Guide for Authors

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• Authors policies
• Authors manuscript preparation
• Appendix 1. Abbreviations
• Appendix 2. Selected units and terms
• Types of articles
• Contact details
• Editorial policies and procedures
• Ethics in publishing
• Care and use of animals
• Submission declaration
• Use of inclusive language
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• General style and form
• Title page
• Absract
• Article structure
• Headings
• Introduction
• Materials and Methods
• Results and Discussion
• Applications
• Acknowledgements
• Liturature Cited
• Tables
• Figures
• Appendices
• Supplementary Material
• Miscellaneous Usage Notes
• Measures and Mathematics
• Submission checklist
• Offprints

Authors policies

Authors: Policies

Authors manuscript preparation

Authors: Manuscript Preparation

Appendix 1. Abbreviations

Appendix 1: Abbreviations

Appendix 2. Selected units and terms

Appendix 2: Selected Units and Terms

The journal Applied Animal Science (AAS) is the official publication of the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS). Authors need not be members of ARPAS. The peer-reviewed scientific journal publishes manuscripts on scientific discoveries and applications for the animal sciences and production systems. The primary focus is on innovations and technologies that have fairly immediate (or emerging) application in domestic animal agriculture. More fundamental (basic) articles are also welcome if the application to the animal sciences is readily obvious and can be communicated to readers. Types of articles published include original research, reviews, invited reviews, short communications, technical notes, and articles from symposia and conferences.

The journal invites organizers of symposia and conferences to contact the editor-in-chief about submitting manuscripts resulting from presentations for publication in AAS. These manuscripts undergo the standard peer review. The meeting organizer or a designee may serve as guest editor working with the editor-in-chief to manage the review process and publication. The articles may be any of the types mentioned above and may be published as part of a regular AAS issue or as a set in a completely separate issue of AAS.

The main purpose of ARPAS is to provide certification of professional status for qualified members of the registry, to strengthen the animal sciences among the professions, and to promote the animal sciences and the profession of animal scientists. Continual education is required of all certified professionals to keep abreast of rapidly changing technology in their fields. The journal of AAS provides highly relevant information for these registry professionals. It also serves a global need as an important source to communicate and exchange refereed science and applications among animal agriculture professionals, livestock producers, and animal scientists.


The journal is a resource for research scientists, professional consultants, advisors, practitioners, extension educators, teachers, and students of the registry as well as all other individuals engaged in the animal sciences and production systems that serve mankind, and benefit domestic animals and the environment.

Types of articles

Types of Articles, Science and Applications

Types of Peer-Reviewed Articles

  • Original research
  • Reviews and invited reviews
  • Short communications
  • Technical notes

Other Types of Articles Published

  • Letters to the Editor
  • Commentaries
  • ARPAS mission, education, and business

Science and Applications

Articles in these scientific areas and applications in animal science and production are published in the journal as they apply for beef cattle, dairy cattle, horses, poultry, companion animals, swine and other species that benefit mankind with meat and milk, work (e.g., draught), recreation, ecosystem services, fuel, and material byproducts (e.g., hides, feathers and feed byproducts). Authors will select one of the following topic areas when submitting a manuscript for peer review.

  • Extension and Teaching
  • Food Science
  • Forages and Feeds
  • Genetics
  • Health
  • Production and Management
  • Nutrition
  • Physiology
  • Sustainability and Integrated Systems
  • Welfare and Behavior

Original Research
These articles report unpublished research results. The material must not have been published previously in a refereed scientific journal or submitted to another peer-reviewed journal prior to receiving a decision from AAS. Research is from experimentation with animals or plants grown for feed and forage, economic analyses, field trials, scientific literature-based metaanalyses, or a combination thereof. The research must be from adequately replicated experiment(s) with the appropriate experimental unit, and with sufficient statistical power for sound analysis and interpretation. Data gleaned from the literature are acceptable only if pooled for the purpose of analyzing, summarizing, and interpreting; exceptions must be approved by the original author and publisher. Research addressing commercial products should address hypothesis-driven questions about the biology or mode of action for practical applications. The majority of articles in AAS are original research articles.

Reviews and Invited Reviews
Reviews integrate information and provide well-founded recommendations from research for application in animal agriculture. Reviews should include the author’s expert evaluation of the current state of the area and propose future needs for research and application. Author-originated topical reviews are welcome. Authors interested in writing reviews are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief or an associate editor before writing the review to verify interest in the topic and timeliness. The editor may invite reviews from experts on a variety of topics.

Short Communications
Short Communications report results and interpretation of relatively limited or narrowly focused research that is appropriately designed to provide well-documented and substantiated results. The articles must contain a hypothesis (if appropriate) and objective(s), sufficient detail in materials and methods for repetition of the work, results with brief discussion, references, and tables and figures as needed to display relevant findings. The research must be from adequately replicated experiment(s) with the appropriate experimental unit, and with sufficient statistical power for sound analysis and interpretation.

They may be case studies that provide unique or novel information. However, if factors are compared (e.g., from on-farm or research station studies) statistical analysis with appropriate experimental unit and replication are needed.

Technical Notes
These articles result from well-designed research studies related to novel (or the improvement of existing) methods or processes or to new equipment for field application or the research laboratory. The article should state a hypothesis, full description of the technical aspects for repetition by other researchers, and explicit controls to indicate precision, accuracy, and sensitivity of the method or equipment. Mean and dispersion statistics must be included.

Letters to the Editor
Letters can be submitted by anyone with interest in the journal content and animal science and production. Letters may offer comments or questions about articles previously published in the journal, technical questions requesting a scientist’s response, or educational notes about new or innovative approaches in teaching, extension, or industry programs. Letters will be reviewed by the editor-in-chief. If a letter addresses published works, opinions, or positions of others, the other party will be given opportunity to respond in writing to the letter in the same or next issue of the journal.

Additionally, the editor-in-chief may invite expert commentaries from ARPAS members regarding particular articles published in AAS or related to important topics in animal science and production systems. Individuals also are encouraged to contact the editor-in-chief if desiring to submit a commentary or suggest a topic and potential author.

Contact details

For information about the scientific content of the journal, contact the editor-in-chief, David K. Beede (beede@ or For assistance with the peer-review site or copyright forms, contact Shauna Miller (, editorial assistant, ARPAS Headquarters Office, 1800 S. Oak St., Suite 100, Champaign, IL 61820. For questions about manuscript preparation, journal style and form, and proofs, contact Christine Horger, lead technical editor, at or journals@ For assistance with page charge forms, contact Vicki Paden at For other information, contact Susan Pollock, managing editor, ARPAS Headquarters Office; phone 217-356- 7641; or

Editorial policies and procedures

ARPAS invites scientists from the global community to submit papers using Manuscript Central ( for consideration to AAS. Authors need not be members of ARPAS. These instructions detail the form and style required by AAS for papers submitted for publication. Papers that do not follow the form and style of the journal may be rejected without review. We recommend that authors refer to these instructions when preparing manuscripts, when incorporating requested changes into revisions after review, and when checking author proofs.

Applied Animal Science is a peer-reviewed journal. After online submission, the manuscript is assigned by the editor-in-chief to an associate editor to oversee peer review. The journal uses a single-blind review process, wherein the associate editor selects 2 scientists in the field of study (blinded from the author) to review the manuscript and provide feedback to the author.

Publication charges
The journal offers two options for publication of articles: Page Charges or Open Access Fee. A Publication Charge form will be sent to the corresponding author with their proof.

Page charges
The current charge for publication is $105 per printed page in the journal or fraction thereof, if at least one author is a member of ARPAS. If no authors are ARPAS members, the publication charge is $135 per journal page. The cost to publish a color figure is $650 per figure. Color figures can be included in the online version of the article at no charge.

Open access fee
Under the open access (OA) policy, authors may choose to pay the OA fee in lieu of page charges so that their paper becomes freely available upon publication in an online issue. The OA fee is $2,000 if at least one author is a member of ARPAS or $2,500 if no authors are ARPAS members.

Articles for deposit
Authors publishing OA articles shall bear sole responsibility for meeting the specific posting requirements of their funders. Upon payment of the OA fee, authors may deposit the accepted (peer-reviewed pre-typeset only) manuscript in a repository. The embargo period before deposit in a repository is 12 months (or as specified by the funder) after publication in a journal issue.

Author proofs
Author proofs of all manuscripts will be sent to the corresponding author indicated on the title page of the manuscript. Corrections to the proof should be made neatly and clearly in the margins of the proof or using the notes/comments and text insertion/strikeout features in Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader. If extensive editing is required, it should be provided on a separate sheet of paper with a symbol indicating its location on the proof. The revised manuscript and figures must be returned with the corrected author proofs within 48 hours. Failure to return proofs within 48 hours may delay publication.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Care and use of animals

Authors must make it clear that experiments were conducted in a manner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to the animals by use of proper management and laboratory techniques. Experiments shall be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelines presented in Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, third edition, 2010 (FASS, 1800 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL 61820). Methods of euthanizing experimental animals must be described in the text. In describing surgical procedures, the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent must be specified. The AAS editor-in-chief may refuse to publish manuscripts that are not compatible with these guides. If rejected solely on that basis, however, the manuscript may be resubmitted for reconsideration when accompanied by a written verification that a committee on animal care in research has approved the experimental design and procedures involved.

Declaration of Interest
On the title page, please include a statement regarding conflicts of interest. Either state "The authors declare no conflict of interest" or declare all conflicts of interest. All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.


All authors must complete the Copyright Release Form before publication can proceed. Persons unable to sign copyright agreements, such as federal employees, must indicate the reason for exemption on the form. The organization grants to the author the right of republication in any book of which he or she is the author or editor, subject to giving proper credit to the original journal publication of the article by ARPAS.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page from the Journal Homepage for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English. Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

General style and form

Manuscripts must be submitted in Microsoft Word and should be double-spaced, with lines and pages numbered consecutively, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. All special characters should be inserted using the symbol palette available in this font. Tables and figures should be placed in separate sections at the end of the manuscript (not placed in text). Tables should be kept to a minimum and should not include irrelevant or superfluous data. Tables must include sufficient information to allow the reader to understand the implications of the tabular data.
The use of first person should be minimized. The text and all supporting materials must use American spelling and usage as given in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, Webster's Third International Dictionary, or the Oxford American English Dictionary. Authors should follow the style and form recommended in Scientific Style and Format, The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, seventh edition, 2006 (Council of Science Editors, 12100 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 130, Reston, VA 20190).

Title page

At the top of the title page (first page) provide a running head (short title) of not more than 45 characters.
The title of articles should be in boldface; the first letter of the title and proper names are capitalized and the remainder of the title is lowercase. The title must specify the animal species, sex, and type of production system discussed if applicable and contain no abbreviations.
Names of all authors (first name or initials with a space between initials, middle name or initial, and last name) shall be in mixed case with institutional addresses or affiliations denoted with numbers and placed below the author names.
Affiliations shall provide the authors’ departments and institutions, city, state or country, and postal code. Do indicate if an author is ARPAS certified by including “PAS” after their name, but do not list any other titles, positions, or degrees for authors. The title page shall include contact information of the corresponding author: name, address, phone number, and email address. Footnotes can be used to indicate current address.
Funding for the research must be indicated in the Acknowledgments section. This section also can be used to acknowledge grants or provide experiment station or journal series numbers.


Structured Abstracts and Key Words

All manuscripts include a structured abstract to organize content of 250 words or less. The abstract shall be followed by up to 5 key words or phrases very specific to the area of study not from the title to broaden discovery online.

Abstracts for Research Articles

Research articles (original research, short communications, technical notes) use the following structure and inline headings for abstracts. Please use complete sentences within each abstract heading.
Objective: the exact question(s) addressed by the article.
Materials and Methods: experimental design, animals, key methods, and procedures.
Results and Discussion: main outcome measures, key findings, discussion, and interpretation. Implications and Applications: key conclusions, implications, and practical applications resulting from the work in this specific article.

Abstracts for Review Articles

Review articles use the following structure and in-line headings for abstracts. Please use complete sentences within each abstract heading.
Purpose: the primary objective of the review.
Sources: a succinct summary of data and information sources.
Synthesis: key findings and interpretation of the science and critical assessment of the state of knowledge on the subject.
Conclusions and Applications: key conclusions, including potential practical applications and future research needs.

Article structure


Headings in the Manuscript Body

Major Headings. Major headings are centered, boldface, all uppercase, and consist of ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, APPLICATIONS, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (optional), LITERATURE CITED, and APPENDIX (optional).
First Subheadings. First subheadings are placed on a separate line and begin at the left margin, the first letter of each important word is capitalized, and the headings are boldface and italic.
Second Subheadings. Second subheadings begin the first line of a paragraph. They are indented, boldface, italic, and followed by a period.


The introduction (approximately 250 to 350 words) should inform the reader of the background and jutification for the work to understand the significance of the information presented in the article. Previous work on the topic should be summarized, and the objective of the current research must be clearly stated. A research hypothesis should be stated if appropriate.

Materials and Methods

Materials, methods and procedures should be given in sufficient detail so that someone with comparable expertise and resources could replicate the work. All sources of products, equipment, and chemicals used in the experiments must be specified in parentheses. Trade names are to include models, names, city, and state or country (if outside the United States) of the manufacturers. Animal care guidelines should be referenced.

Care and Use of Animals. Authors must make it clear that experiments were conducted in a manner that avoided unnecessary discomfort to the animals by use of proper management and laboratory techniques. Authors must include in the Materials and Methods a declaration that experimentation was conducted by policies and procedures approved by the institution’s or organization’s animal use and care committee. Experiments must be conducted in accordance with the principles and specific guidelines presented in the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, third edition, 2010 ( Methods of killing experimental animals must be described in the text. In describing surgical procedures, the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent must be specified. The AAS editor-in-chief may refuse to publish manuscripts that are not compatible with these guides. If rejected solely on that basis, however, the manuscript may be resubmitted for reconsideration when accompanied by a written verification that a committee on animal care in research has approved the experimental design and procedures involved.

Human Subjects. For research involving collection of data from humans, please include a statement in the materials and methods that human subject review was approved by [Institutional Review Board] and how informed consent or assent was obtained. Or if the study was deemed exempt by (insert name of institution) Institutional Review Board. This study was deemed exempt under federal regulation 4546.101(b) CFR. Reference:

Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis. The experimental design must be clearly stated (e.g., randomized design, 4 × 4 Latin square design, randomized block design, etc.). The appropriate experimental unit is the smallest unit (subject or group or pen of subjects) to which the treatment is administered. Replication of experimental units is expected to provide sufficient power to detect differences for variables of interest. A discussion of the statistical analysis methods with sufficient detail must be included so that others could repeat the analysis. Specify the independent and dependent factors (variables) in the analysis and the statistical model used. In model statements, uppercase letters should be used for fixed effects and lowercase letters for random effects. Nonsignificant differences may be discussed using such terms as numerical differences, trends, and so forth. Nonsignificant probability levels can be presented and discussed if properly qualified so that the reader is not misled; it is desirable to give the probability level. The authors must provide the appropriate citation in the text for all statistical methods used.

Results and Discussion

The article should contain a combined results and discussion section (not separate results and discussion sections) that presents the results and addresses the significant interpretation and conclusions to be drawn from the data and particularly the application to animal agriculture.


This section is required and should remind the readers of the objective(s) and summarize the key findings, interrelated aspects, and additional information in one paragraph (maximum of 150 words). The purpose is to capture ideas about application of results; highlight variables that may interact; add emphasis to biological, economic, or societal values of the research; provide context, understanding, and implications for the application of the results; and, possibly, to advise on additional specific research that could be done. The applications section is not a recapitulation of the abstract or an author-added conclusions or summary section.


Acknowledgments are placed in a section just before the references. Funding disclosures must be reported in the Acknowledgments section of every article. List names and affiliations of individuals who provided help during the research and their role (e.g., providing writing or laboratory assistance or proof reading the article).

Liturature Cited

Citations in Text. In the body of the manuscript, refer to authors as follows: Smith and Jones (1992) or Smith and Jones (1990, 1992). If the sentence structure requires that the authors? names be included in parentheses, the proper format is (Smith and Jones, 1982; Jones, 1988a,b; Jones et al., 1993), with citations listed chronologically (i.e., oldest first) and then alphabetically within a year. Where there are more than 2 authors, the first author?s name is followed by the abbreviation ?et al.? in text (but all authors should be listed in the Literature Cited section). Work that has not been accepted for publication should be listed in the text as follows: ?J. E. Jones (institution, city, and state, personal communication).? The author?s own unpublished work should be listed in the text as ?(J. Smith, unpublished data).? Personal communications and unpublished data (including papers under review) must not be included in the Literature Cited section.

Literature Cited Section. In the Literature Cited section, list the references by authors in alphabetical order. Journals shall be abbreviated according to the conventional ISO abbreviations used by PubMed ( If a publication has a doi, include the doi at the end of the reference. References to SAS and other software must include name, city, and state of the manufacturer in parentheses in the text and are not included in the Literature Cited list (e.g., SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC).
For book references, include authors, year, chapter or section title, page range, book title, edition, book editors (if applicable), and publisher name and location. For conference proceedings, include authors, year, abstract title, page number or abstract number, proceedings title, location of meeting, and name and location of proceedings publisher. For abstracts presented at ARPAS or other joint animal science annual meetings, cite as a journal article but include the journal supplement number and the page of the supplement on which the abstract appeared. Include ?(Abstr.)? at the end of the citation.
For patents, provide names of inventors, year, title, name of assignee, and US or other patent number. For websites, provide authors (or organization name), year, page title, date accessed (in month, day, year format), and URL.
For theses, provide author, year, title, thesis type (PhD, MS, DVM), department name, and university name and location.


Bunting, L. D., and M. L. Galyean. 2015. Invited paper: Customer and consumer confidence in the livestock industry?Professional ethics. Prof. Anim. Sci. 31:309?314.
Jenkins, T. C., E. Block, and P. H. Morris. 2011. Potassium reduces the accumulation of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid and trans-18:1 in continuous cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms regardless of dietary fat level. J. Dairy Sci. 94(E-Suppl. 1):509. (Abstr.) 4 AAS Instructions for Authors: Manuscript Preparation


AOAC International. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis. 19th ed. AOAC Int., Gaithersburg, MD.


Chase, L. E., R. J. Higgs, and M. E. Van Amburgh. 2009. Feeding low crude protein rations to dairy cows-Opportunities and challenges. Pages 220-226 in Proc. 71st Cornell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.


El Halawani, M. E., and I. Rosenboim. 2004. Method to enhance reproductive performance in poultry. Univ. Minnesota, assignee. US Pat. No. 6,766,767.
Mahanna, B. 2015. Cows may be more resilient to brief ration changes. Feedstuffs 87(14). Accessed Nov. 2, 20.


Tables must be created using the table feature in Microsoft Word and inserted in the manuscript after the Literature Cited section. Each table must be on a separate page. The table title shall begin with bold “Table 1.” followed by the title of the table. Units of measure for each variable measured must be indicated. Tables must stand alone and include sufficient information to allow the reader to understand the tabular information without referring to the text. All abbreviations (including treatment abbreviations) must be identified upon first use with superscripts and defined in footnotes of each table. For each table, define author-derived abbreviations in parentheses or in numbered footnotes. Abbreviations should conform to journal style and be consistent with those used in the text. Bold and italic typefaces should not be used in tables, but when it is necessary to do so, such use must be defined in a footnote. Footnotes to tables shall be superscript numbers; superscript letters shall be used to indicate means separations. Consult a recent issue of AAS for examples of tables. All tables must present original material. If an author wishes to present data already published in tabular form, the author must obtain permission to reproduce the table, even when the format of the table submitted with the manuscript is different from the table already published.


To facilitate review, figures should be placed at the end of the manuscript (separated by section breaks). Each figure should be placed on a separate page and identified by the last name of the first author and figure number. Place each figure caption on the same page as the figure.

  • Figure size. Prepare figures at final size for publication. Figures should be prepared to fit one column (8.9 cm wide), 2 columns (14 cm wide), or full-page width (19 cm wide).
  • Font size. Ensure that all type within the figure and axis labels is readable at final publication size. A minimum type size of 8 points (after reduction to publication size) should be used. The font size should be proportional to the overall size of the figure (within a range of 8 to 12 points at final publication size).
  • Fonts. For best readability, use Helvetica, Times New Roman, Arial, and the symbols palette within those fonts only.
  • Line weight. For line graphs, use a minimum stroke weight of 1 point for all lines. If multiple lines are to be distinguished, use solid, long-dash, short-dash, and dotted lines. Avoid the use of gray lines, as these will not reproduce well. Lines with different symbols for the data points may also be used to distinguish curves.
  • Axis labels. Each axis should have a descriptor and a unit. Units may be separated from the descriptor by a comma or parentheses.
  • Shading and fill patterns. For bar charts, use different fill patterns if needed (e.g., black, white, gray, diagonal stripes). Avoid the use of multiple shades of gray, as they will not be easily distinguishable in print. Complex patterns and 3-dimensional effects reproduce poorly. Remove unnecessary backgrounds and gridlines from graphs.
  • Symbols. Identify curves and data points using the symbols outlined on the Applied Animal Science Instructions for Authors: Manuscript Preparation guide. Symbols should be defined in the figure caption or in a key on the figure (but not both).
  • File formats. Figures can be submitted in PDF, EPS, TIFF, and JPEG formats or pasted into Microsoft Word
  • Grayscale figures. If figures are to be reproduced in grayscale (black and white), submit in grayscale. Often color will mask contrast problems that are apparent only when the figure is reproduced in grayscale.
  • Color figures. If figures are to appear in color in the print journal, files must be submitted in CMYK color (not RGB).
  • Resolution. Minimum resolution is 600 dpi for grayscale and color figures, and 1,200 dpi for line art. Submitting figures that do not meet these requirements may delay publication of your article.
  • Photomicrographs. Photomicrographs must have their unmagnified size designated with a scale bar on the figure. Reduction for publication can make a magnification power designation (e.g., 100×) inappropriate. AAS Instructions for Authors: Manuscript Preparation 5
  • Captions. The caption should provide sufficient information that the figure can be understood without excessive reference to the text. All author-derived abbreviations and symbols used in the figure should be defined in the caption.
  • General tips. Do not use three-dimensional bar charts unless essential to the presentation of the data. Use the simplest shading scheme possible to present the data clearly. Ensure that data, symbols, axis labels, lines, and key are clear and easily readable at final publication size.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as Appendix A, Appendix B, and so on. Formulas and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Equation A1, Equation A2, and so on; in a subsequent appendix, Equation B1 and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A1; Figure A1, and so on.

Supplementary Material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the “Track Changes” option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s).

Miscellaneous Usage Notes


Abbreviations shall not be used in the title, running head, key words, or at the beginning of sentences. The suitability of abbreviations is evaluated by the reviewers, editor-in-chief, associate editors, and technical editor. When standard abbreviations or conventions for abbreviations exist in the discipline, these should be followed. Terms used only twice must not be abbreviated. All author-coined abbreviations are to be defined the first time they are mentioned, with the abbreviation following in capital letters, boldface, and in parentheses. Such abbreviations shall be used consistently thereafter. The units of the manuscript (abstract, text, each table, and each figure) read independently of each other; therefore, abbreviations must be defined within each unit of the manuscript.
The abbreviations on the “Commonly Used Abbreviations in AAS” page under the For Authors section of the website ( may be used without definition in AAS. Plural abbreviations do not use an ending “s.” Chemical symbols and 3-letter abbreviations for amino acids do not need definition. Units of measure should be abbreviated as listed in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st edition, 2010 (CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487) and do not need to be defined.

Appendix 1: Abbreviations


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Units and Terms unique to AAS: as full text list or as: Appendix 2: Selected Units and Terms


Monetary values should be presented in US dollars. If other currencies are used, a conversion to US dollars should be given at first use (e.g., “1 NZ$ = 0.73 US$).

SNP Nomenclature

The increasing number of SNP association studies require a standardized SNP nomenclature for unequivocal and correct SNP identification. Additionally, information regarding the SNP investigated should be easily accessible in a publicly available database. Therefore, all relevant SNP included in a study should be listed with their unique RefSNP (rs) or submitted SNP (ss) number (if rs number is not yet available) as indicated in the public domain NCBI dbSNP database ( If the SNP investigated do not yet have an entry in the NCBI dbSNP database, the authors of the manuscript are responsible for submitting all the required information to NCBI (see for depositing the SNP into this database and obtaining a unique ss number for the SNP. In the text of the manuscript, use of the rs or ss number of the SNP or an alternative standardized nomenclature is recommended.

Measures and Mathematics

Numbers less than 1 shall be written with a preceding zero (e.g., 0.75). All cardinal numbers are written as numerals except when they begin a sentence; when 2 numerals are adjacent in a sentence (spell out the number most easily expressed in words; e.g., two 10-kg samples); or when a number is used as a figure of speech. Measures must be in the metric system; however, US equivalents may be given in parentheses. Units of measure not preceded by numbers must be written out rather than abbreviated (e.g., lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogram of diet). Abbreviations of measures of variation presented must be spelled out in the abstract and body of the article at first use. Units of measure for feed conversion or feed efficiency shall be provided. Use the 6 AAS Instructions for Authors: Manuscript Preparation slash only when it means “per” with numbered units of measure or “divided by” in equations. Use only one slant line in a given expression (e.g., g/d per cow). The slant line may not be used to indicate ratios, mixtures, or substitute for the words “and” or “or.” Insert spaces around all signs (except slant lines) of operation (equal, minus, plus, times, greater than, or less than) when these signs occur between 2 items, including statements of probability. Use “to” instead of a hyphen to indicate range. Items in a series should be separated by commas (e.g., a, b, or c).

Antaya, N. T., K. J. Soder, J. Kraft, N. L. Whitehouse, N. E. Guindon, P. S. Erickson, A. B. Conroy, and A. F. Brito. 2015. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. J. Dairy Sci. 98:1991-2004.–8851.

Bunting, L. D., and M. L. Galyean. 2015. Invited Paper: Customer and consumer confidence in the livestock industry-Professional ethics. Prof. Anim. Sci. 31:309–314.

MacDonald, J. C., G. E. Erickson, P. J. Kononoff, and T. J. Klopfenstein. 2014. Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets. J. Anim. Sci. 92(E-Suppl. 2):156. (Abstr.)

Zimbelman, R. B., R. J. Collier, and T. R. Bilby. 2013. Effects of utilizing rumen protected niacin on core body temperature as well as milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows during heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 180:26–33.

AOAC International. 2012. Official Methods of Analysis. 19th ed. AOAC Int., Gaithersburg, MD.

Campbell, J. R., M. D. Kenealy, and K. L. Campbell. 2010. Animal Sciences: The Biology, Care, and Production of Domestic Animals. 4th ed. Waveland Press Inc., Long Grove, IL.

Chipley, J. R. 2005. Sodium benzoate and benzoic acid. Pages 11-48 in Antimicrobials in Food. P. M. Davidson, J. N. Sofos, and A. L. Branen, ed. Taylor Francis, New York, NY.

Chase, L. E., R. J. Higgs, and M. E. Van Amburgh. 2009. Feeding low crude protein rations to dairy cows—Opportunities and challenges. Pages 220–226 in Proc. 71st Cornell Nutr. Conf. Feed Manuf. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

El Halawani, M. E., and I. Rosenboim. 2004. Method to enhance reproductive performance in poultry. Univ. Minnesota, assignee. US Pat. No. 6,766,767.

Issa, S. 2009. Nutritional value of sorghum for poultry feed in West Africa. PhD Diss. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

Mahanna, B. 2015. Cows may be more resilient to brief ration changes. Feedstuffs 87(14). Accessed Nov. 2, 2015.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.