Guide for Authors

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Academic Pediatrics strives to improve the health and wellbeing of children, their families, and their communities through:

•Providing a forum for the publication of general pediatric studies, commentaries and reviews that are of interest to learners and professionals who care for children and adolescents;
•Helping to advance the field of academic pediatrics;
•Strengthening the research and educational base of academic pediatrics; and
•Providing the evidence base for optimal child health care, pediatric education, and child health policy.
The content areas of the Journal reflect the general interests of Academic Pediatric Association members and other health professionals who care for children. Areas of particular interest include child health services research, quality of clinical care, pediatric education, child health policy, and research methodology. Content areas for the Journal include such diverse topics as adolescent medicine, child maltreatment and protection, chronic illness, community pediatrics, developmental and behavioral pediatrics, emergency medicine, environmental medicine, financing, global pediatrics, health disparities, holistic medicine, hospital medicine, informatics, injury, medical education across the continuum, pediatric advocacy, prevention, pediatric primary care problems, and public health.
Please address editorial questions to:
Peter G. Szilagyi, MD, MPH, Editor-in-Chief
Academic Pediatrics
Director and Vice-Chair for Clinical Research
Mattell Children's Hospital UCLA
Los Angeles, CA
Phone: 310-206-6328

Research articles - Quantitative and Qualitative Research

Most research articles published in the Journal use quantitative methods, and the maximum length for these manuscripts is 3500 words. The word limit for manuscripts reporting qualitative research is also 3500 words. Mixed methods research will also be accepted. Concise, clear writing is one of the criteria by which editors and reviewers evaluate submissions. Manuscripts reporting original research should have a clear organization with an abstract and What's New, described below, an introduction, a methods sections (including a CONSORT flow diagram and checklist for randomized, controlled trials [RCTs]), a results section, and a discussion. Academic Pediatrics will take into consideration the registration of RCTs in a public trials registry, as described by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (See Although trials that began participant enrollment in 2014 or earlier will not be required to have been registered, starting January 2015, all controlled trials must have been registered before enrolling the first subject.

Brief Reports

The Journal also publishes brief reports that describe interesting new ideas or innovations in pediatric medicine, health services, and medical education. Brief reports may raise new questions of interest to the Journal readership. Brief reports typically are judged using the same metrics as are other research articles. Brief reports should have no more than 2,000 words (excluding abstract, tables, and references) and a maximum of three tables or figures and 25 references. Other elements (abstract, What's New and references) meet usual Journal requirements for length and formatting, and peer review.

Articles on Educational Research

Articles describing educational research and interventions should measure and report outcomes beyond participants' reactions and change in knowledge. Demonstration of the impact of educational interventions  should include changes in observed behaviors of learners as a result of the intervention. Ultimately, new learned behaviors should have measurable impact through improved patient outcomes and/or enhanced child health.

View from the Association of Pediatric Program Directors (APPD)

As the official journal of the Association for Pediatric Program Directors (APPD), this journal accepts manuscript submissions for the View from APPD Pages. Any topic relevant to pediatric residency education or program administration will be considered, yet preference will be given to papers with outcomes beyond merely a description of a curriculum. Innovative single institution pilot projects, as well as practical how-to papers grounded in the literature will also be considered. A key consideration should be how helpful this work will be for members of the APPD community. Past examples can be found here. Manuscripts should be less than 2000 words with no more than two figures or tables and 20 references. Research papers should follow a traditional structure (typically Background, Methods, Results, Discussion). Submissions should have an abstract of no more than 200 words. If you would like input before the submission, or to submit an idea for a manuscript, please contact the Associate Editor for APPD View, Mike Pitt, at


Perspectives presents important pediatric topics, with an emphasis on research findings in the previous five years and identifying areas for future study. The Perspectives Editors solicit most articles with input about topics and potential authors from the Journal's senior editorial group. Authors will generally be respected authorities in the area and may include a fellow or junior faculty member as a co-author. The manuscript should be about 4500-5000 words with an abstract of around 400 words and references as needed. "What's New" is not required. The manuscript should include an overview of key questions and important research in a field, indicating the recent advances in the underlying science, and ending with a vision of the research and/or policy issues that should be addressed in the near future. Where appropriate, Perspectives should also discuss implications for pediatric education and practice. The editors will work with authors as needed and may request an annotated outline of the manuscript. All Perspectives manuscripts are peer-reviewed. For questions or suggestions about a Perspectives topic, please contact Paul C. Young at or Paul Chung at

Systematic Reviews

Systematic reviews are critical assessments of literature and data sources pertaining to one of four areas: 1) pediatric research methods, 2) pediatric education and pediatric professional development, 3) pediatric health policy, and 4) pediatric health care delivery. All articles or data sources should be selected systematically for inclusion in the review and critically evaluated, and the selection process should be described in the article. Typical length: 2000 to 3500 words (not including tables, figures, and references). Evidence tables that list specific studies would generally be published in an online-only appendix, while the print version would include the critical summary tables. Any manuscript over 4000 words will not be considered unless this has been previously discussed with the editor Robert Jacobson at Specific requirements for Systematic Reviews are described in more detail below.

Narrative Reviews

Narrative reviews, as opposed to systematic reviews, are particularly useful for topics with a fragmentary evidence base, such as emerging issues, singular events, or new approaches. Our journal's four-fold focus is for topics in pediatric healthcare delivery, education, research, and public policy. Before conducting such a narrative review, prospective authorsmay wish to contact the Reviews Editor, Robert M Jacobson, MD, to gauge the acceptability of the topic. As with all submissions to Academic Pediatrics, submitted manuscripts will undergo peer-review for determination of acceptance.

Narrative reviews should be limited in scope and length. The title should specify that the report is a narrative review. The content should be limited to 2400 words with a maximum of 4 figures and tables total, and no more than 50 references. The structure should be organic, taking its organization from the topic, rather than forced into that of an original scientific contribution. Include an unstructured abstract, up to 250 words, and a brief summary, up to 40 words, for "What this Narrative Review Adds." As with other manuscript-types, the review should not have been published previously.

Scholarly Innovations

This type of manuscript provides an opportunity for medical educators to disseminate projects related to teaching activities, curricular interventions, learner assessment, advising and mentoring and program evaluation. These articles should report on educational innovations that have been recently implemented (within the past 2 years). The innovations described should represent a new approach or the application of an established method/tool in a novel setting or context (e.g., projects that utilize established methods/tools in a novel setting/context with no new insights gained would not be considered innovative). Pilot projects, projects that are part of a larger but not yet published research project, projects from one program and projects with early/short term outcomes are appropriate for this type of manuscript.
Content Requirements:

  • Maximum of 1000 words in length (excluding What's New?, table/figure and references) with maximum 1 table or figure.
  • Maximum of 10 key references.
  • An abstract is not required.
  • These reports should be organized into the following sections
o What's New? - Summarize innovation and outcomes in maximum of 40 words. oBackground - Brief background to establish the importance of the issue addressed in the intervention. oEducational Approach and Innovation - Description of the educational innovation and methods utilized in assessing the intervention. Justification of what makes the approach to or type of education innovative oResults - Assessment of the intervention's outcomes. oDiscussion and Next Steps - Discussion of the impact of the work in advancing what is already known about the topic. oA cover letter and title page as required for other submissions to the Journal. Outline next steps to further understand the issues related to the problem.
These articles will undergo the peer review process and be evaluated on the importance of the problem being addressed, the innovative nature of the project, the methods utilized in assessing the intervention, and the significance of the outcomes. We aim to publish one report in each issue.


The Journal publishes supplements on topics of interest to its readers. Authors interested in supplements to the Journal should contact the Editor-in-Chief to discuss interest and procedures. Supplements should have a guest editor, who helps with the initial review of manuscripts and organization of the supplement, as well as suggesting reviewers for the manuscripts. All manuscripts proposed for a supplement have external review (as with other submissions to the Journal), and final decisions on publication remain with the Journal's editors, in consultation with the guest editor for the supplement.

In The Moment - Personal Narratives

We invite submissions to "In the Moment", the personal narratives section of Academic Pediatrics. "In the Moment" is a forum for authors to relate their personal experience of pediatrics. We are seeking narrative pieces about research, contact with patients, the influence of mentors, the impact of policy and current events, and the relationship of the author's work to their lives and the lives of others. Essays should describe these experiences and make connections to larger themes in pediatrics education, research, policy, and clinical care. The section is a vibrant forum for all of us to relate the stories and perspectives that are such an important part of our work and ongoing medical education.
Submissions should be no more than 2500 words in length and do not need abstracts or "What's New" descriptions. Data and the work of others must be appropriately referenced. Papers should be submitted through the editorial website. Please direct questions to Terry Kind, MD, MPH at


The editors occasionally solicit brief (about 1000 word) commentaries regarding papers published in the Journal or recent reports of activities of interest to readers. Commentaries differ from Perspectives by being briefer and more focused on specific topics, questions, or manuscripts.Most commentaries are solicited by the editors. If you wish to submit a commentary, please contact the editor-in-chief at

Ideas and Innovations

Authors may submit manuscripts proposing innovative ideas meant to influence pediatric healthcare delivery, education, research, or public policy. Manuscripts should include a thoughtful review of the relevant literature of the topic to support an argument that current ideas or practices should be changed to help the field of pediatrics progress. Based on the literature review, the authors should offer an alternative conceptualization of the topic that might prove more fruitful as well as recommendations for the needed research. Reviews of submitted manuscripts will focus on the significance of the topic, the importance of the idea or innovation, and the clarity of the argument and conclusions. The title should convey the novelty in one way or another. The content should be limited to 3500 words with no more than 4 figures and tables in total and no more than 50 references. The structure should be organic, taking its organization from the development of the argument of the author(s). Include an unstructured abstract, up to 250 words, and a call-out box entitled, "What's New" that summarizes the argument in no more than 40 words. As with other submissions to this journal, the manuscript must not have been published previously. Submitted manuscripts will undergo peer-review before acceptance. Robert M. Jacobson at is responsible for this section.

Healthcare Innovations

  • 1000 words maximum with background, innovation and context, results, discussion and next steps sections
  • What's New
  • 10 references maximum
  • 1 table or figure
  • No abstract

Healthcare Innovations is a new type of submission. This type of manuscript provides an opportunity for healthcare innovators and operational leaders to publish and disseminate projects related to innovations in pediatric health care delivery. These articles should report on health care delivery innovations that have been recently implemented (within the past 5 years) and have not been previously reported. The proposed innovation should represent a new approach or paradigm shift in pediatric care delivery or an adaptation of a well-established approach newly applied to a pediatric context. Innovations may represent novel approaches in health care interventions, services, or financing mechanisms. Pilot projects and innovative projects that are part of a larger but not yet published research project are relevant to this article type provided preliminary feasibility and outcome data are included. Studies of quality improvement activities that are not generalizable beyond the initial site or implementation science studies that adapt or tailor existing well-developed pediatric approaches will not be considered responsive for this article type. The organization of this type of manuscript is slightly different from a traditional research manuscript with background, innovation and context, results, discussion and next steps sections. We would like reviewers to evaluate on the importance of the problem being addressed, the innovative nature of the project, the methods utilized in assessing the intervention, and the significance of the outcomes during the peer review process. For questions, please contact James Guevara, MD, MPH at

Progress Report

  • 1000 words maximum
  • What's New
  • 10 references maximum
  • No abstract

The editor invites authors of certain, recent original research studies published in the journal to submit Progress Reports. This Report gives authors an opportunity to direct readers' attention not only to their original study but also to the studies in that area that have followed.

Thus, invited authors can update the discussion regarding their contribution in the field. They can continue the conversation they started with the reader with the Discussion section in the original study. They will get the opportunity to address publications since the original work. This allows authors to put their work in the context of those publications. The new manuscript would serve as a commentary on the problem and the field and update the points made in the original publication's discussion. We ask authors to assess what has been reported in the literature since the original publication and whether progress has been made upon their original efforts. The editors then review Progress Reports expeditiously with the intent to publish.

Submission checklist

You can use this list to carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to the journal for review. Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded:
• Include keywords
• All figures (include relevant captions)
• All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)
• Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
• Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
• A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare
• Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed
• Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements

For further information, visit our Support Center.

Cover Letter - please note revised policy

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, as part of a published lecture or academic thesis, or as a poster session at a professional meeting), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. A cover letter that includes these assurances must be included with each submission. This letter must be signed by only the corresponding author. The corresponding author is responsible assuring that all co-authors are aware of and agree to this submission.


All manuscripts should be prepared with standard word processing software. Text, abstract and “What’s New” should be double spaced in 12-point font, and pages numbered. Tables and figures should be placed together at the end of the manuscript. Tables may be submitted in word processor format at the end of the manuscript’s text or as separate files after uploading the text, but figures must be submitted as separate files. Black and white figures will be printed without charge. Authors bear the costs for printing colored tables or figures. More information regarding figures appears below.

Ethics in publishing

Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract, a published lecture or academic thesis, see 'Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication' for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service Crossref Similarity Check.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns ("clinicians, patients/clients") as default/wherever possible to avoid using "he, she," or "he/she." We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. The Journal limits authors to a maximum of twelve. Exceptions to this rule will require justification and approval by the Editor-in-Chief. One person should be designated as the lead author. If authorship is attributed to a group of individuals, each individual must achieve the criteria for authorship described below.

Authorship Criteria

In order to meet authorship criteria, each author must have participated sufficiently in the work of the study and manuscript to acknowledge publicly responsibility for the manuscript. At least one author must be able to take public responsibility for the entire work, from idea to complete manuscript. Academic Pediatrics follows published uniform recommendations for criteria for authorship (see references). All three of the following criteria must be met for authorship:
1. Substantial involvement and contribution to the idea or the study question, or to the study design, or to the fieldwork component, or to the analysis, or to the interpretation of study findings; and
2. Writing drafts of the manuscript, or reviewing drafts or revisions critically with substantial input; and
3. Approval of the final version of the manuscript.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (see more information on this). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

For gold open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (more information). Permitted third party reuse of gold open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information.

Elsevier supports responsible sharing
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Please visit our Open Access page for more information.

Language (usage and editing services)
Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's Author Services.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

The title page is the first page of all manuscripts. It includes:
•The manuscript's title;
•Names, degrees, department, affiliation, full postal address, city and state and email address of all authors;
•Name, mailing address, email address, phone and fax number of the corresponding author; contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address.If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to tht author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
•3-5 keywords (not required for In The Moment or commentaries);
•Running title or header of no more than 60 characters including spaces;
•Separate word counts for the abstract and the main text;
•Acknowledge the research or project support with the relevant agency, grant or project number, and the principal investigator. Briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any in study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in teh writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Relevant information should be included on the title page. please see
•Description of potential conflicts of interest and corporate sponsors.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

The abstract is the second page of all manuscripts with the exception of "In the Moment - Personal Narratives" for which an abstract is not required. Abstracts should be prepared with a structured format with a maximum of 250 words. Four elements should be addressed: objective, methods, results, and conclusions. Please label each section clearly with the appropriate subheading.

What's New

What's New provides authors an opportunity to summarize in no more than 40 words how this research contributes to the knowledge base of the field. What’s New is not required for In the Moment, commentaries, and systematic reviews.

Manuscript Text

The manuscript's text, double spaced, varies with the type of article submitted. Please direct specific questions to the Editorial Office or section editor. Special requirements for Systematic Reviews appear below.
All manuscripts, including title page, tables, figures, and references, should be prepared according to "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals." Grammar, punctuation, scientific writing style and abbreviations should follow the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 10th edition. Any uncommon abbreviations should be listed at the beginning of the article. Confidence intervals usually provide more helpful information than P values.

Human Subjects

Appropriate approval by all institutional or other human subjects review boards must be designated in the methods section. Authors should indicate formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver.


All sources of funding for the study should be identified in the Acknowledgements section. In addition, if not apparent from the type of study, the specific role of the funder should be delineated as described in the Conflicts of Interest section on the title page.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information

Formatting of funding sources
List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence:

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.


All authors should have read all cited references. Please number references in the order they appear in the text. Unpublished references or meeting abstracts should not be included although articles accepted for publication or in press are permissible. Include the names of all authors for four and fewer; for references with more than four authors, provide the names of the first three and then et al. References to Web sites should include the date accessed. References should be double-spaced and generally not exceed 35. Spell out journal titles or use standard AMA abbreviations. References should follow AMA style.

Data references
This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products. These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley. Using citation plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style. If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide. If you use reference management software, please ensure that you remove all field codes before submitting the electronic manuscript. More information on how to remove field codes from different reference management software.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.

Reference style
Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9.
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:
1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
Reference to a journal publication with an article number:
2. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Heliyon. 2018;19:e00205.
Reference to a book:
3. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
4. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.
Reference to a website:
5. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK.; 2003 Accessed 13 March 2003.
Reference to a dataset:
[dataset] 6. Oguro, M, Imahiro, S, Saito, S, Nakashizuka, T. Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions, Mendeley Data, v1; 2015.


Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the file in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB per file, 1 GB in total. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received (Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online). Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.

Specific Requirements for Systematic Reviews

Submissions should meet at a minimum the standards published by an international group led by David Moher, Ph.D. of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) and the University of Ottawa entitled Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Authors should access the PRISMA Statement (, which consists of the 27-item PRISMA Checklist, the PRISMA Flow Diagram, and the PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration Document.2 The PRISMA Explanation and Elaboration Document also includes additional considerations for systematic reviews of non-randomized intervention studies or for other types of systematic reviews. We would encourage authors also to consider the recommendations of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) Group.3 The submitted report should include all 27 PRISMA items listed on the PRISMA Checklist including the PRISMA Flow Diagram (Item 17 on the checklist). The flow diagram depicts the flow of information through the different phases of a systematic review. It maps out the number of records identified, included and excluded, and the reasons for exclusions. We will publish the flow diagram as a figure as part of the print version as well as the online version. As stated above, we will publish evidence tables to address Item 18 on the checklist in the online version only, which, nevertheless, is the article of record for the journal. The submitted manuscript should include a Title Page. On a separate page, list MeSH Key Words for the purpose of indexing the report. Include on a separate page an Abstract. Structure the abstract as a summary of the report and include the following headings, as applicable, as prescribed in the PRISMA checklist: Background; Objectives; Data Sources; Study Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and Interventions; Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods; Results; Limitations; Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings; and Systematic Review Registration Number. For the body of the paper, use the major headings of Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Also, on a separate page, list Acknowledgments. Acknowledgments should specify the sources of funding for the systematic review and other support and note the role of the funders for the systematic review. Refer to the PRISMA Flow Diagram as a figure in the Results section. Include each figure and table as separate pages in the manuscript to follow the References. Use this journal's Instructions for Authors for details regarding citations. Along with the figures and tables, include on a separate page a box containing no more than 40 words to be entitled, "What this Systematic Review Adds" describing perhaps in three bullet points this systematic review's contribution to the literature. Also, include on a separate page a box containing no more than 40 words to be entitled "How to Use this Systematic Review" and discuss, perhaps in 3 bullets, how academic pediatricians should apply these findings to their work.

Submitting a Manuscript

Authors should submit all manuscripts through the Journal's editorial website, The manuscript submission process is broken into a series of screens that gather detailed information about the manuscript, including title, article type, author listings, abstract, keywords, topical classifications, and that allow authors to upload all pertinent files including the cover letter, manuscript, figures, and tables. A detailed tutorial with a step-by-step walk-through is available for download on the Editorial Manager homepage.

Manuscript Review Process

Three external peer reviewers review most manuscripts. The Journal makes every effort to expedite this process. The average time from submission to initial decision is 39 days. As part of the submission process, you will be able to suggest possible peer reviewers. Suggested individuals should have no conflicts of interest and should not have any knowledge of the submitted manuscript.
Please indicate names of reviewers who may have a conflict of interest.
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This procedure will display the status of your manuscript during the submission/peer-review process.

Acceptance Criteria

Relevance to readers (esp., educators, scientists, policymakers, and clinicians) is of major importance in manuscript selection. Reports of original research will be judged on the importance and originality of the research; the scientific strength; the relevance to clinical care, programs, education, or policy; the clarity with which it is presented, and the novelty of the new knowledge it adds.
The Journal does not publish clinical case reports.
Education interventions must include an evaluation component, preferably one that goes beyond increasing knowledge to assessing and demonstrating whether the intervention changes learners' behavior, skills, or potentially health care quality or outcomes. Multi-site education innovations are generally reviewed more favorably than single site experiments.

Inquiries Regarding Decisions

Corresponding authors with questions regarding manuscript decisions should send inquiries to Messages will be forwarded to the appropriate editor for response.


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