Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Types of article
• Manuscript Submission
• Editorial Office
• Supporting Documents
• Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
• Reporting Clinical Trials
• Declaration of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees
• Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission
• Basic Criteria
• Copyright
• Open Access
• Manuscript Preparation
• Peer review
• The Editorial and Peer Review Process
• Video
• Preparation for Publication
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica (AAT), launched in 1962, is the official and peer-reviewed publication of the Taiwan Society of Anaesthesiologists. It is published quarterly (March/June/September/December) by Elsevier and indexed in EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SIIC Data Bases. AAT accepts submissions from around the world.

AAT is the premier journal in the field of anaesthesia and its related disciplines of critical care and pain in Asia. The number of Chinese anaesthesiologists has reached more than 60,000 and is still growing. The journal aims to disseminate anaesthesiology research and services for the Chinese community and is now the main anaesthesiology journal for Chinese societies located in Taiwan, Mainland China, Hong Kong and Singapore.

AATcaters to clinicians of all relevant specialties and biomedical scientists working in the areas of anesthesia, critical care medicine and pain management, as well as other related fields (pharmacology, pathology molecular biology, etc). AAT's editorial team is composed of local and regional experts in the field as well as many leading international experts.

Article types accepted include review articles, research papers, case reports, short communication, correspondence and images.

The Editorial Board requires authors to be in compliance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (URMs), which are compiled by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE); current URMs are available at External link

The Guide for Authors are revised periodically by the Editors as needed. Authors should consult a recent issue of the Journal or visit External link for the latest version of these instructions. Any manuscript not prepared according to these instructions will be returned immediately to the author(s) without review.

Types of article

The categories of articles that are published in the Journal are listed and described below. Please select the category that best describes your paper. If your paper does not fall into any of these categories, please contact the Editorial Office.

These are usually written by invited authors or editorial board members and are comments on recent news or articles published in the Journal.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 1200 words (excluding references)
  • References: 15 or less
  • Tables/Figures: none

Review Article
These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical issue in research or clinical practice. They should cover aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific research. All articles and data sources reviewed should include information about the specific type of study or analysis, population, intervention, exposure, and tests or outcomes. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated.

While review articles are usually submitted by invitation only, unsolicited review articles will also be given due consideration.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 4000 words (excluding abstract and references)
  • References: 100 or less
  • Abstract: up to 500 words, unstructured (i.e., no subheadings)
  • Tables/Figures: no limit, but data in text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures

Research Paper
These articles typically include randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, case-control studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.

The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patients/participants with inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient samples or animal specimens used, the essential features of any interventions, the main outcome measures, the laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study), and state the statistical procedures employed in the research.

The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented by tables and/or figures. Take care that the text does not repeat data that are presented in tables and/or figures. Only emphasize and summarize the essential features of the main results.

The Discussion section should be used to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 3000 words (excluding abstract and references)
  • References: 50 or less
  • Abstract: up to 500 words, structured (i.e., with the section headings Objective(s), Methods, Results and Conclusion)
  • Tables/Figures: no limit, but data in text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures

Case Reports
These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. They may describe novel anesthetic techniques or use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance to anesthesiology, and are suitable for documenting unusual cases of toxicity. They should NOT describe the efficacy of a drug or a treatment, which should be demonstrated by an adequately powered and well-controlled clinical trial. The only exception is efficacy in a population or clinical scenario that is so uncommon that a clinical trial cannot be performed. (Interesting but not truly exceptional cases should be submitted as Letters to the Editor.)

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

The Introduction should describe the purpose of the present report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.

The Case report should include statements of the problem, patient history, diagnosis, treatment, outcome and any other information pertinent to the case(s).

The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar cases reported in other published articles. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 1500 words (excluding abstract and references)
  • References: 25 or less
  • Abstract: up to 500 words, unstructured (i.e., no subheadings)
  • Tables/Figures: no limit, but data in text should not be repeated extensively in tables or figures

Short Communication
These reports should be concise presentations of preliminary experimental results or technical aspects of clinical or experimental practice that are not fully investigated, verified or perfected but which may be of widespread interest or application. The Editors reserve the right to decide what constitutes a Brief Communication.

Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 1500 words (excluding abstract and references)
  • References: 20 or less
  • Abstract: up to 500 words, unstructured (i.e., no subheadings)
  • Tables/Figures: 1 table and/or 1 figure

These include brief constructive comments in response to previously published AAT articles, interesting cases that do not meet the requirement of being truly exceptional, and other communications of general interest. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of AATEditors.

Format guide

  • Word limit: 500 words (excluding references)
  • References: 5 or less
  • Tables/Figures: 1 table and/or 1 figure
  • Begin with "Dear Editor"
  • No subheadings

Pictures can tell a story more clearly than words. The AAT welcomes novel or highly educational images pertinent to perioperative medicine, with or without an associated video. With the advances in imaging technology in recent years, particularly in ultrasound, real-time visualization of the target facilitates performance of the procedure and enhances its educational value. In the areas of regional anesthesia and pain medicine, we also encourage authors to submit techniques illustrated by images.

Original and high-quality images not previously published will be considered. Accepted images will appear in both the print and electronic (website) versions of the Journal.

Color images will be reproduced on the Journal's website in color free of charge. But color images in the print Journal will be charged at US$80 per page. Therefore, authors must clearly state whether they want their color images to be converted into grayscale for publication in the print Journal (which would be free) or to remain in color (which would be charged at US$80 per page).

To submit an image for publication in AAT, please follow the format guidelines below.

Format guide

  • Authors: 3 maximum
  • Word limit: 500 words (excluding references)
  • No subheadings
  • References: 5 or less
  • Figure: 1 maximum (on occasion, two coupled panels would be acceptable)
  • Video: 1 maximum, ≤ 150 MB in size (the goal of the video is to help elucidate the figure, but it is not mandatory; accepted video formats include *.mpg, *.mp4, *.mov and *.avi)
  • No figure legends (description related to the image should be incorporated into the body of the text)
The current Guide for Authors is available at

Manuscript Submission

Online Submission
Manuscripts (meaning all submission items, including all text, tables, artwork, cover letter, conflicts of interest disclosures, and any other required documents/material) must be submitted online to AAT through the Elsevier Editorial System (EVISE®) at If assistance is required, please refer to the tutorials for authors and/or customer support that are available on the EVISE® website; you may also contact the Editorial Office. Please do not post, fax or e-mail your manuscripts to the Editorial Office.

Editorial Office

Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica
4F, Research Building, Dept of Anesthesiology
National Taiwan University Hospital
No. 7 Chun-Shan South Road 
Taipei 100, Taiwan
Tel: (+886) 2-2312-3456 ext. 65496
Fax: (+886) 2-2341-5736

Important Information

  • Articles should be in Microsoft Word document format andprepared in the simplest form possible. We will add in thecorrect font, font size, margins and so on according to theJournal's style.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT useother kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes,headers and footers. References especially should NOT beformatted using the MS Word "endnotes" or "footnotes"function; instead, you may use the commercially availableEndNote® or Reference Manager® software to manage yourreferences.
  • Put text, references, table headings and tables, and figurelegends in one file.
  • Figures must be submitted as separate picture files, at thecorrect resolution and named according to the figure numberand format, e.g., "Fig1.tif", "Fig2.jpg". Please see section Figures formore information.

Supporting Documents

The following documents must be included in your submission (refer also to the Checklist that follows these author instructions). Items (1), (2), (3) and (4) are mandatory. Items (5), (6) and (7) are required only if they are applicable to your manuscript.

(1) Cover Letter. This must include the following information:

  • title of the manuscript
  • a statement that the material contained in themanuscript has not been previously published and isnot being concurrently submitted elsewhere
  • persons who do not fulfill the requirements to belisted as authors but who nevertheless contributedto the manuscript (such as those who providedwriting assistance, for example) should be disclosed
  • list of manuscripts that have been published,submitted, or are in press that are similar to thesubmission to AAT(and include in your submissioncopies of those similar manuscripts so that AATEditors can be assured there is no overlap)
  • the signature of the corresponding author
  • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailingaddress, telephone and fax numbers)
  • Optional: if you have a list of reviewers who you wishto review or not to review your manuscript, you mayinclude this list in the cover letter

(2) Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement. Each author'scontribution to the manuscript should be listed. Any andall potential and actual conflicts of interest should also belisted (see Section Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest) for more information). Please use theAAT Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form thatfollows these author instructions and that is also providedon the Journal's website at

Your signatureand those of ALL your coauthors must be included.

(3) Copyright Transfer Agreement. In the event that your manuscript is accepted for publication in AAT, you are required to transfer all copyright ownership in and relating to the work to the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists. Please use the AAT Copyright Transfer Agreement form that follows these author instructions and that is also provided on the Journal's website at Your signature and those of ALL your coauthors must be included.

(4) Ethics Review Form (Ethical Statement). In order to assure the authors of the submitted manuscript comply with international human research ethics standards, the Editorial Office requires the corresponding author to complete the "Ethics Review Form" which contains relevant information in each section. The author holds his/her responsibility for the accuracy and validity of the information provided in the table. See Section Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent for more information.

(5) Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart for randomized controlled trials submitted for publication. See Section Reporting Clinical Trials for more information.

(6) Signed Statement of Informed Consent. Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified. See Section Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees for more information.

(7) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrighted sources, the letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to reproduce or adapt the copyrighted sources must be supplied. Otherwise, such material must be removed from your manuscript.(8) Copyright Permission. If you have reproduced or adapted material from other copyrig

Ethical Approval of Studies and Informed Consent

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Available at:

For investigation of human subjects, state explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects and from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

For work involving animals, the guidelines for their care and use that were followed should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal institutional guidelines relating to animal experiments, the European Commission Directive 86/609/EEC for animal experiments (available at should be followed and the same should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No. 8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

A conflict of interest occurs when an individual's objectivity is potentially compromised by a desire for financial gain, prominence, professional advancement or a successful outcome. AAT Editors strive to ensure that what is published in the Journal is as balanced, objective and evidence-based as possible. Since it can be difficult to distinguish between an actual conflict of interest and a perceived conflict of interest, the Journal requires authors to disclose all and any potential conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of interest may be financial or non-financial. Financial conflicts include financial relationships such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements. Non-financial conflicts include personal or professional relationships, affiliations, academic competition, intellectual passion, knowledge or beliefs that might affect objectivity.

Please ensure that the name of each author listed in your manuscript appears in either Section I or Section II on page 2 of the AAT Authorship & Conflicts of Interest Statement form (an author's name cannot appear in both Section I and Section II of the form).

Reporting Clinical Trials

All randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow chart (please go to for more information). AAT has adopted the ICMJE proposal that requires, as a condition of consideration for publication of clinical trials, registration in a public trials registry. Trials must register at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article.

For this purpose, a clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events.

Purely observational studies (those in which the assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator) will not require registration. Further information can be found at

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. If there are no conflicts of interest then please state this: 'Conflicts of interest: none'. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Identification of Patients in Descriptions, Photographs and Pedigrees

A signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) patient descriptions, photographs and pedigrees should be obtained from all persons (parents or legal guardians for minors) who can be identified (including by the patients themselves) in such written descriptions, photographs or pedigrees. Such persons should be shown the manuscript before its submission. Omitting data or making data less specific to de-identify patients is acceptable, but changing any such data is not acceptable. State explicitly in the methods section of the manuscript that informed consent was obtained from all participating adult subjects or from parents or legal guardians for minors or incapacitated adults, together with the manner in which informed consent was obtained (i.e., oral or written).

Previous Publication or Duplicate Submission

Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium.

Basic Criteria

Articles should be written in English, using American English spelling, and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear and concise, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

The AAT is the official peer-reviewed publication of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists. Manuscripts published in the AAT become the permanent property of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists. All articles published in the Journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, as well as translation rights. No AAT article, in part or whole, may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists.

However, the following rights of authors are reserved: (i) the right to use, free of charge, all or part of their article in future works of their own, such as books and lectures, as long as the original source (the Journal) is acknowledged; (ii) the right to reproduce the article for their own non-commercial and educational purposes; (iii) any patent rights.

This journal has an embargo period of 0 months.

Open Access

This Journal is a peer reviewed, subsidized open access journal where The Taiwan Society of Anaesthesiologists pays for the publishing costs incurred by the Journal. Authors do not have to pay any Article Processing Charge or Open Access Publication Fee.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Elsevier Publishing Campus
The Elsevier Publishing Campus ( is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research. The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication. Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Manuscript Preparation

Text should be typed double-spaced on white A4 (297 x 210 mm) paper, with outer margins of 2.5 cm. The manuscript should include a title page, abstract, keywords, main text, acknowledgments (if any), references, and figures and tables as appropriate. Each section of the manuscript should begin on a new page. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. More information on types of peer review.

Title Page
The title page should contain the following information (in order, from the top to bottom of the page):

  • article category
  • article title
  • names (spelled out in full*) of all authors, and the institutions with which they are affiliated; indicate all affiliations with a superscripted number after the author's name and in front of the matching affiliation
  • declaration of any potential financial and non-financial conflicts of interest
  • corresponding author details (name, e-mail, mailing address, telephone and fax numbers)
  • running title not exceeding 50 characters

*The name of each author should be written with the family name last, e.g., Wan-Lin Chang. Authorship is restricted only to direct participants who have contributed significantly to the work and the number of authors should not exceed seven.

Abstract and Keywords
An abstract of no longer than 500 words and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Articles, Original Articles, Case Reports and Brief Communications.

Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings Objective(s), Methods, Results and Conclusion.

  • Objective(s): briefly explain the importance of the study topic and state a precise study question or purpose.
  • Methods: briefly introduce the methods used to perform the study; include information on the study design, setting, subjects, interventions, outcome measures and analyses as appropriate.
  • Results: briefly present the significant results, with data and statistical details such as p values where appropriate; be sure that information in the abstract matches that in the main text.
  • Conclusion: state the meaning of your findings, being careful to address the study question directly and to confine your conclusions to aspects covered in the abstract; give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings.

Abstracts for Review Articles, Case Reports and Brief Communications should be unstructured, in one single paragraph with no section headings, but include information on the background/purpose of the report, methods, results (or case report), and conclusions.

Keywords should be taken from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus (

No abstract and keywords are required for Editorial View and Letters to the Editor.

Main Text
The text for Original Articles and Brief Communications should be organized into the following sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Subheadings in long papers are acceptable if needed for clarification and ease of reading. Sections for Case Reports are: Introduction, Case report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if any), and References. Each section should begin on a new page.

Where a term/definition will be continually referred to, it must be written in full when it first appears in the text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used. An abbreviation should not be first defined in any section heading; if an abbreviation has previously been defined in the text, then the abbreviation may be used in a subsequent section heading. Restrict the number of abbreviations to those that are absolutely necessary and ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article. Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.

Numbers that begin a sentence or those that are less than 10 should be spelled out using letters. Centuries and decades should be spelled out, e.g., the Eighties or nineteenth century. Laboratory parameters, time, temperature, length, area, mass, and volume should be expressed using digits.

Systeme International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume. Temperatures are to be given in degrees Celsius.

Names of drugs, devices and other products
Use the Recommended International Non-proprietary Name (rINN) for medicinal substances, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Generic drug names should appear in lowercase letters in the text. If a specific proprietary drug needs to be identified, the brand name may appear only once in the manuscript in parentheses following the generic name the first time the drug is mentioned in the text.

For devices and other products, the specific brand or trade name, the manufacturer and their location (city, state, country) should be provided the first time the device or product is mentioned in the text, for example, "...IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0 was used (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)". Thereafter, the generic term (if appropriate) should be used.

Gene nomenclature
Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee ( You may also refer to the resources available on PubMed at The Human Genome Variation Society has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at In your manuscript, genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number.

Statistical requirements
Statistical analysis is essential for all research papers except Case Reports. Use correct nomenclature for statistical methods (e.g., two sample t test, not unpaired t test). Descriptive statistics should follow the scales used in data description. Inferential statistics are important for interpreting results and should be described in detail.

All p values should be presented to the third decimal place for accuracy. The smallest p value that should be expressed is p < 0.001 since additional zeros do not convey useful information; the largest p value that should be expressed is p > 0.99.

Personal communications and unpublished data
These sources cannot be included in the references list but may be described in the text. The author(s) must give the full name and highest academic degree of the person, the date of the communication, and indicate whether it was in oral or written (letter, fax, e-mail) form. A signed statement of permission should be included from each person identified as a source of information in a personal communication or as a source for unpublished data.

Funding/Support Statement
All financial and material support for the research, work, writing and editorial assistance from internal or external agencies, including commercial companies, should be clearly and completely identified in a Funding/Support Statement.

General acknowledgments for consultations and statistical analyses should be listed concisely, including the names of the individuals who were directly involved. Consent should be obtained from those individuals before their names are listed in this section. Those acknowledged should not include secretarial, clerical or technical staff whose participation was limited to the performance of their normal duties.

General guidelines
The number of figures should be restricted to the minimum necessary to support the textual material. Figures should have an informative figure legend and be numbered in the order of their citation in the text. All symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the figure legend in alphabetical order. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should follow the same style as that for tables as described in Section Tables.

Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details (such as their name and date of birth) of the patient must be removed. If their face is shown, use a black bar to cover their eyes so that they cannot be identified (for further information, see

All lettering should be done professionally and should be in proportion to the drawing, graph or photograph. Photomicrographs must include an internal scale marker, and the legend should state the type of specimen, original magnification and stain.
Figures must be submitted as separate picture files at the correct resolution (see Section Formats) and named according to the figure number and format, e.g., “Fig1.tif”, “Fig2.jpg”.

Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”.
  • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones) — always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings — use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale) — a minimum of 600 dpi.
  • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply “as is”.

Please do not:

  • Supply files that do not meet the resolution requirements detailed above;
  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (such as GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available at Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author (see Section Publication Charges and Reprints for more information).

Tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. They should have a concise table heading, be self-explanatory, and numbered consecutively in the order of their citation in the text. Items requiring explanatory footnotes should be denoted using superscripted lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.), with the footnotes arranged under the table in alphabetical order. Asterisks (*, **) are used only to indicate the probability level of tests of significance. Abbreviations used in the table must be defined and placed after the footnotes in alphabetical order. If you include a block of data or table from another source, whether published or unpublished, you must acknowledge the original source.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct in-text citation.

In the main text, tables and figure legends

  • References should be indicated by superscripted numbers according to order of appearance in the text, and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
  • Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., “unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references. Also see Section Personal communications and unpublished data.

In the references list

  • References should be compiled at the end of the manuscript according to the order of citation in the text.
  • References should be limited to those cited in the text only.
  • Journal references should include, in order, authors’ surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers.
  • The surnames and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when authors number 7 or more, list the first 6 authors only followed by “et al”.
  • Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Examples of the most common reference types are provided below. (Please pay particular attention to the formatting, word capitalization, spacing and style.)

Standard journal articles
Chan MH, Chen WH, Tung YW, Liu K, Tan PH, Chia YY. Single-injection femoral nerve block lacks preemptive effect on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in total knee arthroplasty. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan2012;50:54-8.

Wang FY, Shen YC, Chen MK, Chau SW, Ku CL, Feng YT, et al. Equal volumes of undiluted nalbuphine and lidocaine and normal diluted saline prevents nalbuphine-induced injection pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan2011;49:125-9.

Journal supplement
Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32 Suppl 3:S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract
Hofele C, Schwager-Schmitt M, Volkmann M. Prognostic value of antibodies against p53 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-five years survival rate. Laryngorhinootologie 2002;81:342-5. [In German, English abstract]

Book with edition
Fleisher L. Anesthesia and uncommon diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2005.

Book with editors
Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

Book chapter (section) in book with editor and edition
Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.

Book series with editors
Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-1978.

World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Electronic publications
Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med2004;158(2). Available at Accessed June 12, 2004.

Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002(2):CD001054. Doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

Item presented at a meeting but not yet published (conference proceedings)
Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL, abstract 359.

Item presented at a meeting and published (conference paper)
Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelight-filtering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004, abstract 337.

Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins. MSD thesis, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, 1971.

Glueckauf RL, Whitton J, Baxter J. Videocounseling for families of rural teens with epilepsy-project update. Telehealth News 1998. Available at Accessed November 15, 2008.

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet
Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak Company; 1977, p. 2-3.

The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission, and authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If such an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.

Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. The submission will not be accepted if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.

Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief, who make an initial assessment of it. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, then the manuscript will be rejected promptly without review.

Manuscripts that appear meritorious and appropriate for the Journal are reviewed by at least two Editorial Board members or expert consultants assigned by the Editor-in-Chief. The reviewers' opinions are summarized and forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for a final decision. The AAT follows a single-blind peer review process. Authors may submit a list in their cover letter of reviewers who they wish to review or not to review their manuscript. However, the actual peer reviewers invited will remain anonymous and may or may not be the reviewers suggested by the authors as the selection of reviewers is at the sole discretion of AAT Editors. The editors and reviewers will not disclose any information about a manuscript or its review to anyone except the manuscript's corresponding author.

The corresponding author will usually be notified within 10 weeks of whether the submitted article is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance (however, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable). If revisions are required, authors are asked to return a revised manuscript to the Editorial Office via the EES within 60 days. Please notify the Editorial Office in advance if additional time is needed or if you choose not to submit a revised manuscript.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Preparation for Publication

Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors should submit the final version of their manuscript in MS Word format, with all tables/figures as applicable, via the EES.

Accepted manuscripts are then copyedited according to the Journal's style and the galley proofs in the form of a PDF file are sent by the Publisher to the corresponding author for final approval. Authors are responsible for all statements made in their work, including changes made by the copy editor.

Proofreading is solely the authors' responsibility. Note that the Editorial Board reserves the right to make revisions to the manuscript and the Publisher may proceed with the publication of your article if no response from the author(s) is received.

Accepted articles are published in sequence according to the date of acceptance. If an author would like to have his/her article published ahead of its schedule, then a fee is payable for such an arrangement (please contact the Editorial Office for details). Authors who require a publication for promotion or merits are encouraged to submit their manuscripts before September each year for early processing.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which can be shared via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's Webshop. Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier Webshop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover.


Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need. Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.
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