Guide for Authors

As a general medical and surgical journal, Annals of Medicine and Surgery covers all specialties, and is dedicated to publishing original research, review articles and more all offering significant contributions to knowledge in clinical surgery, experimental surgery, surgical education and history. All articles will be peer reviewed and if accepted for publication in the Journal, authors will be notified of this decision and at the same time required to pay an Author Processing Fee of US $850.00. Following payment of this fee articles will be made universally available at no further charge through ScienceDirect and through the Journal's own website, www.annalsjournal.com. Corresponding authors from HINARI countries (http://www.who.int/hinari/eligibility/en/) can apply for a discount or fee-waiver by highlighting their country of origin when submitting their article or by contacting the editorial office at annalsjournal@elsevier.com.

Uniform Requirements
These guidelines generally follow the 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals', published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The complete document appears at http://www.icmje.org.

When submitting a paper authors must complete the Authorship form download, which can be downloaded here. This form confirms that all authors agree to publication if the paper is accepted and allows authors to declare any conflicts of interest, sources of funding and ethical approval (if required). Please download the form and submit it with your paper. Submissions that do not include a completed form will be returned without review.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Publishing Peer Review Reports
This journal is participating in the Publishing Peer Review Reports pilot, which launches on November 17th, 2014. This means that, at the Editor's discretion, the reviewer reports for all accepted articles submitted after the pilot launch date* will be typeset and published online (with their own DOI) on ScienceDirect. The reports will be grouped together in a separate issue of the journal. Articles submitted to Annals of Medicine and Surgery via the Article Transfer Service which are accompanied by existing reviewer reports will not be included in this pilot.

For more information please see here.

*Articles submitted prior to November 17th, 2014, but where reviewer invitations are sent out after November 17th, 2014, will be included.

Authorship
All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following:
(1) The conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.
(2) Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
(3) Final approval of the version to be submitted.

Declarations
When submitting a paper authors must declare the following aspects:

(1) Conflicts of Interest: At the end of the text, under a subheading 'Conflict of interest statement', all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

(2) Ethical Approval (if required): Work on human beings that is submitted to Annals of Medicine and Surgery should comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, amended by the 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975, the 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983, and the 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989). The manuscript should contain a statement that the work has been approved by the appropriate ethical committees related to the institution(s) in which it was performed and that subjects gave informed consent to the work. Studies involving experiments with animals must state that their care was in accordance with institution guidelines. Patients and volunteers names, initials, and hospital numbers should not be used.

(3) Funding Sources: All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.

(4) Acknowledgements: All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

Randomised Controlled Trials
All randomised controlled trials submitted for publication in Annals of Medicine and Surgery should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart. Please refer to the CONSORT statement website at http://www.consort-statement.org for more information.

Case reports
When submitting a Surgical Case Report authors are requested to comply with the Surgical Case Report (SCARE) guidelines, please see SCARE. Please complete the SCARE checklist and submit the checklist with your case report. Submissions that do not include a completed checklist will be returned without review.
Please also ensure you state that the work has been reported in line with the SCARE criteria and cite the following paper in the first paragraph of your Introduction:
Agha RA, Fowler AJ, Saetta A, Barai I, Rajmohan S, Orgill DP, for the SCARE Group. The SCARE Statement: Consensus-based surgical case report guidelines. International Journal of Surgery 2016 2016;34:180-186..


When submitting a medical Case report, authors are requested to comply with the Case Report (CARE) guidelines: clinical case reporting guidelines, please see http://www.care-statement.org.Please complete the CARE checklist and submit the checklist with your case report. Submissions that do not include a completed checklist will be returned without review.


PROCESS Guidelines
Please ensure your case series is compliant with the PROCESS Guidelines: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1743919116309803 and submit a completed PROCESS checklist. Please also ensure you state that the work has been reported in line with the PROCESS criteria and cite the following paper: Riaz A. Agha, Alexander J. Fowler, Shivanchan Rajmohan, Ishani Barai, Dennis P. Orgill for the PROCESS Group. Preferred reporting of case series in surgery; the PROCESS guidelines. International Journal of Surgery 2016.

Systematic Reviews
Systematic reviews should be reported in accordance PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Guidelines (http://www.prisma-statement.org) and must include the flow diagram as a figure and the checklist as supplemental material, please click here.

Cohort, Case-control and Cross-sectional studies
Cohort, Case-control and Cross-sectional studies should all be compliant with the STROCSS criteria (Strengthening the reporting of ​cohort studies in surgery). Please see http://www.strocssguideline.com - each study type has its own checklist which should be uploaded as a supplemental file.

Diagnostic, Quality Improvement and Qualitative studies
Diagnostic Studies should be reported in accordance with the STARD statement criteria (Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies) flow diagram and checklist please see (http://www.stard-statement.org/). Quality Improvement studies should comply with the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) criteria: http://squire-statement.org. Qualitative studies require the Consolidated criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist, please see : http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/6/349.long

Tumour Marker Prognostic Study
Tumor Marker Prognostic studies should be reported in accordance with the REMARK criteria, please see http://www.equator-network.org/resource-centre/library-of-health-research-reporting/reporting-guidelines/remark

Best Evidence Topic
Best Evidence Topic papers are structured mini-reviews, offering the best available evidence to address small focused questions in surgery. Authors proposing to write a Best Bets topic should e-mail the Editorial Office prior to writing these and register their topic with them. This process ensures that there is no duplication of articles and allows guidance to be given to authors as to the suitability of their chosen topic.

Writing a Best Bets
Once a topic is registered, all authors are encouraged to read the following article, which explains the rationale and basis of Best Bets: 1. OA Khan, et al. Towards evidence-based medicine in surgical practice: Best BETs International Journal of Surgery 2011; 9: 585-588.
Authors should also review recently published Best Bets, for example: (L.A. Bailey et al. International Journal of Surgery 2012; 10: 421-424) in order to make sure that their article conforms with the Best Bets format. Please note that the format of Best Bets is fairly rigid and articles which do not conform to these guidelines will be rejected without review. All articles need the following:
• An unstructured abstract (maximum 250 words).
• Body of texts divided into the following sections:
1. Introduction
2. Clinical scenario
3. 3-part question
4. Search strategy
5. Search outcome
6. Results
7. Discussion
8. Clinical bottom line
9. References

In addition, a table summarising the Best Bets evidence should be added as an appendix containing six columns. I.e.
Author, Country and Date Patient Group Study Type and Level of Evidence Outcomes Key Results CommentsThe word limit for a Best Bets article has been increased to a maximum of 3000 words (excluding tables and references). However, it is anticipated that the majority of articles can be written in less than 2000 words.

Registration of Research
The World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki 2013 states in article 35: Every research study involving human subjects must be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject. All types of research studies involving human participants should be registered prospectively (but failing that retrospectively) at http://www.researchregistry.com unless the study has already been registered with another registry body. All first-in-man studies, i.e. the first time it has been performed/reported in the literature are to be registered in a publicly accessible database. Once registered, you will need to submit your assigned Unique Identifying Number (UIN) from the Research Registry or another registry as a mandatory part of your submission. Retrospective registration with the Research Registry takes less than 5 mins, is free and the record will be publicly accessible.

Article Information

1. Original Research Articles:
Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References
Abstract: Limited to 300 words, structured with the following headings: Background, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusion
Total Word Limit: 2,500 words
Reference Limit: None (if more than 50, editorial staff should be contacted)
Figure/Table Limit: 6 colour figures or tables

2. Quality Improvement Research Articles:
Structure: The following structure is recommended: (1) The context; (2) Outline of problem (patient centred); (3) Key measures of improvement; (4) Institutional setting; (5) Process of gathering info about the problem; (6) Analysis and interpretation - how the info helped your understanding of the problem/solution; (7) Strategy for change; implementation of change; (8) Effects of Change - reassessment (PDSA cycles and what happened within them); (9) Lessons learnt, message for others and next steps.
Abstract: Limited to 300 words, structured with the following headings: Background, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusion
Total Word Limit: 2,500 words
Reference Limit: None (if more than 50, editorial staff should be contacted)
Figure/Table Limit: 6 colour figures or tables
Squire Checklist: http://squire-statement.org

3. Cohort, Case-control and Cross-sectional studies:
Structure: Cohort, Case-control and Cross-sectional studies should all be compliant with the STROCSS criteria (Strengthening the reporting of ​cohort studies in surgery).
Abstract: Limited to 300 words, structured with the following headings: Background, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusion
Total Word Limit: 3000
Reference Limit:
Figure/Table Limit: 6 colour figures or tables
STROCSS Checklist

4. Editorial:
Structure: Editorials should provide a clear introducing and concluding sections. Sub-titles are at the author's discretion.
Abstract: Limited to 250 words, semi-structured (no titles or references)
Total Word Limit: 2,000 words
Reference Limit: None (if more than 50, editorial staff should be contacted)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

5. Commentary/Perspectives/Brief Reports:
Structure: One body of text with no sub-titles
Abstract: None
Total Word Limit: 1,000 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

6. Policy Review:
Structure: Modelled on the structure of the policy being reviewed. Contact editorial staff if you require further guidance.
Abstract: Limited to 250 words, semi-structured (no titles or references)
Total Word Limit: 2,500 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

7. Reviews:
Structure: Reviews should provide a clear introducing and concluding sections. Sub-titles are at the author's discretion.
Abstract: Limited to 250 words, semi-structured (no titles or references)
Total Word Limit: 2,500 words
Reference Limit: None (if more than 50, editorial staff should be contacted)
Figure/Table Limit: 6 colour figures or tables

8. 'How To' Articles:
Structure: Articles should be set out in a clear manner with sub-titles to highlight sections and make the process easier for the user to follow.
Abstract: Limited to 250 words, semi-structured (no titles or references)
Total Word Limit: 1,500 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

9. Round-Table Discussions:
Structure: Round-Table Discussions should provide a clear introducing and concluding sections. Sub-titles are at the author's discretion.
Abstract: None
Total Word Limit: 1,500 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

10. Debate:
Structure: Debates should provide a clear introducing and concluding sections. Sub-titles are at the author's discretion.
Abstract: None
Total Word Limit: 1,500 words if an individual article. 1,000 words if article forms either for or against the position and is paired with another article.
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

11. Conference Reports:
Structure: One body of text with no sub-titles
Abstract: None
Total Word Limit: 1,000 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

12. Case Reports:
Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Presentation of Case, Dsicussion, Conclusion, Consent of Patient
Abstract: Limited to 250 words, semi-structured (no titles or references)
Total Word Limit: 1,500 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

13. Tumour marker prognostication study:
Structure: Tumour marker prognostication studies should be reported in accordance with the REMARK guideline and should include the following subsections; Introduction, Materials and methods (including Patients, Specimen characteristics, Assay methods, Study design, Statistical Analysis), Results(including data, analysis) and Discussion.
Abstract: 300 words
Total Word Limit: 3000 words
Reference Limit: None (if more than 50, please contact Editorial staff)
Figure/Table Limit: 6 Colour figures or tables
Reamark Check list: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/51/abstract

14. Health Economic Evaluation:
Structure: These should be reported in line with the CHEERS statement, and should include the following basic headings Title and abstract, Introduction (Background and objectives), Methods (target population, setting, perspective, comparators, timeframe, measurement of effectiveness, estimations of resources, costs and analytic method), Results (Parameters, costs, outcomes), Discussion (findings, limitations, generalisability), Other (Source of funding, Conflict of interests)
Abstract: 300 words
Total Word Limit: 3000 words
Reference Limit: (if more than 50, please contact editorial staff)
Figure/Table Limit: 5 colour figures or tables
Cheers Check List: http://www.equator-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/CHEERS-Checklist-PDF.pdf

15. Commentaries:
Structure: One body of text with no subtitles
Abstract: None
Total Word Limit: 1000 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (Exceptions can be made with editorial approval)
3 colour figures or tables:

16. Grand Rounds:
Structure: Abstract, Introduction, Presentation of Case, Discussion and Learning Points
Abstract: Limited to 250 words, semi-structured (no titles or references)
Total Word Limit: 1,500 words
Reference Limit: 20 references (exceptions can be made if editorial approval obtained)
Figure/Table Limit: 3 colour figures or tables

Title
Your title page, numbered as 1, should give the title in capital letters (not exceeding 100 letters), a running title (not exceeding 50 letters) and the authors names (as they are to appear), affiliations and complete addresses, including postal (zip) codes. The author and address to whom correspondence should be sent must be clearly indicated. Please supply telephone number, postal address, and e-mail addresses for the corresponding author.

Highlights
Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Two to four bullet points can be included; the length of an individual bullet point should not exceed 85 characters (including spaces); only the core results of the paper should be covered.

Abstract
Our system requires that an abstract be provided to the system for each article. For articles which do not require an abstract, please simply N/A when prompted during the submission process.

References
Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. This identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference Format
Manuscripts should use the Vancouver style for references, which should be numbered consecutively (using superscript numerals) in the order in which they are first cited in the text and listed at the end of the paper.

Journal References: All authors should be included when there are six or fewer. When seven or more authors are present, the first three should be recorded followed by et al. This should be followed by the title of article, name of journal abbreviated according to Index Medicus (see http://www.nih.nlm.gov), year, volume, issue (if recorded), and first and last pages. For example:

1. Tockman MS, Anthonisen MD, Wright EC et al. Airways obstruction and the risk of lung cancer. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:512–18.

Data citation example:

Oguro M, Imahiro S, Saito S, Nakashizuka T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.

Book References: The author(s) should be followed by the chapter title (if applicable), editor(s) (if applicable), book title, place of publication, publisher, year, and) page numbers (if applicable). For example:

2. Colby VT, Carrington CB. Infiltrative lung disease. In: Thurlbeck WM, ed. Pathology of the Lung. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1988.

Website/Online References: Author(s) should be followed by the title of the page. The year it was last updated should be followed by '[online]', the webpage, and the date accessed.

3. Camm CF. Author Guidelines. 2012 [online]. http://www.annalsjournal.com/index.php/amsjournal/about/submissions#authorGuidelines. (Accessed: 22 Jul 2012).

Newspaper Articles: Articles should be sourced from mainstream printed media (e.g. newspapers, magazines). The author(s) should be followed by the paper title, the publication title, and the date of publication. If found online, the date should be followed by '[online]', the webpage, and the date accessed.

4. Brown G. Organ donations help us make a difference. The Sunday Telegraph. 13 Jan 2007. [online]. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1575442/Organ-donations-help-us-make-a-difference.html [Accessed 22 Jul 2012].

Figures
Figures of good quality (minimum 92 DPI) should be uploaded separately from the text. Permission to reproduce illustrations should always be obtained before submission and details included with the captions.

Tables
Tables should be uploaded separately from the main text, bear a short descriptive title, and be numbered in Arabic numbers. Tables should be cited in the text.

Keywords
A list of three to six keywords should be supplied; full instructions are provided when submitting the article online.

Units and Abbreviations
Système Internationale (SI) units should be used, with the traditional equivalent in parentheses where appropriate. Conventions for abbreviations should be those detailed in: Baron DN, ed. Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations: A Guide for Biological and Medical Editors and Authors. 5th edition. London: Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1994.

Online proof correction
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Offprints
The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.

Submission Preparation Checklist
As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word, OpenOffice, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
3. Where available, URLs and access dates for the references have been provided.
4. - ALL illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
- The text is single-spaced
- uses a 12-point font
- employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses)
5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in these Author Guidelines
6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Accepted Articles
Visit http://www.elsevier.com/authors for the facility to track accepted articles and set email alerts to inform you of when an article s status has changed. The website also provides detailed artwork guidelines, copyright information, frequently asked questions and more. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those related to proofs, are provided after registration of an article for publication.