Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Your Paper Your Way
INTRODUCTION
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
• Declaration of interest
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
PREPARATION
• Peer review
• Double-blind review
• REVISED SUBMISSIONS
• Abstract
• Artwork
• AudioSlides
• Data visualization
• Supplementary material
• Research data
AFTER ACCEPTANCE
• Online proof correction
• Offprints
AUTHOR INQUIRIES

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.



Annals of Tourism Research is a social sciences journal focusing on academic perspectives on tourism. While striving for a balance of theory and application, Annals ultimately aims to develop theoretical constructs and new approaches, which advance our understanding of tourism as a field and practice. Submissions must fall with the aims and scope of the journal.

Annals invites and encourages research from various disciplines, to provide a forum through which these different disciplinary perspectives interact, and thus to expand the frontiers of knowledge by contributing to the literature on tourism social science. Papers on anthropological, business, economic, educational, environmental, geographic, historical, political, psychological, philosophical, religious, sociological, inter alia aspects of tourism (including conceptual essays, case studies, as well as empirical studies) may be submitted.

Papers that take a social science perspective on matters related to tourism from the other branches of science (cross-disciplinary approaches) are welcome. Purely descriptive research, which does not contribute to the development of knowledge is not considered suitable.

Annals attracts a broad-based, diverse social science readership. Therefore, manuscripts should be written clearly and communicate specialist technical ideas and material in a way that is intelligible to a broad social science audience.

Editorial process
Annals is one of the leading journals in the field and receives over 700 submissions per year. We can typically publish between 80 and 100 and so there is inevitably a high rejection rate. Annals operates on a highly devolved structure of editorial work: around 100 Associate Editors represent the diversity of the social sciences approach to tourism studies. All manuscripts received by the journal are initially evaluated by the Editors-in-Chief to decide whether they have the potential to meet the high standards required to be published. At this stage, about 60% of submissions are rejected. Once through this initial process, manuscripts are allocated to an Associate Editor who is an expert on the topic, field or methodology of the piece. Associate Editors evaluate the paper themselves, and either 'desk reject' (accounting for a further 20% rejections) or decide to handle the review process until a final decision is made. Peer review operates on a double blind process, whereby at least three expert reviewers are typically assigned to evaluate the work.

Publishing criteria.
Annals is the social science journal in tourism. The quality standards of the journal are that papers must be of publishable standard or exceptional merit. These are defined as follows:

  • Of exceptional merit: Demonstrates a level of significance, rigor and originality that positions it amongst leading works in tourism and the social sciences. Makes a significant or substantial contribution to theory, knowledge, policy or practice in tourism and is likely to become a primary point of reference in tourism research.
  • Of publishable standard: Demonstrates a level of significance, rigor and originality that meets international standards of excellence. Enhances theory, knowledge, policy or practice of the social science of tourism and is likely to become an important point of reference in tourism research.


Annals seeks to publish papers that can demonstrate:

COURAGEOUSNESS - Annals is the natural home for big new ideas on tourism, within a social science perspective. Manuscripts should have high levels of originality in conceptualisation or methodological design.

CREDIBILITY - Research published in Annals, irrespective of the discipline or underlying paradigm, must be implemented at the highest standards of methodological rigour. The research design must ensure that the conclusions are verifiable and trustworthy.

RELEVANCE - Annals encourages research that makes an impact on defined communities of interest - the academy, policy makers, the tourism industry or a local population. The relevance of the research should be immediately evident and communities of interest should be explicitly referenced in the article.

READABILITY - Annals papers should use the clearest possible language to communicate (see the Plain English Campaign's guide at http://www.plainenglish.co.uk/files/howto.pdf). Authors should avoid academic language that prevents ready understanding of the key findings to be grasped by a multidisciplinary audience, or that prevents an understanding of how the results might benefit society (see Dolnicar, S. & Chapple, A. (2015) The Readability of Articles in Tourism Journals. Annals of Tourism Research, 52: 161-179). However, articles should be written to the highest standards of English language expression, grammar and syntax. Authors for whom English is not a first language are strongly advised to have their work read by a native English speaker or a professional proofreading service.

WELL ILLUSTRATED - Annals papers should, wherever possible, express the key findings in graphs and figures. Graphs and figures help communicate complex content.

TRANSFERABILITY - Annals welcomes and expects that researchers make their data and methods available to future researchers as supplementary files.

Types of article

  1. Full papers based on empirical research, conceptual essays, review articles.
  2. Research notes.
  3. Commentaries and rejoinders.
  1. Full research articles.

    Articles can be empirically based or conceptual papers, normally of between 6-9,000 words in length (including tables, figures and references). Whilst there is no fixed lower word limit, the absolute maximum number of words for published articles is 10,000 words (inc tables, etc). The suggested upper limit of 9,000 is to allow for additional material to be added during the review process. No full length articles above 10,000 words in length upon submission will be considered. The research should be from a social science perspective underpinned by any paradigm, be it qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. Annals views the social sciences as disciplines and fields contributing to our understanding of how human behaviour and society shape the world around us. Articles that intersect the humanities and or other sciences with the social sciences are encouraged.

  2. Research Notes.

    Research Notes (RN) are not mini-papers, they are short communications on a research theme, topic or development in theory or method (a maximum 2,000 words in length inc tables, figures and references). Research notes allow space for authors to develop or apply theories from other fields which can be taken up by future researchers in tourism, they may be used to report on preliminary findings, develop hypotheses, and challenge established approaches/research findings. They may test propositions or hypotheses; apply new models and tools to tourism from other fields, promote multidisciplinary investigation in tourism; provide updates on-going longitudinal research; report on issues arising in the tourism industry around the world which may be overlooked (based on empirical evidence). The essence lies in the flow and in the convincing statement of cutting edge questions and answers/suggestions for future research.

  3. Commentaries and rejoinders.

    A commentary is a comment on a newly published article (a max of 3000 words, inc references and figures etc). A commentary might be solicited by the Editors in Chief or submitted by an author(s) who has a strong opinion about a recently published article in the journal. However, the author ought to have deep expertise and knowledge of the topic. A commentary article does not involve original research, but should be grounded in social science theory.

Contact details for submission
Submission address
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/atr
If you are experiencing problems with the online submission, please contact the journal manager at ATR@elsevier.com for further instructions.

Submission checklist
Submission is online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail.
When submitting a manuscript to the Elsevier Editorial System, authors need to supply/select the following:
Article Type (Full research article, Research Note, Commentary)
Full Title
Author(s) details
Article type (Qualitative, Quantitative, Mixed Methods)
Abstract
Keywords
Classification: This records the discipline / method used.
Confirm responses to questions on: submission only to Annals, word count of your article, acknowledgements, data in brief submission, and contributions of each author to the article.
Comments you wish to make to the Journal Office.

Please note that an editable file is needed for publication purposes after acceptance, and we ask that you submit source files in the case that your manuscript is accepted.

Once the uploading is completed, the system automatically generates an electronic PDF proof, which is then used for reviewing once approved and submitted to the journal by the author.

We strongly suggest you regularly check your spam folder for EES notifications. Update your 'Safe Senders' list to ensure that emails from EES are not filtered into your spam folder.

All manuscripts are subject to an initial editorial screening for adherence to the journal style, for anonymity, and for correct use of English (The Technical check). As a result of this your paper will be either accepted for further consideration or returned for revision. We aim to process each manuscript in a timely manner. If authors have not received an outcome from a first submission within 60 days, they should contact the journal manager.

Ethics in publishing
Please see Elsevier information page: https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/policies-and-ethics

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration
It is our policy to publish new and original work. Text copied from copyrighted works from third parties, even in an introduction, should never be used without clearly identifying the other source (either by quotations or indentations). Every paper should present some novelty and new results in the form of a unique paper written in an author's own words. Unless a legitimate explanation is received for the large amount of textual overlap between the submitted paper and the abovementioned previously published work(s), this paper will not be reconsidered for publication.

We use CrossCheck powered by iThenticate software to check the originality of manuscripts.
For more information on CrossCheck visit their website at http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck/index.html

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not: been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy - https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/policies-and-ethics - for more information); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Authorship
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Author names
Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list can only be made during the review and revision process, i.e. prior to receiving notification of acceptance and only if approved by the Editors in Chief. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the gold open access publication fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Subscription
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• The Author is entitled to post the accepted manuscript in their institution's repository and make this public after an embargo period (known as green Open Access). The published journal article cannot be shared publicly, for example on ResearchGate or Academia.edu, to ensure the sustainability of peer-reviewed research in journal publications. The embargo period for this journal can be found below.
Gold open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• A gold open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For gold open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The gold open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: https://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 36 months.

Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Submission
Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

When submitting a manuscript to the Elsevier Editorial System, authors need to supply/select the following:
• Article Type
• Full Title
• Author(s) details
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Classification: This records the discipline / method used.
• Other Comments
• Attach Main Files:
o Author Bio: This should include the name(s), the postal/email address of the first author, and a very brief statement about the research interest(s) of the author(s). Its length, whether for single or for all co-authors, must be no more than 75 words in total.
o Title page
o Manuscript (without author details, affiliations and acknowledgements): This should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
o Statement of Contribution: The Annals review policy asks all authors to supply a supporting statement which addresses two questions:
1. What is the contribution to knowledge, theory, policy or practice offered by the paper?
2. How does the paper offer a social science perspective / approach?
Please supply a paragraph of 100-150 words in answer to each question. This statement will be sent to reviewers, so this should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
o Acknowledgement
o Figures
o Tables

Please note that an editable file is needed for publication purposes after acceptance, and we ask that you submit source files in the case that your manuscript is accepted.

Once the uploading is completed, the system automatically generates an electronic PDF proof, which is then used for reviewing once approved and submitted to the journal by the author. All correspondence, including the editor's decision and request for revisions, will be by e-mail to the corresponding author of the paper.

We strongly suggest you regularly check your spam folder for EES notifications. Update your 'Safe Senders' list to ensure that emails from EES are not filtered into your spam folder.

All manuscripts are subject to an initial editorial screening for adherence to the journal style, for anonymity, and for correct use of English. As a result of this your paper will be either accepted for further consideration or returned for revision.

Submission address
Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/atr

Preparation
We request you to prepare your manuscript and other text files in the following way:
Margins are set to 2.5 cms all around.
Single line spacing. Left justified, with ragged edge on the right hand side.
Spelling is in American or English spelling (not a combination of both).
Paragraphs should be no more than around 15 lines long, and ideally between 125 and 200 words.
Footnotes and endnotes are not encouraged, although they may be used in exceptional circumstances.
All references must be mentioned in the Reference List and cited in the text, and vice versa.

Word processing software
You must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Reference formatting
Reference style
Annals follows the referencing style of the American Psychological Association (APA). For full guidelines please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition), ISBN 1-55798-790-4.

Peer review

This journal operates a double blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Double-blind review

This journal uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. More information is available on our website. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:
Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.
Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

REVISED SUBMISSIONS

Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure
PREPARE YOUR MANUSCRIPT FOR SUBMISSION FOLLOWING THESE STYLE AND FORMATTING GUIDELINES.
You will be asked to upload the following files:
Cover Letter: (optional)
Author Bio: This should include the name(s), the postal/email address of the first author, and a very brief statement about the research interest(s) of the author(s). Its length, whether for single or for all co-authors, must be no more than 75 words in total.
Title page: Must include;
a. Title (maximum 52 characters inc spaces. Longer titles may be accommodated in a title: subtitle structure),
b. author names and affiliations and e-mail address of each author (indicating the corresponding author)
c. abstract (maximum 120 words)
d. keywords (maximum 6).
Manuscript: must include: title, abstract, keywords and manuscript (without author details, affiliations and acknowledgements): This should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).
Manuscript must by formatted as follows:
1. INTRODUCTION (IN UPPER CASE for a level 1 heading).
2 Main body of the paper, headed with appropriate section headings (in UPPER CASE as a level 1 heading, additional levels should be in lower case and italics to denote a sub-section/level 2 heading). Headings should capture the theme/scope/nature of the paper, the methodology or data and methods, the findings and discussion etc as appropriate.
4. CONCLUSIONS
5. REFERENCES
Statement of Contribution: Please supply a paragraph of 100-150 words in answer to each of the following questions. This statement will be sent to reviewers, so this should exclude any material that would reveal the identity of the author(s).

  • What is the contribution to knowledge, theory, policy or practice offered by the paper?
  • How does the paper offer a social science perspective / approach?
Research highlights: include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
Figures: 1 file for all figures, presented in the order in which they appear in the manuscript, numbered and captioned. Include a page break between each figure in the file.
Tables: 1 file for all tables, presented in order, and numbered and captioned. Include a page break between each table in the file.

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Introduction
The heading for this section is simply INTRODUCTION (IN UPPER CASE).
• The purpose of this section is to set the stage for the main discussion.
Annals prefers that this section ends by stating the purpose of the research/paper, but without outlining what sequentially will follow.
• If the introduction is short, it appears as one undivided piece. A long introduction of more than 1,500 words can be subdivided. In such a case, the subtitles are in Title Case Format (in italics, but not bold).
Example:

INTRODUCTION (this is a Level 1 heading)

Subheading in Italics (this is a Level 2 heading)

Next Subheading in Italics (another Level 2 heading)

Et cetera (but no Level 3 headings can be accommodated in INTRODUCTION)

Material and methods
• This is the main body of the paper, headed with a section heading capturing the theme/scope/nature of the paper, ALL IN UPPER CASE. Often this heading is somewhat similar to the article title itself.
• The opening discussion begins immediately after the section heading (without a Level 2 subheading intervening). This may include a literature review, if that is not already covered in INTRODUCTION. As much as possible, please use present tense (not past tense) for the literature review.
• The study methodology, if applicable, is then introduced, titled with a Level 2 heading: Study Methods (in italics).
• Then the paper proceeds to discuss study findings and their theoretical and practical applications. The discussion in this section is Subtitled as Appropriate (again in a Level 2 heading, in italics).
• In general, this is how this section is headed/subheaded:

THEMATICALLY APPROPRIATE HEADING (this is the Level 1 heading, in all cap letters, not bold)

Subheading in Italics (this is a Level 2 heading, in italics, not bold)

Subheading in Italics. Et cetera (again a Level 2 heading, in italics, not bold)

All subheadings (Level 2) appear in the same fashion, with no further distinction/variation allowed.

If any of the above (Level 2) subheaded parts must in turn be subdivided, then this format should be used:

Subheading in Italics (Level 2)

This begins with one or more paragraphs of discussion . . . . and then next levels' subheadings are introduced:Sub-subheading in Italics (Level 3). The concept of carrying capacity suggests that in the case of . . . .
NB This is a run-on subheading; that is, the text begins on the same line as its Level 3 heading. Short sections of one or two paragraphs should not have sub-headings or sub-subheadings.

Annals will not accommodate additional headings beyond the Level 3.

Conclusions
• This section, headed simply CONCLUSION (a Level 1 heading), can begin with a restatement of the research problem, followed by a summary of the research conducted and the findings.
• It then proceeds to make concluding remarks, offering insightful comments on the research theme, commenting on the contributions that the study makes to the formation of knowledge in this field, even also suggesting research themes/challenges in years ahead.
• To do justice to the study, this section should not be limited to one or two paragraphs. Its significance/contribution deserves to be insightfully featured here, including remarks which had they been added to the earlier sections would have been premature.
• If the CONCLUSION section is longer than 1,000 words (an average length), one may choose to subdivide it into appropriate Subheadings in Italics, similar to the INTRODUCTION format, above.

Essential title page information
Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Article Title
The article title (all in UPPER CASE), must be maximum of 52 characters (including blank spaces), with no word hyphenated from the first to the second line. It is also possible to opt for the title: subtitle format. That is, THE TITLE ALL IN UPPER CASE: The Subtitle in Title Case.

Abstract

A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical abstract
Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration Services to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements.

Highlights
Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Keywords
Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American or English spelling (not a mixture of both) and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Acknowledgements
• To protect the anonymity of the review process, no acknowledgments are included in the paper. If eventually accepted for publication, an appropriate format will be suggested at that point.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Footnotes
Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

Artwork

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Formats
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Tables
• The data in tables should be presented in columns with nonsignificant decimal places omitted. All table columns must have extremely brief headings.
• Clean and uncrowded tables and figures are sought. Notes and comments, including references, are incorporated in the paper text, where the table or figure is first mentioned. If any remain, they are "telegraphically" footnoted, using alphabetic superscripts (not asterisks). References, if not already in the text, take this format: (Smith 2006:207). All such references are also included fully in the reference list. Tables and figures generated by the author need not be sourced. Proof of permission to reproduce previously published material must be supplied with the paper.
• Tables should not be boxed and gridded. No vertical bars can be added and the use of horizontal bars should be limited to 3 or 4, to mark the table heading and its end. See recent issues of Annals for examples.

Citation in text
The format for making citations in the text is as follows:

  • Single reference: ... Smith (2005) suggests that .... Or it is argued that ... (Smith, 2006).
  • Multiple references: ... (Cohen, 2006; Harrison, 1999, 2005; Wilkinson, 2006). Please note that authors in this situation appear in alphabetical order. Also note the use of punctuation and spacing.
  • Page numbers should be given when using specific points from a paper, including direct quotations or referring to a given part of it: ... (Dann, 2004, p. 44). This reference appears at the end of the quotation.
  • Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations of less than 40 words. These are included in the running text.
  • Longer quotations (40 words or longer) are presented as separate blocks of text, indented 1.3 cms on both margins, without quotation marks and ending with the reference: ... (2004, p. 37).
  • Multi-author sources:
    Two authors: Cite both names throughout.
    Three to five authors: When cited first in the paper, these should name all co-authors, for example (Smith, Brown, Johnson & Clark, 2005); thereafter, the last name of the first author, followed with et al. (Smith et al., 2005). Please note that et al. is followed by a period but is not italicised.
    Works with six or more authors: Cite the surname of the first author followed by et al. for all citations.
  • References to personal communication appear in parentheses: ... (J. Jafari, personal communication, November 10, 2008) and are not included in the reference list.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/annals-of-tourism-research
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
Annals follows the referencing style of the American Psychological Association (APA). For full guidelines please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition), ISBN 1-55798-790-4.

The format for making references in the text is as follows:
• Single reference: ... Smith (2005) suggests that .... Or it is argued that ... (Smith, 2006).
• Multiple references: ... (Cohen, 2006; Harrison, 1999, 2005; Wilkinson, 2006). Please note that authors in this situation appear in alphabetical order (also note the use of punctuation and spacing).
• Page numbers should be given when using specific points from a paper, including direct quotations or referring to a given part of it: ... (Dann, 2004, p. 44). This reference appears at the end of the quotation.
• Use double quotation marks to enclose quotations of less than 40 words. These are included in the running text.
• Longer quotations (40 words or longer) are presented as separate blocks of text, indented 1.3 cms. on both margins, without quotation marks and ending with the reference: ... (2004, p. 37).
• Multi-author sources:
Two authors: Cite both names throughout.
Three to five authors: When cited first in the paper, these should name all co-authors, for example (Smith, Brown, Johnson & Clark, 2005); thereafter, the last name of the first author, followed with et al. (Smith et al., 2005). Please note that et al. is followed by a period but is not italicised.
Works with six or more authors: Cite the surname of the first author followed by et al. for all citations.
• References to personal communication appear in parentheses: ... (J. Jafari, personal communication, November 10, 2008) and are not included in the reference list.

The heading for this bibliographic list is simply REFERENCES. All entries under this heading appear in alphabetic order of authors. Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors.
Journal Article
van der Duim, R. (2007). Tourismscapes: An actor-network perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 34, 961-976.
If a journal is paginated by issue please include its issue number as well:
Hollinshead, K. (2006). The shift to constructivism in social enquiry: Some pointers for tourism studies. Tourism Recreation Research, 31(2), 43-58.
For multiple authors:
Coles, T., Hall, C. M., & Duval, D. (2005). Mobilizing tourism: A post disciplinary critique. Tourism Recreation Research, 30(1), 31-41.
Book
Nash, D. (2007). The study of tourism: Anthropological and sociological beginnings. Oxford: Elsevier.
Edited Book
Smith, M. K. & Robinson, M. (Eds.). (2006). Cultural tourism in a changing world: Politics, participation and (re)presentation. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Chapter in Edited Book
Hall, M. (2004). Reflexivity and tourism research: Situating myself and/with others. In J. Phillimore & L. Goodson (Eds.), Qualitative research in tourism: Ontologies, epistemologies and methodologies (pp. 137-155). London: Routledge.
More than one contribution by the same author
Arrange in date order, including author name for each entry.
Author has two or more publications in the same year
If an author has two or more publications in the same year, they are distinguished by placing a, b, etc. after the year. For example, 2008a or 2008b, and they are referred to accordingly in the text.
Doctoral Dissertation
Sheldon, P. (1984). Economics of tour packaging. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, United States.
Newspapers
Haslam, C. (2008, November 16). One-third of Britain's beaches are contaminated. The Sunday Times Travel, p. 2.
Internet
Urry, J. (2001). Globalising the Tourist Gaze. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from Lancaster University, Department of Sociology Web site: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/sociology/papers/urry-globalising-the-tourist-gaze.pdf
Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015). Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions. Mendeley Data, v1. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1
Personal Communications
These are not listed in the reference list (see above, under Textual Citation).

AudioSlides

The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Data visualization

Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Research data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data linking
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. Before submitting your article, you can deposit the relevant datasets to Mendeley Data. Please include the DOI of the deposited dataset(s) in your main manuscript file. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data in Brief
You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data. Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief. Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.

Data statement
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Other style guidelines
• Manuscript length: Between 6,000 and 9,000 words for initial submission and between 6,000 and 10,000 words for final paper including all revisions (including tables, figures and references).
• Format: Margins 2.5 cms. all around; spacing 1 to 2 lines (tables single).
• Spelling: For the sake of uniformity and consistency, American or English spelling should be used throughout the paper, but not a combination of both.
• Footnotes/endnotes/appendices: None is accommodated in Annals. They must be omitted and their main points briefly stated in the text.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints

The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Additional information
For advice on the many ways to share and promote your article, visit the Elsevier website:
https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/submit-your-paper/sharing-and-promoting-your-article



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