Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Contact details for submission
• Ethics in Publishing
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration
• Authorship
• Changes to authorship
• Clinical trial results
• Journal rights
• Open access (OA)
• Language and language services
• Submission
• Peer review and Referees
• Article Structure
• Essential Title Page Information
• Abstract
• Keywords
• Statistics
• Math Formulae
• Footnotes
• Mandatory statements
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Proofs
• Offprints

The African Journal of Emergency Medicine (AfJEM, ISSN: 2211-419X) is the official journal of the African Federation for Emergency Medicine. It is an international, peer-reviewed journal aimed in particular at supporting emergency care across Africa. AfJEM publishes original research, reviews, brief reports of scientific investigations, case reports as well as commentary and correspondence related to topics of scientific, ethical, social and economic importance to emergency care in Africa. Articles will be of direct importance to African emergency care, but may have originated from elsewhere in the world.


Original Research: Original studies of basic or clinical investigations in areas relevant to emergency medicine. Reference to the relevance of the research in a resource poor setting is essential and should be alluded to in the discussion section. References and a structured abstract (see Preparation below) are required. Maximum length: 3,000 words, 5 tables and/or figures, plus the abstract (300 words) and references (max 50). The checklists found on the following websites should be used to structure your manuscript (a completed checklist showing that you adhered to the reporting format should be submitted with your manuscript):
a. For randomised control trials:
b. For cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies:
c. All other studies:

2. Review Articles: Extensive reviews of the literature on a narrow clinical topic. References must include, but need not be limited to, the past 3 years of the literature. A structured abstract is required (see Preparation below). Maximum length: 3,000 words, plus the narrative abstract (max 300 words) and references (max 50). Please contact the editor in chief before you submit a review. The following reporting checklists should be used to structure your manuscript (a completed checklist showing that you adhered to the reporting format should be submitted with your manuscript):
a. A Resourced-tiered review checklist is the standard reporting format for publication in AfJEM:
b. If your topic does not lean itself towards a resourced tiered review consider alternative reporting checklists for systematic reviews and meta-analyses such as Prisma checklist ( ) or similar. Please check with the editor-in-chief before using a checklist other that the resources-tiered checklist.

3. Case Reports: Brief descriptions of a previously undocumented disease process, a unique unreported manifestation or treatment of a known disease process, or unique unreported complications of treatment regimens. Case reports should be structured as follow: Introduction, Case report and Discussion. It should not contain an exhaustive review of the literature. Consider consent for patient identifiable information (download from website). A structured abstract (see Preparation below) is required. Maximum length: 1,000 words, plus abstract (max 150 words) and references (max 10), and 1 table or figure. Case reports listed for publication after 2015 are published online only and compiled within a virtual issue once a year.

4. Practical Pearl: Descriptions of novel approaches to provision of emergency care; and practical "tricks of the trade" describing aspects of emergency medicine management. An abstract is not required (enter: Not required, practical pearl when prompted). Maximum length: 800 words, 5 tables and/or figures and references (max 5). A manuscript template is available at and can be used for submission. Note that author details should be included in the manuscript.

5. Brief Research Reports: Reports of preliminary data and findings or studies with small numbers demonstrating the need for further investigation. References and a structured abstract (see Preparation below) are required. Maximum length: 1,500 words, plus the abstract (max 300 words) and references (max 10) and 3 tables and/or figures. Checklists described for original research above should be used to structure your manuscript (a completed checklist should be submitted with your manuscript)

6. Concepts: Descriptions of clinical and nonclinical problems and solutions; descriptions of novel approaches to planning, management, or provision of emergency services; and practical " how-to" articles describing aspects of emergency medicine management (includes African country acute care profiles) . A narrative abstract (see Preparation below) is required. Maximum length: 3,000 words, plus the abstract (max 300 words) and references (max 50).

7. Editorials (commissioned and including op-ed): Authoritative comments or opinions on major current problems of emergency physicians or on controversial matters with significant implications for emergency medicine; or, qualified, thorough analysis and criticism of articles appearing in AfJEM. Maximum length: 1,500 words plus references (max 5). An abstract is not required.

8. Correspondence: Discussion, observations, opinions, corrections, and comments on topics appearing in AfJEM; very brief reports or other items of interest. Maximum length: 500 words, plus references (max 5). An abstract is not required. Please enter: Not applicable, Correspondence when prompted to enter an abstract. Letters discussing an AfJEM article should be received within 6 weeks of the article's publication. The article must be included in the references. Authors of articles about which letters are received will be given the opportunity to reply, which will not be shared with the letter writer prior to publication. Letters of political or other topics unrelated to the science of medicine, as well as those containing personal criticisms, will not be published.

9. Erratum: Corrections on topics appearing in AfJEM. Maximum length: 300 words, plus references (max 5). An abstract is not required. Please enter: Not applicable, Erratum when prompted to enter an abstract. Letters discussing an AfJEM article should be received within 6 weeks of the article's publication. The article must be included in the references. Authors of articles about which letters are received will be given the opportunity to reply, which will not be shared with the letter writer prior to publication. Letters of political or other topics unrelated to the science of medicine, as well as those containing personal criticisms, will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Contact details for submission

Please submit your article via

Ethics in Publishing

For information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and The work described in your article must have been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EC Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals AfJEM is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) which advises on the management of cases where research or publication misconduct occurred ( Consent forms for patients (if required) can be downloaded in both English and French.

Plagiarism detection AfJEM is a member of iThenticate. iThenticate is a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers, and millions of pages of web content. Authors, researchers and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting

Declaration of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Clinical trial results

In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

Journal rights

For articles published in AfJEM Elsevier uses an Exclusive License Agreement to define these rights. For articles published in AfJEM Elsevier uses an Exclusive License Agreement to define these rights. Under this license the rights granted to AfJEM include:

  • An exclusive right to publish and distribute an article.
  • The right to provide the article in all forms and media so the article can be used on the latest technology even after publication.
  • The right to publish and disseminate the article under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND) for the purposes of Open Access publication.
  • Additional rights to enforce the rights in the work, on behalf of an author, against third parties in the case of plagiarism, ethic disputes and fraud.
Author rights: As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights:
  • Copyright of the article
  • Patent, trademark and other intellectual property rights in the article
  • The right for proper attribution and credit for the published work
  • The right to reuse their own work in the same way readers can as defined by CC-BY-NC-ND license.

For further details you are referred to: User rights: The CC-BY-NC-ND licence is used to govern the terms on which an article can be reused. CC-BY-NC-ND allows users to copy and distribute the article, provided this is not done for commercial purposes and the article is not changed or edited in any way. The author must be attributed and must not be represented as endorsing the use made of the work.

Open access (OA)

There is no publication fee for this journal. On publication, articles are made freely available to all (including non-subscribers) via the ScienceDirect platform. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus ( is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language and language services

Please write your text in UK English by setting your word processor to English (U.K.). Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit or our customer support site at for more information. Also see Author Assist below.

Author Assist It is the aim of the AfJEM to be representative of all parts of the African continent; we recognise within this that some African researchers in emergency care may be disadvantaged in the available range of journals into which they can publish their work. We are aware that this is due to many reasons, including that topics are concerned with conditions which are largely irrelevant to other audiences. AfJEM is dedicated to supporting all authors who wish to publish on an African emergency care topic. In order to maintain and produce a high quality, international standard Emergency Medicine journal, AfJEM has devised Author Assist. AfJEM enlists the help of a team of experienced volunteers (Author Assistants) to help improve the quality of manuscripts before peer-review submission. Go to for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Peer review and Referees

Each paper submitted to the journal is firstly checked for completeness and similarity by the technical editor followed by an initial desk review by one of the editors-in-chief. Papers not suitable for publication are either rejected outright (out-of-scope) or rejected- refer Author Assist (within scope, but poor quality). This is usually done within the first three to five days. Papers accepted for peer review are then assigned to an associate editor who takes responsibility for assigning peer reviewers and providing a synthesis of reviews to the editor-in-chief for a decision. All original content submitted to the AfJEM is peer reviewed by a minimum of two and up to four reviewers. Editorials, op-ed pieces and regular features are reviewed by a single expert reviewer, usually an associate editor of the journal. Peer review is double blinded (authors and reviewers never learn each other’s identities). The latter is specifically required to compliment the Author Assist process. AfJEM operates a strict peer reviewer code of conduct policy. Details can be found in the Reviewer Area on Authors are encouraged to submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that an editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Use of word processing software
It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article Structure

Ensure that author identifiers are not included in the main manuscript file submitted. Inclusion of an abstract in the manuscript is not required. Consult the guidance and checklists described in Types of Articles above to structure your manuscript correctly. Original articles, brief research reports and systematic reviews require the checklist to be submitted as a supplementary file. Where this has not been supplied, the manuscript will be returned to the author.

Divide your article into clearly defined sections as per the guidance given in Types of Articles above. Numbers are not to be used for sections or subsections. Section headings should be in bold. Subsection headings should be in italics. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections in addition to the sections described in Types of Articles above should be used sparingly.

Clinical trial results
In line with the position of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the journal will not consider results posted in the same clinical trials registry in which primary registration resides to be prior publication if the results posted are presented in the form of a brief structured (less than 500 words) abstract or table. However, divulging results in other circumstances (e.g., investors' meetings) is discouraged and may jeopardise consideration of the manuscript. Authors should fully disclose all posting in registries of results of the same or closely related work.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

If there is more than one appendix, it should be identified starting with Appendix B, C, etc. Do not use Appendix A. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (B.1), Eq. (B.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (C.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table B.1; Fig. B.1, etc. All appendices will be considered online material only.

Essential Title Page Information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
Word count. Please provide a word count
Table/figure count. Please provide a table/ figure count


A concise and factual abstract of no more than 300 words is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential, it must be defined at the first mention. With the exception of a submission for Editorials, Practical pearl, Correspondence and Erratum, structured abstracts are required for all article types

Types of abstracts include:

  • Research abstracts should adhere to the following format: Introduction, Methods, Results and Conclusion.
  • Case reports should adhere to the following format: Introduction, Case report and Discussion.
  • Narrative abstracts are acceptable for non-research abstracts (concepts and commentary)


The submission system will prompt authors to provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. References for the design of the study and complex or unusual statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Commonly used methods such as the chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, linear and logistic regression need not be referenced. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Technical statistical terms should ideally be replaced by simpler terms where possible and referenced if not. Specify the computer software used. The results section must be written so the average reader can understand the findings. The methods section is allowed to be more complex if unavoidable. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). For normally distributed data give means and confidence intervals and for data that is not normally distributed give the median and interquartile range. Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as p-values. If p-values are used, include 2 digits of precision (i.e. p=0.65) for values greater than 0.01. Give 3 digits for values between 0.01 and 0.001 and report values smaller than 0.001 as p < 0.001. Describing non-significant p-values as NS is not acceptable and a numerical value should be given. When using tables consider including counts and percentages. In general, including the chi-square statistic, t statistic, F statistic and degrees of freedom is not useful. Regression output should be limited to the most important findings. Estimates of variance explained (R2, correlation coefficients, and standardised regression coefficients or effect size) should not be presented as the main result of the analysis.

Math Formulae

Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text). Bear in mind that complex formulae, such as log likelihood expressions or symbolic expressions for regression models are often beyond the grasp of the average reader. Consider making this available as an online only appendix.


Footnotes are discouraged and when used should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Mandatory statements

Mandatory statements are included in the word count and should be placed just before the reference section.

1. Conflict of interest
If no conflict of interest exists please state: The author(s) declare no conflict of interest Conflicts of interests that require disclosure include, but are not limited to:

  • a. Associations with commercial entities that provided support for the work reported in the submitted manuscript (the timeframe for disclosure in this section of the form is the life span of the work being reported).
  • b. Associations with commercial entities that could be viewed as having an interest in the general area of the submitted manuscript (in the three years before submission of the manuscript).
  • c. Non-financial associations that may be relevant or seen as relevant to the submitted manuscript.

Example: I the author (/We, the authors), declare the following interests: AA has received speaker fees from BBB company. CC has received fees as an advisory board member for DDD company. EE’s institution receives funding from FFF company for a trial in which he is co-investigator

2. Dissemination of resultsNot required for editorials, review articles, regular features, correspondence or erratum. Provide a brief statement on how findings of this research were disseminated to the community from, or within which it was collected.
Example: Results from this study (research/ trail/ etc.) was shared with staff members at AAA hospital emergency centre through an informal presentation. The results were also published in the hospital’s newsletter.

3. Author contributionPlease provide a brief statement to describe the contributions of authors. Please note that according to the ICMJE an author should fulfil all of the following criteria:

  • a. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work
  • b. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content
  • c. Final approval of the version to be published
  • d. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Example: AB and BC conceived the original idea. AB and CD designed the experiments. AB carried out analysis of data. AB, CD and BC prepared the manuscript (note that authors’ names are shortened to initials only)


Image manipulation
Whilst it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly. For graphical images, this journal is applying the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Colour artwork/ figure
Please make sure that artwork/ figure files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to colour reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork/ figure, please see

Artwork Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration/ figure has a caption. Supply captions separately, listed at the end of your manuscript after the references, and not included in the separately uploaded artworks/ figures. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure captions
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Text graphics
Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. See further under Electronic artwork.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.Tables should be placed within the text where it is referenced. The preferred format for tables is as follow. Include tables in the main text of the manuscript. Each table should be labelled at the top with footnotes at the bottom.

table 1 Title of table

Align heading leftAlign heading middle Align heading middle
Align content left Align content middle Align content middle
Align content lefta Align content middleb Align content middle
Align content left Align content middle Align content middle
a Footnote 1, b Footnote 2


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by superscript numbers in the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010;163:51–9.
Reference to a book:
2. Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281–304.
Note shortened form for last page number. e.g., 51–9, and that for more than 3 authors the first 3 should be listed followed by 'et al.' For further details you are referred to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals' (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34) (see also

Journal Abbreviations Source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: The correct abbreviation for AfJEM is: Afr J Emerg Med

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material can support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Please note that such items are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved (supplementary data supplied as an Excel file or as a PowerPoint slide will appear as such online). Please submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. If you wish to make any changes to supplementary data during any stage of the process, then please make sure to provide an updated file, and do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please also make sure to switch off the 'Track Changes' option in any Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published supplementary file(s). For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
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