The American Journal of Ophthalmology is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and visual science specialists describing clinical investigations, clinical observations, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations. Published monthly since 1884, the full text of the American Journal of Ophthalmology and supplementary material are also presented online at www.AJO.com and on ScienceDirect.
The American Journal of Ophthalmology publishes Full-Length Articles, Perspectives, Editorials, Correspondences, Books Reports and Announcements. Brief Reports and Case Reports are no longer published. We recommend submitting Brief Reports and Case Reports to our companion publication, the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports.
Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere substantially in any format, and that there are no ethical problems with the content or data collection. Authors may be requested to produce the data upon which the manuscript is based and to answer expeditiously any questions about the manuscript or its authors. See AJO policies on redundant publication.
The American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO) is a peer-reviewed, scientific publication that welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts directed to ophthalmologists and visual science specialists. The manuscripts describe clinical investigations, clinical observations, and clinically relevant laboratory investigations. Published monthly since 1884, the full text of the AJO and supplementary material are also presented online at AJO.com and on Science Direct.
The AJO publishes Full-Length Articles, Perspectives, Editorials, Correspondence, Book Reports and Announcements. Brief Reports and Case Reports are no longer published. We recommend submitting Brief Reports and Case Reports to our companion publication, the American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports.
Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that they have not been and will not be published elsewhere substantially in any format, and that there are no ethical concerns with the content or data collection. Authors may be requested to produce the data upon which the manuscript is based and to answer expeditiously any questions about the manuscript or its authors. See AJO policies on redundant publication and access to data.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
FULL-LENGTH ARTICLES - Full-Length Articles include clinical investigations, clinical observations, randomized controlled trials, and clinically relevant laboratory investigationsPERSPECTIVES - Invitation-only AJO Perspectives are focused opinions regarding the evidence supporting the use of a current technique, procedure, therapy, or clinical approach, tempered by the experience and viewpoints of the authors(s). Perspectives should not be a review article. Please see specific criteria for submission in the Perspective section of this guide.
EDITORIALS - Invitation-only Editorials provide a forum for interpretive, analytical, or reflective opinions related to manuscripts in the AJO or statements about clinical, scientific, or socioeconomic issues. Please see specific criteria for submission in the Editorial section of this Guide.CORRESPONDENCE - Correspondence may correct errors, provide support or agreement, or offer different points of view. It should not be used to publish one's own study or report a case
SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS AND META-ANALYSES - Please see specific criteria for submission of Systematic Reviews/Meta-analyses in this GuideOBITUARIES - Obituaries are by invitation only from the Editor-in-Chief to commemorate the lives of remarkable individuals who are internationally renowned for their contributions to Ophthalmology and to the Journal in particular. The Editor-in-Chief makes the final decision about publishing Obituaries.Contact Information For comments and questions, you may contact the Editorial Office by email: firstname.lastname@example.org. If you are having trouble logging into Editorial Manager, please visit this link for more information or contact email@example.com. To write the Editor-in-Chief, contact Richard K. Parrish, II, MD, at firstname.lastname@example.org. Communication about manuscripts occurs primarily through email and only with corresponding authors, so it is important for authors to keep their contact information (address, institution, phone numbers, and email address) current in Editorial Manager. Due to privacy protections within EM, these changes can only be made by the user and cannot be done by the AJO Office.Checklist for AJO Submission Please ensure that the following items have been completed or created prior to submission:
o ___ Designate one author as corresponding author with contact details.o ___ If the paper was previously rejected by another journal, include previous reviews and responses in cover letter
o ___ Cover Letter indicating the manuscript's category (Full-Length Article, Perspective, Editorial, Correspondence)o ___ Permission for figures if there is identifiable material or photograph, including retinal imaging
o ___ ICMJE Conflict of Interest form prepared for each authoro ___ One copy of the manuscript formatted according to the instructions
o ___ Title page including title, authors' full names, institutions, and corresponding author contact informationo ___ Structured abstract limited to 250 words for Full-Length Articles, Perspectives, and Systematic Reviews/Meta-analyses
o ___ Acknowledgments section provides information about funding sources, financial disclosures, and to recognize statistical and other contributorso ___ References in current AMA format
o ___ Figure Captions page after referenceso ___ Figures and tables are not embedded in the manuscript text file, but prepared for individual upload
o ___ Tables created in Word and include titles, description, and footnotes. o ___ Figures in TIFF, JPEG, or EPS formato ___ Online-only/Supplementary figures and tables are properly labeled and included
o ___ Table of Contents statement prepared for revisionso ___ Appendix (if appropriate)
o ___ CONSORT statement for Randomized Controlled Trials (if
Submission declaration and verification
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.
Presentations The AJO and the scientific community encourage presentation at meetings. Presenters planning to submit information to a peer-reviewed journal, however, should not share their slides, materials, or additional information with newspapers or tabloids before publication. If the presenter is given a preprint of a planned publication by a newspaper or tabloid, the presenter again could ask the writer to withhold the information until after the information has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. Violations could result in public reprimand regarding copyright infringement and may result in a presenter being subjected to greater scrutiny when future materials are considered for publication in the AJO.
Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy. Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information).
Use of inclusive language
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.
Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.
Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about these agreements please visit https://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies
This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.
Please visit our Open Access page for more information.
Elsevier Researcher Academy
Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.
Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.
Manuscript review and selection
Full-Length Articles, Editorials, and Perspectives are peer-reviewed. Only finely polished, publication ready manuscripts should be submitted to the AJO or risk possible rejection prior to peer review. In view of the large and increasing number of manuscripts submitted, the AJO now performs a triage of all submitted manuscripts to determine if they are appropriate and would likely be accepted following peer review. About 50% of manuscripts will be returned to authors because the content is not competitive with current manuscripts due to insufficient new material, repetitive material, poor design or poor writing. This is consistent with the pattern of major medical journals.
Once these reviews are completed, the Executive Editor critiques and synthesizes the comments of the reviewers, and provides additional Executive Editor's comments to the Editor-in-Chief. The Editor-in-Chief reviews the manuscript together with all comments and makes the publication decision, which is then e-mailed to the Corresponding Author, along with consolidated comments of the reviewers of the manuscript. Because of space constraints in the printed version, only about 20% of submitted Full-Length Articles are accepted. The AJO might not provide complete review of each manuscript but rather enough of a review to determine if acceptable for the AJO.
This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review.
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged for this journal, as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: example Highlights.
Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
For Original Articles, Perspectives, and Systematic Reviews/Meta-analyses,provide a structured abstract of 250 words or less with the following five headings:
Purpose: State the principal question or objective of the study and the major hypothesis tested, if any.Design: Describe the study as retrospective or prospective. Identify the study design. Interventional studies should be listed as a randomized clinical trial, non-randomized clinical trial, or interventional case series (three or more cases). Observational studies should be listed as a case control study, cross-sectional study, cohort study, or observational case series (three or more cases). An experimental study should be listed as an animal study or laboratory investigation. A perspective, meta-analysis, or auto-designation study should be indicated, as appropriate.
Methods: Use the following subheadings under Methods as appropriate for your study or, alternatively, provide the same information in prose format:
- Setting: Such as multicenter, institutional, or clinical practice.
- Patient or Study Population: Including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking.
- Intervention or Observation Procedure(s)
- Main Outcome Measure(s)
Conclusions: State the conclusions directly supported by the data and describe the clinical applications. Avoid over-generalizations. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings, and note specific additional study required.
Restrict abbreviations to those that are widely used and understood by all ophthalmologists. Avoid abbreviations that have meaning only within the context of the specific manuscript. Introduce each abbreviation in parentheses after the first use of the full term in each portion of the submission including in the abstract, in the text, in the figures captions, and in the tables. Système International units and abbreviations of standard measurements, such as mm Hg, cm, and mL, are used without initial expansion. Avoid abbreviations in any titles, headings, or subheadings.
Acknowledgements and Financial Disclosure Section
The AJO requires disclosure information in a specific format. The following information should appear, in the order indicated (labeled a through c), in an Acknowledgement section between the Manuscript Text and the References. The information will appear in the published article, along with the automatically-added contributions attestation made during the submission process. The information in this section is made in addition to providing the ICMJE Conflict of Interest forms with submission.
• Financial Disclosures: The disclosure statement for the manuscript should include all medical financial disclosures from each author including income from honoraria, consulting, lectures, speakers' bureaus, expert testimony, commercial employment, stock or equity interests, or intellectual property rights (royalties, patents, licenses, copyright) as well as miscellaneous support such as drugs, equipment, travel expenses, writing assistance, administrative support, etc. Provide location of any commercial companies or grants mentioned. If you have no financial disclosures related or unrelated to this manuscript, you should state, "No financial disclosures."
•Other Acknowledgments such as Statisticians, Medical Writers, Expert contributions. Provide location or institution of each person mentioned. Because readers may infer endorsement of the data and conclusions, all persons must give permission to be acknowledged and this must be confirmed in the cover letter
Authors should use the American Joint Commission on Cancer classification scheme when describing patients with ophthalmic malignancies; see American Joint Committee on Cancer.ACC Cancer Staging Manual, Seventh Edition, Springer, New York
Clinical Trials and Clinical Trial RegistrationThe AJO recommends that researchers and authors adopt and adhere to the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers (PhRMA) Principles for the Conduct of Clinical Trials and Communication of Clinical Trial Results These principles describe the relationship of PhRMA member companies with others involved in clinical research and set forth the rules companies have volunteered to follow in order to protect the safety of research participants wherever the companies conduct clinical trials. In the principles, the PhRMA companies commit to the timely communication of all meaningful results of clinical trials, whether those results are positive or negative. The principles further state that the results should be communicated in an objective, accurate, balanced, and complete manner
The AJO requires that human clinical trials are registered before enrollment in order for the results to be published in the AJO. See Arch Ophthalmol 2005:123:1263-1264 for complete statement. Phase III trials should be registered as well as many phase II trials. Most phase I trials do not need to be registered. The Methods section should contain a statement about where the registration information is available to the public. Satisfactory public databases include the National Institute of Health maintained site at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (for either NIH or non-NIH sponsored studies) or the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials at http://www.controlled-trials.com
Conflict of Interest
Authors, editors, or reviewers may hold conflicting or competing interests that could result in bias during the peer review process. Although there are many types of bias, financial disclosure requires specific and detailed reporting. The AJO requires that all authors and coauthors report all financial disclosures in medicine, whether or not the authors judge them to be related to the specific manuscript being submitted. The failure of an author, reviewer, or editor to declare all financial interests interferes with the reader's entitlement to know this potential source of bias and will result in a reprimand from the journal when it is discovered. Reviewers and editors should also declare any conflicts of interest with regard to a manuscript under review. AJO reviewers and editors must recuse themselves if they cannot render fair and objective assessments
Each co-author must complete an ICMJE Conflict of Interest Form and submit it to the corresponding author. Although the ICMJE form requires "potential" and "relevant" conflicts, to promote transparency we request authors to report all financial relationships. Mutual funds need not be listedFor further information, please refer to the following open access articles:
Liesegang TJ, Schachat AP. Enhanced reporting of potential conflicts of interest: rationale and new form. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011:151:391-3Liesegang TJ, Bartley GB. Toward transparency of financial disclosure. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:2077-9
Liesegang TJ, Bartley GB. Footnotes, acknowledgments, and authorship: toward greater responsibility, accountability, and transparency. Ophthalmology. 2014;121:2297-8All submissions must have the ICMJE Conflict of Interest Form completed and uploaded for each author preferably as part of the initial submission process, but no later than first revision. The form posted on the ICMJE website (http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf) includes instructions to help authors provide the correct information. For non-native English speakers, there is a glossary of terms that are used in the form
Every published manuscript will have a blanket statement, inserted by the publisher; either "None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to disclose." OR "Authors with financial interests or relationships to disclose are listed after the references." Corresponding authors are asked to confirm or update conflict of interest statements as part of the final steps of manuscript acceptance with the journal office, prior to transmittal to the publisher. For further information, see https://www.elsevier.com/authors/journal-authors/policies-and-ethics .
Correspondence and Replies
Letters about recent articles published in the AJO are encouraged and should be submitted through Editorial Manager within 8 weeks of the article's print publication. Correspondence submitted should not exceed 500 words of text and six references. The title must read, "Comment on," followed by the Article in question, which must also be the first reference. Please provide a complete Title Page including author names, institutions, city, and country. Acknowledgment/Disclosure statement (defined above) must be included. Figures and tables are discouraged and generally not accepted. Correspondence is subject to peer review and editing
Replies: According to the AJO policy on Responsibility of Authors, authors of articles discussed in the Correspondence are asked to reply within 14 days, adhering Correspondence formatting guidelines. If authors do not respond within 14 days, the letter may be published alone, stating the authors failed to reply or declined to replyWhen appropriate, efforts are made to resolve any controversies between correspondents and authors before publication, and correspondents may be asked to contact the authors directly if their comments do not meet AJO publication standards for ongoing scholarly discourse or if they duplicate peer reviewer commentary
Cover LetterManuscripts must be accompanied by a cover letter that should include information on the originality of the manuscript and any other information that the authors want to convey to the Editor-in-Chief. The authors should indicate whether the manuscript was previously rejected or evaluated in any form by another journal, and they should describe specifically how they have improved the manuscript
The principal investigator or the Corresponding Author of a manuscript containing original data must confirm in the cover letter that he or she "had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis as well as the decision to submit for publication." Cover letters for revised manuscripts must answer, point by point, any concerns noted by reviewers.
Drug and Equipment Names
Generic drug names should be used when possible. When a trade name is necessary, include the generic drug name in parentheses after the trade name at first use in both the Abstract and Text. For equipment, include the manufacturer's name, city, state, and/or country parenthetically at first use in both the Abstract and Text.
The invitation-only Editorial should be objective and dispassionate, but is likely to provide alternative points of view and some bias. Editorials should not exceed 1200 words with no more than 15 references. In general, figures and tables should not be used. Editorials do not have an Abstract
The journal office may return a submission and recommend professional editing prior to formal review. Authors who require editing to eliminate grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or visit the customer support site https://service.elsevier.com for more information.
Errata and Retractions
Errors may be noted in published articles that require the publication of an erratum. If authors take note of a minor error in their published work, they may write the Editorial Office to inquire about an erratum. The inquiry should note the exact statement in error and offer a corrected statement. Errata should be rare and not be used as post-publication copyediting
Some errors, however, may compromise the value of the initial manuscript. These do not include inadequacies exposed by the emergence of new scientific information, in which case no corrections or withdrawals are needed. If substantial doubts arise about the honesty of a work, either submitted or published, it is the Editor-in-Chief's responsibility to ensure that the possible fraud is addressed. It is not usually the task of the Editor-in-Chief to conduct a full investigation or to make a determination; that responsibility lies with the institution where the work was done or with the funding agency. The Editor-in-Chief should be promptly informed of the final decision of the institution involved, and if a fraudulent article has been published, the AJO will print a retraction. If the study was not under the aegis of an IRB or if this method of investigation does not result in a satisfactory conclusion, the Editor-in-Chief may choose to publish an expression of concern with an explanation or a full retraction, following an attempt for clarification from the authors.
Figures must be uploaded individually into Editorial Manager, separate from the manuscript text file. Legends for print figures should be placed at the end of the Manuscript file. Digital figures should be of high quality and in one of the following file formats only: TIFF (non-transparent), JPEG (with "maximum quality" setting), or EPS. Line art and graphs only may be submitted in Microsoft Word if they were created in Word or Excel. NIH guidelines for online figures suggest a minimum of 1500 pixels wide. Individual figure files should not be larger than 12 MB. To upload figures, go to the "Attach Files" page of the submission form. Click "Browse" to browse your desktop for the files or drag and drop them into the window. Select "Figure" as the File Type. In the "Description" box enter the figure number for each figure file
For multi-part figures, please ensure that the composite is clear, readable, and of sufficient resolution. Figure parts may be labeled by letter if the lettering is unobtrusive and does not mar the integrity of the illustrated informationOther text on figures should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. Any text, arrows, and other symbols should be large enough to remain legible after reduction. All symbols or abbreviations that appear on the figures should be defined in the caption. Arial font is suggested for any figure text. Use periods as decimals rather than commas
Figures should be cropped to show only significant details. When a patient is identifiable in a photograph or when retinal imaging (see Retinal Imaging section) is submitted, authors must supply a Consent Form for Identifiable PhotographIf you submit color figures, these figures will appear in color online at no additional charge. If you choose for these figures to be reproduced in the print version of the AJO, however, the cost for the first color figure is 650 USD, and the cost for every subsequent color figure is 100 USD. Authors will be billed for color figure(s) by Elsevier after acceptance. Please indicate your preference for color, in print or online only, at that time. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork
Illustration services - Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
B. CONSORT STATEMENTC. CONSENT FORM FOR IDENTIFIABLE PHOTOGRAPHS
Highlights are optional yet highly encouraged as they increase the discoverability of your article via search engines. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that capture the novel results of your research as well as new methods that were used during the study (if any). Please have a look at the examples here: : example Highlights Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).
Institutional Review Board
When human subjects participate in studies or reports, the authors must state in the Methods section that the study and data accumulation were carried out with approval from the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB), Informed Consent for the research was obtained from the patients or subjects, and, for US authors, the study is in accordance with HIPAA regulations Alternatively, the authors can state that the IRB (name the IRB) waived the need for IRB approval; the authors, however, cannot make the decision that IRB approval was not needed. If waived, the authors must confirm that the study and data accumulation were in conformity with all country, federal, or state laws, informed consent was obtained, and the study was in adherence to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Do not use patients' names, initials, dates, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. Informed Consent for research requires that the subjects agreed to participate after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study. This Informed Consent for Research is distinct from the simple informed consent to perform a procedure or test on a patient.
Figure legends should be listed together on a Legends page after the references. Each legend should be numbered consecutively in the text, have a brief title specifying the disease process or study topic, and contain a complete description of each figure. The title and caption should contain enough information so that the figure can be understood independently of the manuscript text and "stand alone". Use complete sentences for the captions except in the title, and avoid abbreviations. Single figures should not be numbered
Example. FIGURE 1. Patient 3 with staphylococcal corneal abscess. A. The patient's cornea is shown preoperatively with the abscess located superior to the visual axis, B. 3 days postoperatively with the corneal transplant well centered and clear, and C. 4 months postoperatively with a crystal clear cornea. D. The patient, 1 year postoperatively, shows smooth corneal surface with all sutures removed.Table legends should be within the table. All abbreviations in each table must be defined even when repetitive to other tables.
Manuscript Text Format
Manuscripts should be double-spaced, in a single column, on standard 8.5 x 11 in. pages. One-inch margins should be used on all sides. The right margin should be ragged, not justified. Follow guidelines of style, terminology, measurement, and quantitation as set forth in the American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed. Oxford University Press, NY, 2007). Arial font size 12 is recommended, as this font causes the fewest problems during conversion to PDF.
Math formulae - Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).Title pageThe manuscript's title should be as brief as possible and no longer than 135 characters and spaces. The title page must include:
1.The title of the article (informative and concise; avoid questions, declarative sentences, and abbreviations)2.Running head or short title, which should be a maximum of 60 characters.
3.The full name of each author and complete address of institutional affiliations. Academic degrees should not be provided. Please see the Authorship section of this Guide for further information on authorship criteria.4.Meeting presentations.
5.The name, address, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the Corresponding Author. The Corresponding Author will be responsible for all questions about the manuscript and for reprint requests and should therefore ensure their email address is correct in the system for at least a year after publication.TextNumber the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the Title Page as page 1. For Full-Length Articles, the text should, in general, not exceed 8 single-spaced typewritten pages. Please use a spell-checker in addition to careful editing of the manuscript before submission. Authors should not add line numbering as this is automatically added by Editorial Manager.
Organize and prepare the manuscript to include the following sections:a. Introduction: Describe the purpose of the study, the research rationale, and any major hypothesis that was tested. The Introduction should present the hypothesis and limit references to only the most pertinent previous publications.
b. Methods: The Methods section should provide sufficient detail to enable others to duplicate the research. The first paragraph of the Methods section should describe all the specifics of the study design (see glossary of study designs below) and information about human informed consent or animal care. State whether the IRB approval was prospective (before the study began) or retrospective and indicate precisely what the IRB approved. Name of IRB that approved the research or provide a statement and rationale as to why the named IRB waived approval. Indicate proper informed consent for the treatment and/ or participation in the research, and confirm compliance with HIPAA, Clinical Trials registration (number and location of the registration), Investigational New Drug (IND) or Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) (provide number), and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines. If the IRB waived the need for approval of this research or study, then indicate adherence to the Declaration of Helsinki and all federal or state laws in your country. Authors cannot make the decision as to whether IRB approval is needed; your IRB should mak
New Microbial Organisms in Ophthalmic Infections
The AJO is interested in confirming that certain organisms participate in ocular disease. The text must provide adequate laboratory information that can substantiate the microbial identification. This requires that any unusual pathogen be confirmed by two different methods or at two independent laboratories. The journal Cornea initiated this confirmatory policy (Wilhelmus KR. New corneal infections: preventing a crisis of identity. Cornea 2003;22:95-96).Ocular Trauma It is suggested that the terminology used in descriptions of ocular trauma should conform to the recommendations of the United States Eye Injury Registry and the International Society of Ocular Trauma (Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology [BETT], Kuhn F, Morris R, Witherspoon D, et al. A standardized classification of ocular trauma. Ophthalmology 1996;103:240-243).
PerspectivesInvitation-only AJO Perspectives are focused opinions regarding the evidence supporting the use of a current technique, procedure, therapy, or clinical approach, tempered by the experience and viewpoints of the authors(s). Perspectives should not be a review article. Perspective preparation should follow the guidelines of a Full-Length Article. Perspectives should be of appropriate length but should not exceed 9 pages of single-spaced typewritten text, 35 references, and 8 figures or equivalent tables. Authors share the cost of color figure reproduction. Perspectives are subject to the standard peer-review process.PrecedenceThe AJO discourages statements of priority (such as "we are the first to report...") because of the inability to be familiar with all published works or presentations on a subject. Avoid claiming priority (first publication) of the content unless you provide the literature search protocol used, such as, "We are unaware of previous reports of this finding (phenomenon, procedure, or other appropriate wording) and could find no reference to it in a computerized search (include the name of the database, such as PubMed)."
For work submitted to a preprint server, it is the corresponding author's responsibility to promptly update the preprint server entry to indicate that the paper has been accepted and is currently in press; the author must add proper citation of the online version to the preprint server entry to point users to the peer-reviewed, accepted version of the article.
Randomized Controlled Trials
Manuscripts reporting randomized controlled trials should adhere to the requirements for Manuscript Preparation. In addition, text (which may be up to 10 single-spaced typewritten pages in length) should contain subheadings and information specified in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. A flow diagram to illustrate the randomization procedure or procedures and numbers and the AJO http://www.consort-statement.org Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement Form must be submitted with the manuscript. Authors may decide whether this form will appear in print or only online as Supplemental Material. These requirements follow suggestions published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). (Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT Statement. JAMA 1996;276:637-639).
The AJO reference style is identical to current AMA style. Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples, please refer to the most recent publication of the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors. Authors are solely responsible for correct references.
Examples:PJournal article:Robinson MR, Reed G, Csaky KG, Polis MA, Whitcup SM. Immune-recovery uveitis in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 2000;130(1):49-56.
Book:Rootman J, Stewart B, Goldberg RA. Orbital surgery: a conceptual approach. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1994.
Book chapter:Macsai MS, Mannis MJ, Huntley AC. Acne rosacea. In: Mannis MJ, Macsai MS, Huntley AC, editors. Eye and skin disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996:335-341.
Dataset:Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1.
Website:International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Available at http://www.icmje.org . Accessed November 12, 2006.Abstracts, unpublished data, posters, and personal communications should be cited within the text as parenthetical citations. Example: (Evans DW, written communication, September 1, 1997). The Corresponding Author should provide authorization for use of these items.Reference management softwareMost Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. This journal uses the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) template.Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link: http://open.mendeley.com/use-citation-style/american-journal-of-ophthalmology When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
Refractive Surgery Results
The AJO prefers the use of standardized graphs and terms in displaying refractive surgery results in order to permit an easier and evident comparison among comparative studies in the literature. See: Stulting RD, Dupps WJ Jr, Kohnen T, Mamaluis N, Rosen ES, Koch DD, Obstbaum SA, Waring GO 3rd, Reinstein DZ. Standardized graphs and terms for referactive surgery results. Cornea. 2011:30(8):945-947.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit theresearch data page.Data linkingIf you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page .For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).Mendeley DataThis journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page .Data statementTo foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
To safeguard the future confidentiality of a patient whose retinal or anterior segment photographs may appear in a publication, the AJO requires that authors obtain written permission of patients to publish their ocular images. This policy applies only to those photographs appearing in print or online rather than all images that may have been investigated in the course of the study.For further information on the development of this policy, see the following editorial: Parrish RK, Pasquale LR, Lee AY, Folberg R, Stewart MW, Duncan Powers SL. Who could know who I am? The possibility of patient identification with retinal imaging. Am J Opthalmol 2020;216;A3-A4..
Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
The American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO) is interested in publishing high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors submitting a systematic review to AJO should refer to the article "Preparing a Systematic Review for the American Journal of Ophthalmology: Updated Guidance." 1 The AJO will only publish systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses which contain all of the above elements, with a particular interest in ensuring that these are free of bias. This includes, but is not limited to, requiring that the protocol and eligibility criteria be pre-defined before the systematic review and/or meta-analysis is conducted. Pre-approval for conducting a Systematic Review is no longer required.
The registration of a review protocol on specialized registries, such as PROSPERO, is highly recommended. A published protocol allows the users of a systematic review to cross-check whether the methods prespecified in the protocols were in fact implemented, or whether there were post-hoc changes as well as the reasons for them. The protocol registration serves to identify selective reporting of results of a systematic review. The protocol registration is expected to have been made in sufficient advance to allow the review conduction, unless the authors label their work as a rapid review and give reasons for this expedited process.The submission should be accompanied by a cover letter which explains why the review question is important to clinicians or users, including patients and policymakers. This cover letter should also present the expertise of authors' team members with clinical skills as well as that of authors with systematic review methods and statistical expertise. Items that are not mandatory in the AJO guidance will be considered by the Editors at their discretion, depending on the topic and context, when evaluating the submission of a systematic review to AJO.
1. G. Virgili, R.K. 2nd Parrish. Preparing a Systematic Review for the American Journal of Ophthalmology: Updated Guidance. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep 62. A. Liberati, D.G. Altman, J. Tetzlaff, et al., The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: explanation and elaboration, BMJ 339, 2009, b2700
3. J.A. Sterne, M.A. Hernan, B.C. Reeves, et al., ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions, BMJ 355, 2016, i49194. P.F. Whiting, A.W. Rutjes, M.E. Westwood, et al., QUADAS-2 Group, QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies, Ann Intern Med 155 (8), 2011, 529-536
5. M.M. Leeflang, J.J. Deeks, C. Gatsonis and
Tables take up substantial space in the print journal and should be limited in number. The information in the text and tables should not be duplicative. All tables should be created in a Microsoft Word document using the table tools. Do not format tables as columns or tabs. Use additional pages when a table does not fit onto one page. Ensure that no information is hanging off of the page due to poor formatting. Adding photographic material to a Table requires it be submitted as a Figure.
Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals by order of citation in the text. Single tables should not be numbered. Each table should have a brief title so that the reader can understand what is being displayed in the table without reference to the text. Each table should be submitted individually and separately from the manuscript text file. The table number and table title should be on the same line at the top of the table. The title and caption should contain enough information so that the table can be understood independently of the manuscript text and "stand alone". Avoid abbreviations in any titles. All abbreviations within the table and comments about the table should be included in a footnote to the table.Footnotes to tables are indicated by superscripted letters a, b, c, etc
.Table of Contents StatementUpon revision, the Corresponding Author is requested to provide a Table of Contents Statement (up to 75 words in length) that presents the content and clinical implications of the article for the Table of Contents of the Journal (see print copy of AJO). It should not contain abbreviations or first-person pronouns (I, we).
Visual Acuity Reporting
The AJO encourages authors to report the visual acuity in the manuscript using the same nomenclature that was used in the study, provided the data was recorded in the Snellen system (using either meters or feet), decimal fraction or logMAR systems. The same visual acuity nomenclature should be presented throughout the manuscript. A Table of Equivalent Visual Acuity Measurements will be provided for the reader in each print issue of AJO. Although standardized reporting of visual acuity would be a better option, it has not yet been accepted by all research groups. The Snellen equivalent in feet should be noted in parentheses next to each visual acuity that is not in the Snellen format, in order to aid readers in the United States.
Peer reviewThis journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the Editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review
Each manuscript submission will be acknowledged by an email from the Editorial Office and assigned a manuscript number which should be used in all correspondence regarding the submission. After an initial review of the manuscript, the Editor-in-Chief determines whether the manuscript is appropriate for the AJO and selects an Executive Editor from the Editorial Board who is an expert in the field and who will be responsible for guiding the manuscript through the review process. The Executive Editor then selects several outside reviewers to ensure that at least two reviews are completed. The AJO does not reveal the identity of its reviewers. Pertinent comments will be provided to the corresponding author. Re-review may be required if one or more reviewers request to see the revision or if modifications are extensive.Revised manuscriptsRevisions should be returned to the AJO within 60 days to retain revision status; after that time, the Editor-in-Chief may request another cycle of peer-review or reject the manuscript. The Corresponding Author must reply to each point made in the revision request and may state points of disagreement with the reviewer's comments. Please submit revisions in your account under "Submissions Needing Revision" with the files prepared according to online manuscript submission guidelines. Authors may also provide a tracked-changes version along with a clean copy of their revised paper for the reviewers' convenience.
If you elect to withdraw your paper rather than submit a revision, please log on to the system and select "Decline to Revise."
Elsevier's Author Services offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.
Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.
Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.
Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.
Accepted manuscript/supplemental material
The AJO also seeks to further enhance recognition for the contributors of the scientific content in the AJO. Therefore, the first author and the senior author (or both authors if there are only two) of accepted manuscripts will be asked to provide a biographic sketch (limited to 75 words) and a digital photo to be placed on the website linked with the online version at www.AJO.com.
For Supplemental Material, the text must be in Microsoft Word format, and the digital audio/visual must adhere to the requirements for figures listed above.
This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.
Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.
In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).
This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.
For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.
One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.
A reprint order form will be emailed to the corresponding author and must be returned whether or not you order reprints. For an extra charge, paper reprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Author Services, but the cost of reprints increases significantly after the initial print run. The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. Corresponding authors who have published their article gold open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link
In Press/Online Release
Articles appear online soon after acceptance in Pre-Proof form, which has not yet been copyedited, typeset, or proofread. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s), and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Any transcription errors introduced by the transmittal process or au
Article Alerts and Access
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