Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Aims & Scope
• Research In Context
• Article Types
• Submission checklist
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Permissions
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Open access
• Submission
• Acceptance
• Potential Reviewers
• Embargoes
• Peer review
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Research in Context
• Drugs
• Anesthesia
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• References
• Video
• Supplementary material
• Proofs
• Offprints

Aims & Scope

The mission of Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (Alzheimer's & Dementia) is to bridge the knowledge gaps across a wide range of bench-to-bedside investigation. Alzheimer's & Dementia publishes the results of studies in: behavior, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, physiology, protein chemistry, neurology, neuropathology, psychiatry, geriatrics, neuropsychology, epidemiology, sociology, health services research, health economics, political science and public policy. Alzheimer's & Dementia emphasizes interdisciplinary investigations and integrative/translational articles related to: etiology, risk factors, early detection, disease modifying interventions, prevention of dementia, and applications of new technologies in health services. The Journal will publish only original contributions in the following forms: comprehensive reviews, research articles, information on clinical trials, short reports, in-depth perspectives/open-peer commentaries, theoretical and/or translational papers that attempt to integrate knowledge across disciplines, history and politics of science/ brief biographies, and abstracts of papers presented at international meetings.

Negative results, particularly clinical trials, are published as short communications.

The ultimate objective is to create a novel forum for: rapid communication of new findings, ideas, or perspectives; disseminating knowledge, across the spectrum of basic to clinical studies, necessary for optimal translation of research findings into practical applications/interventions; integrating knowledge across disciplines; increasing knowledge in diverse disciplines to promote early detection/diagnosis and/or interventions; formulating new theories and/or strategies for the rigorous testing of theories or their predictions; identifying promising new directions of research; and providing the scientific impetus for new initiatives or public policies concerning research on prevention and new models of health services.

Research In Context

Alzheimer’s & Dementia requires a section called “Research in Context”. Authors must provide a summary, similar to an abstract, for inclusion during the online submission process. In the summary of 150 words or less, authors must place their results or findings into context with previous work.

The section has three elements.

  1. The “systematic review” subheading describes the process authors used to search, identify, and evaluate the accumulated knowledge related to their scientific question.
  2. The “interpretation” subheading requires authors to declare what their findings contribute to the entirety of the accumulated knowledge related to the question of interest described in the paper.
  3. The “future directions” subheading challenges authors to state specifically the important scientific question or questions that are necessary to expand, confirm, or refute the author’s findings in future research activities. Authors must be specific in outlining or defining future research directions or crucial questions that yet need to be answered.

Here is an example for the Research in Context section:

  1. Systematic review: The authors reviewed the literature using traditional (e.g., PubMed) sources and meeting abstracts and presentations. While the pathophysiology of ARIA is not yet as widely studied as other aspects of AD biology, there have been several recent publications describing the clinical aspects of ARIA. These relevant citations are appropriately cited.
  2. Interpretation: Our findings led to an integrated hypothesis describing the pathophysiology of ARIA. This hypothesis is consistent with nonclinical and clinical findings currently in the public domain.
  3. Future directions: The manuscript proposes a framework for the generation of new hypotheses and the conduct of additional studies. Examples include further understanding: (a) the role of perivascular clearance pathways on vascular changes following anti-Aß immunotherapy; (b) the role of alterations in water clearance mechanisms in the resolution of ARIA; (c) the potential reversibility of microhemorrhage events in the clinical setting; and (d) the relationship between the pathophysiology of ARIA-E and ARIA-H.
Please see the editorial on page 171 in the March 2012 issue for further details.

Note: The Research in Context should be uploaded as a "Supporting File" when submitting the manuscript files via the EVISE system.

Article Types

Review Articles:
Comprehensive Reviews are commissioned papers by the editors to provide comprehensive and balanced coverage of a timely and/or controversial issue by a recognized authority. Uninvited paper will not be reviewed. The invited review should integrating different points of view on ground-breaking, fast-moving or contentious topics with the objective of translating, informing or educating a wide multi-disciplinary audience about varying perspective. Reviews should provide a brief overview or background of critical issues and then concentrate on setting recent findings in context. It is crucial for all Reviews, particularly those tackling controversial topics, to provide a well-balanced view of developments; authors must never concentrate unduly on their own research. Reviews, unlike Research Articles , do allow some speculation designed to foster the formulation or testing of new hypothesis.
Reviews must include an abstract of approximately 150 words. Length of a Review article may not exceed 10,000 words (excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 60 references, no more than six figures, boxes or tables.

Perspectives and Open-Peer Commentaries:
Perspectives and Open-Peer Commentaries provide personal in-depth viewpoints, rather than a review, on hotly debated topics; controversial theoretical, research or policy issues. Perspectives should: a) stimulate debate, b) present new models or hypotheses, c) suggest future experiments, directions of research or policies and/or, d) speculate on the meaning/interpretation of new discoveries/data. Articles that merely outline recent advances rather than provide a though provoking opinion on them are not suitable for this section of the Journal.
Perspectives must include an abstract of approximately 150 words. Length of a Perspective article may not exceed 5,000 words, a maximum of 50 references, no more than six figures, boxes or tables.
Open-Peer Commentaries must include an abstract of approximately 150 words. Length of Open-Peer Commentaries may not exceed 1,500 words (excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 20 references, no more than two figures, boxes or tables.

Research Articles:
Research Articles cover hypothesis driven research or evidence-based validation studies in any of the following generic areas of study: Biology, Chemistry, Clinical/Medical Interventions, Behavior/Neuropsychology, Social Sciences, Nursing, Health Economics, Health Services Research and Public Policy. Manuscripts must include: a) Structured Abstract, b) Background, c) Methods, d) Results, e) Discussion, f) References, g) Acknowledgements/Conflicts/Funding Sources and, h) Key Words. The manuscript, and specifically the abstract, should be written such that a diverse audience will understand the central research question and the significance of the findings or conclusion of the study.
Research Articles must include a structured abstract, using the IMRAD format (specifically, INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, using all uppercase letters followed by a colon and space), not exceeding 150 words. Length may not exceed 3,500 words (excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 50 references, no more than six figures, boxes or tables.
All Research Articles must include a "Research in Context" section.

Short Reports:
Short Reports are brief communications dealing with Case Studies or information on Clinical Trials [including the negative results and/or adverse events in clinical studies]. Short Reports will also cover brief articles on the utility or potential applications of a new technique, instruments or analytical approaches; rather than the detail of the technique per se, which can be references for readers interested in complete technical details. These articles should educate and inform readers by comparing or contrasting new approaches/techniques with established ones and highlighting the pros and cons of each.
Short Reports using the IMRAD format (specifically, INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, using all uppercase letters followed by a colon and space), not exceeding 150 words. Length may not exceed 1,500 words(excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 20 references, no more than two figures, boxes or tables.
Short Reports must include a "Research in Context" section.

Policy Forum:
Policy Forum manuscripts generally will cover topic related to "Science and Society" that might be relevant and/or interest to a broader audience. Policy Forum will include papers on: history and politics of science, brief biographies and policy analysis. The main aim of the Policy Forum articles is simply to tell an exciting story on an interesting topic; the style should be conversational and newsy. Length may not exceed 5,000 words(excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 50 references, no more than six figures, boxes or tables.
Policy Forum articles must include a "unstructured abstract" that may not exceed 150 words. The abstract should summarize the paper and answers questions such as: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?

Letters are brief communications relating to the content of earlier issues of Alzheimer’s & Dementia or general topics of interest. Letters relating to earlier issues of Alzheimer’s & Dementia will be sent to the appropriate authors for review and to give them an opportunity to reply. Previously unpublished data or letters concerning articles published elsewhere, however, will not be considered.
Length may not exceed 750 words(excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 10 references, no more than one figure.

Research News:
Research News is designed to highlight recent events, advances or developments (e.g., grants awarded, new funding opportunities, calendar of events, conference reports and abstracts of papers presented at international meetings) that might be a particular interest to the research community. The articles should inform not only a general audience but also offer an expert a balanced interpretation of the advances, developments or events being reported. The article should be restricted to report only novel and interesting information. Articles should be written in a lively style, giving brief essential background, putting recent advances in context and providing insight on future perspectives and direction. Rather than including extensive background information, the reader should be directed, via a citation, to an appropriate review article or text.
Research News articles must include a "summary lead" that may not exceed 50 words. The summary lead is the first few sentences that summarizes the event and answers the questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Research News articles may not exceed 1,500 words(excluding the abstract, references, figures, and tables), a maximum of 20 references, no more than two figures, boxes or tables.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• Relevant declarations of interest have been made
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Editors reserve the right to reject an article on the basis of a significant conflict of interest. If the article is accepted for publication, the disclosure statement may be published. When no competing interests are present the disclosure statement should confirm such.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.


The inclusion of any copyrighted material or previously published material [e.g., direct quotations, tables, or illustrations] must be accompanied by written permission for use from the copyright owner and original authors along with complete information about the original source. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission and payment of any fees associated with reuse.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Publications are copyrighted for the protection of the authors and the publisher. A Transfer of Copyright Agreement will be sent to the author who submits the manuscript. The corresponding author must sign and returned the completed form transferring copyright ownership of the manuscript to Elsevier Inc. before the article can be published.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies
Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some funding bodies will reimburse the author for the Open Access Publication Fee. Details of existing agreements are available online.
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse.
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf, e.g. by their research funder or institution.
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs.
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. There is a 20% discount off the open access publication fee for members of the Alzheimer's Association International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART). Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access
Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information. Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and it begins from the date the article is formally published online in its final and fully citable form. Find out more.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.


Provisional or final acceptance is based on originality, scientific accuracy, relevance, clarity, and topical balance of Alzheimer’s & Dementia.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Potential Reviewers

Authors are encouraged to suggest the names of potential peer-reviewers that do not have any conflicts to assist with a prompt and fair review process. The submission letter should include the names, mailing addresses, phone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of 5-7 potential reviewers with appropriate expertise to evaluate the manuscript.


Public Presentation/Media Releases: Certain manuscripts accepted for publication in Alzheimer's & Dementia will be embargoed until the posted publication date/time by Elsevier. Authors and their institutions are expected to abide by the copyright agreementand refrain from disclosing to media or the public findings ofan accepted manuscript prior to embargo period [online publication].

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

General Format

  • Manuscripts should be typed double-spaced, and numbered, with wide margins. Computer-generated illustrations must beof the high quality of professional line drawings or they will not be accepted.
  • The title page should contain: title of paper; author(s); laboratory or institution of origin with city, state, zip code, and country; complete address for mailing proofs; telephone, fax number, and email address (when available, the email address will appear in the correspondence footnote of the published article).
  • References, footnotes, and legends for illustrations should be typed on separate sheets, double spaced.
  • Illustrations should be identified with figure number and author(s) name; when necessary the top should be clearly marked.
  • Each table should be typed on a separate sheet and double spaced.
  • All dimensions and measurements must be specified in the metric system. Standard nomenclature, abbreviations and symbols (specified by Royal Society Conference of Editors. Metrication in Scientific Journals. Am. Scient. 56:159-164;1968) should be used throughout.
  • Italics should not be used for the purpose of emphasis.

Length of Paper
The Editors insist upon clear, concise statement of facts and conclusions. Fragmentation of material into numerous short reports is discouraged. All accepted papers are subject to editorial revision and copyediting. Authors should avoid redundancy between sections of text and illustrations and text. The Editors may recommend that appendices and tables containing extensive data be published in the electronic version of Alzheimer's & Dementia and only referenced in a footnote in the print edition.

Subdivision - numbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

The title should not be longer than 85 characters, including spaces between words. Only the first word of the title should be capitalized.


Each paper submitted must be accompanied by a structured abstract of 150 words or less to appear after the title. The abstract should be suitable for use by abstracting journals and must include the following headings using the IMRAD format (specifically, INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, using all uppercase letters followed by a colon and space), not exceeding 150 words. A list of 5 to 15 keywords or short phrases suitable for indexing terms should be typed at the bottom of the abstract page accompanying the manuscript. These terms will be printed with the paper following the abstract.

Research in Context

Alzheimer’s & Dementia requires a section called “Research in Context”. Authors must provide a summary, similar to an abstract, for inclusion during the online submission process. In the summary of 150 words or less, authors must place their results or findings into context with previous work.
Please refer to the top of the "Guide for Authors" or refer to the editorial for (Volume 8, Issue 3, Page 171, May 2012) for further details.

Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Authors must provide proper recognition to public funding agencies [e.g., agency name, grant title and number]and/or private funding source or the sponsor of the study as well as those that made significant contribution to the project.

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.


When possible, provide generic rather than trademarked names of drugs. Proprietary (trademarked) names should be capitalized. The chemical name should precede the trade, popular name, or abbreviation of a drug the first time it occurs. Trade names of drugs and other products must not appear in the title. The trade name may appear once in the abstract and once in the introduction or methods section; all other mention of the product must be in the form of the generic name.


In describing surgical procedures on animals, the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent should be specified. Curarizing agents are not anesthetics; if these were used, evidence must be provided that anesthesia of suitable grade and duration was employed.

Math formulae
Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


If more than one author, the corresponding author should be indicated with an asterisk. If there is more than one affiliation, use a superscript letter for each one. Use superscript numbers for any other footnotes to authors' names, such as a current address. Footnotes should not be used in text; the material should be incorporated into the text. For table footnotes: see Tables.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body. Indicate footnotes in this order: *,†, ‡, §, ¶, #, **, ††,‡‡, §§, ¶¶, ##. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

A DOI can be used to cite and link to electronic articles where an article is in-press and full citation details are not yet known, but the article is available online. A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
Example: '..... as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtained a different result ....'
List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51-59.
Reference to a book:
[2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.). Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York:E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281-304

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will, at no cost, receive a customized Share Link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. The Share Link can be used for sharing the article via any communication channel, including email and social media. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Corresponding authors who have published their article open access do not receive a Share Link as their final published version of the article is available open access on ScienceDirect and can be shared through the article DOI link.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
You can also check the status of your submitted article or find out when your accepted article will be published.