.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.
Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.