Your Paper Your Way
We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.
Submissions must fall with the aims and scope of the journal. Annals of Tourism Research is a social sciences journal focusing on academic perspectives on tourism. While striving for a balance of theory and application, Annals is ultimately dedicated to developing theoretical constructs and new approaches which further an understanding of tourism. Its strategies are to invite and encourage offerings from various disciplines; to serve as a forum through which these may interact; and thus to expand the frontiers of knowledge by contributing to the literature on tourism social science.
Types of paper
To perform its role in the development of a theoretically integrated and methodologically enriched multidisciplinary body of knowledge on tourism, Annals publishes manuscripts dealing with various aspects of this phenomenon. Papers on anthropological, business, economic, educational, environmental, geographic, historical, political, psychological, philosophical, religious, sociological, inter alia, aspects of tourism (including conceptual essays, case studies, and industry -oriented expositions) may be submitted. Purely descriptive manuscripts which do not contribute to the development of knowledge are not considered suitable.
Being a broad social science journal its readership is diverse. So specialist technical (e.g. economics) papers must also be intelligible to a broad social science audience.
• Of exceptional merit: Demonstrates a level of significance, rigor and originality that positions it amongst leading works in tourism and the social sciences. Makes a significant or substantial contribution to theory, knowledge, policy or practice in tourism and is likely to become a primary point of reference in tourism research.
• Of publishable standard: Demonstrates a level of significance, rigor and originality that meets international standards of excellence. Enhances theory, knowledge, policy or practice of the social science of tourism and is likely to become an important point of reference in tourism research.
In addition to Research Papers Annals also publishes Research Notes (RN). RNs are not necessarily mini-papers. They often follow an overlooked train of thought or add a question mark to some findings (this might be challenging or supporting ongoing research concepts and methods; dealing with untested propositions or hypotheses; importing and applying to tourism new models and tools from other fields; promoting multidisciplinary investigation in tourism; reporting or updating on-going longitudinal research; raising issues for debate and investigation; identifying research questions applicable to the industry). Typically, the author(s) should identify a particular theme or issue that they would like to draw to the attention of the research community and develop a short piece specifically on this. The essence lies in the flow and in the convincing statement of cutting edge questions and answers/suggestions for future research.
The RN might begin with a discussion of the problem and an explanation of why it is important, perhaps with some thoughts as to why the issue has been overlooked. It should then produce research results, not by going through the introduction, methods, broad results etc. as would be done for a full paper, but by referring to the wider project on which this note is based (rather than trying to treat this note as a paper in its own right). Then conclusions need to be drawn.If the RN is a theoretical piece, the author needs to ensure that there is enough credible and covering thought in a short introduction before leading to the point of critique/the suggestion or idea. Reviewers will need to be convinced that the development of the argument rings true and does not sound like an opinion piece (which is not a RN but would be something suitable for an invited editorial etc.).
If the RN is set out as a mini paper then it should follow very established methodologies so that not too much room is needed for explanations (if the study in question is based on innovative methodologies then there seems good reason to submit not a RN but a full paper). This type of RN will get to the point quickly, develop a credible methodology, results and get back to the point of departure.The RN should be submitted via the Annals electronic submission service. It should be a maximum of 1500 words (including references, tables, etc.) and it does not require an abstract. It will be subject to a minimum of two reviews.
Contact details for submission
If you are not able to submit your paper to Annals electronically please contact the Editor-in-Chief, John Tribe, at email@example.com for further instructions.
You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.
Ensure that the following items are present:One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements
For further information, visit our Support Center.Declaration of interest
All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
Changes to authorship
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Role of the funding source
You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:
Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.
Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form.
This journal has an embargo period of 36 months.
The Elsevier Publishing Campus (www.publishingcampus.com) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.
Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.
When submitting a manuscript to the Elsevier Editorial System, authors need to supply/select the following:
• Article Type
• Full Title
• Author(s) details
• Classification: This records the discipline / method used.
• Other Comments
• Attach Main Files:
o Author Bio: This should include the name(s), the postal/email address of the first author, and a very brief statement about the research interest(s) of the author(s). Its length, whether for single or for all co-authors, must be no more than 75 words in total.
o Title page
o Manuscript (without author details, affiliations and acknowledgements): This should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
o Statement of Contribution: The Annals review policy asks all authors to supply a supporting statement which addresses two questions:
1. What is the contribution to knowledge, theory, policy or practice offered by the paper?
2. How does the paper offer a social science perspective / approach?
Please supply a paragraph of 100-150 words in answer to each question. This statement will be sent to reviewers, so this should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
Once the uploading is completed, the system automatically generates an electronic PDF proof, which is then used for reviewing once approved and submitted to the journal by the author. All correspondence, including the editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail to the corresponding author of the paper.We strongly suggest you regularly check your spam folder for EES notifications. Update your 'Safe Senders' list to ensure that emails from EES are not filtered into your spam folder.
All manuscripts are subject to an initial editorial screening for adherence to the journal style, for anonymity, and for correct use of English. As a result of this your paper will be either accepted for further consideration or returned for revision.Submission address
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/atr NEW SUBMISSIONS
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.
There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.
Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.
Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.
The heading for this section is simply INTRODUCTION (IN UPPER CASE).
• The purpose of this section is to set the stage for the main discussion.
• Annals prefers that this section ends by stating the purpose of the research/paper, but without outlining what sequentially will follow.
• If the introduction is short, it appears as one undivided piece. A long introduction of more than 1,500 words can be subdivided. In such a case, the subtitles are in Title Case Format (in italics, but not bold).
Subheading in Italics (this is a Level 2 heading)Next Subheading in Italics (another Level 2 heading)
Et cetera (but no Level 3 headings can be accommodated in INTRODUCTION)Material and methods
• This is the main body of the paper, headed with a section heading capturing the theme/scope/nature of the paper, ALL IN UPPER CASE. Often this heading is somewhat similar to the article title itself.
• The opening discussion begins immediately after the section heading (without a Level 2 subheading intervening). This may include a literature review, if that is not already covered in INTRODUCTION. As much as possible, please use present tense (not past tense) for the literature review.
• The study methodology, if applicable, is then introduced, titled with a Level 2 heading: Study Methods (in italics).
• Then the paper proceeds to discuss study findings and their theoretical and practical applications. The discussion in this section is Subtitled as Appropriate (again in a Level 2 heading, in italics).
• In general, this is how this section is headed/subheaded:
THEMATICALLY APPROPRIATE HEADING (this is the Level 1 heading, in all cap letters, not bold)Subheading in Italics (this is a Level 2 heading, in italics, not bold)
Subheading in Italics. Et cetera (again a Level 2 heading, in italics, not bold)All subheadings (Level 2) appear in the same fashion, with no further distinction/variation allowed.
If any of the above (Level 2) subheaded parts must in turn be subdivided, then this format should be used:Subheading in Italics (Level 2)
This begins with one or more paragraphs of discussion . . . . and then next levels' subheadings are introduced:Sub-subheading in Italics (Level 3). The concept of carrying capacity suggests that in the case of . . . .
NB This is a run-on subheading; that is, the text begins on the same line as its Level 3 heading. Short sections of one or two paragraphs should not have sub-headings or sub-subheadings.
• This section, headed simply CONCLUSION (a Level 1 heading), can begin with a restatement of the research problem, followed by a summary of the research conducted and the findings.
• It then proceeds to make concluding remarks, offering insightful comments on the research theme, commenting on the contributions that the study makes to the formation of knowledge in this field, even also suggesting research themes/challenges in years ahead.
• To do justice to the study, this section should not be limited to one or two paragraphs. Its significance/contribution deserves to be insightfully featured here, including remarks which had they been added to the earlier sections would have been premature.
• If the CONCLUSION section is longer than 1,000 words (an average length), one may choose to subdivide it into appropriate Subheadings in Italics, similar to the INTRODUCTION format, above.
• Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
• Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
• Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
• Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
The article title (all in UPPER CASE), must be maximum of 52 characters (including blank spaces), with no word hyphenated from the first to the second line. It is also possible to opt for the title: subtitle format. That is, THE TITLE ALL IN UPPER CASE: The Subtitle in Title Case.
A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American or English spelling (not a mixture of both) and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.
• To protect the anonymity of the review process, no acknowledgments are included in the paper. If eventually accepted for publication, an appropriate format will be suggested at that point.
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Electronic artwork
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.
• The data in tables should be presented in columns with nonsignificant decimal places omitted. All table columns must have extremely brief headings.
• Clean and uncrowded tables and figures are sought. Notes and comments, including references, are incorporated in the paper text, where the table or figure is first mentioned. If any remain, they are "telegraphically" footnoted, using alphabetic superscripts (not asterisks). References, if not already in the text, take this format: (Smith 2006:207). All such references are also included fully in the reference list. Tables and figures generated by the author need not be sourced. Proof of permission to reproduce previously published material must be supplied with the paper.
• Tables should not be boxed and gridded. No vertical bars can be added and the use of horizontal bars should be limited to 3 or 4, to mark the table heading and its end. See recent issues of Annals for examples.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.
Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:
Annals follows the referencing style of the American Psychological Association (APA). For full guidelines please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition), ISBN 1-55798-790-4.
The format for making references in the text is as follows:
• Single reference: ... Smith (2005) suggests that .... Or it is argued that ... (Smith, 2006).
• Multiple references: ... (Cohen, 2006; Harrison, 1999, 2005; Wilkinson, 2006). Please note that authors in this situation appear in alphabetical order (also note the use of punctuation and spacing).
• Page numbers should be given when using specific points from a paper, including direct quotations or referring to a given part of it: ... (Dann, 2004, p. 44). This reference appears at the end of the quotation.
• Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations of less than 40 words. These are included in the running text.
• Longer quotations (40 words or longer) are presented as separate blocks of text, indented 1.3 cms. on both margins, without quotation marks and ending with the reference: ... (2004, p. 37).
• Multi-author sources:
Two authors: Cite both names throughout.
Three to five authors: When cited first in the paper, these should name all co-authors, for example (Smith, Brown, Johnson & Clark, 2005); thereafter, the last name of the first author, followed with et al. (Smith et al., 2005). Please note that et al. is followed by a period but is not italicised.
Works with six or more authors: Cite the surname of the first author followed by et al. for all citations.
• References to personal communication appear in parentheses: ... (J. Jafari, personal communication, November 10, 2008) and are not included in the reference list.
References: Reference List
The heading for this bibliographic list is simply REFERENCES, and is centered. All entries under this heading appear in alphabetic order of authors. Only references cited in the text are listed and all references listed must be cited in the text. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors.
van der Duim, R. (2007). Tourismscapes: An actor-network perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 34, 961-976.
If a journal is paginated by issue please include its issue number as well:Hollinshead, K. (2006). The shift to constructivism in social enquiry: Some pointers for tourism studies. Tourism Recreation Research, 31(2), 43-58.
For multi authors:
Coles, T., Hall, C. M., & Duval, D. (2005). Mobilizing tourism: A post disciplinary critique. Tourism Recreation Research, 30(1), 31-41.
Nash, D. (2007). The study of tourism: Anthropological and sociological beginnings. Oxford: Elsevier.
Smith, M. K. & Robinson, M. (Eds.). (2006). Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re)presentation. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Hall, M. (2004). Reflexivity and tourism research: Situating myself and/with others. In J. Phillimore & L. Goodson (Eds.), Qualitative research in tourism: Ontologies, epistemologies and methodologies (pp. 137-155). London: Routledge.
More than one contribution by the same author
Arrange in date order, including author name for each entry.
If an author has two or more publications in the same year, they are distinguished by placing a, b, etc. after the year. For example, 2008a or 2008b, and they are referred to accordingly in the text.
Sheldon, P. (1984). Economics of tour packaging. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, United States.
Haslam, C. (2008, November 16). One-third of Britain's beaches are contaminated. The Sunday Times Travel, p. 2.
Urry, J. (2001). Globalising the Tourist Gaze. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Lancaster University, Department of Sociology Web site: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/sociology/papers/urry-globalising-the-tourist-gaze.pdf
These are not listed in the reference list (see above, under Textual Citation).
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