Volume 3, Issue 1
In January 2018 Elsevier relaunched the free e-learning platform Publishing Campus as Researcher Academy. A new concept features innovative e-learning modules and resources for young researchers taking them from the beginnings of research preparation, through the publishing process, all the way to showcasing the impact of their work.
These resources were created to help bridge the gap between academic achievement and professional success as there is always a reason to brush up skills related to the publishing process!
Randomized trial of cholangioscopy-guided laser lithotripsy versus conventional therapy for large bile duct stones (with videos)
Bile duct stones >1 cm have a decreased incidence of successful endoscopic extraction and often require lithotripsy. Although previous guidelines suggested mechanical lithotripsy for large common bile duct stones, current guidelines suggest cholangioscopy-guided lithotripsy as an adjunct with or without balloon dilation or mechanical lithotripsy, but no randomized trials have assessed the usefulness of this practice. See what James Buxbaum et al learned by reading "Randomized trial of cholangioscopy-guided laser lithotripsy versus conventional therapy for large bile duct stones (with videos)." Find this original article in the April 2018 issue of GIE here.
Results of small-scale studies have suggested that stem-cell therapy is safe and effective in patients with liver cirrhosis. In this multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial (REALISTIC), patients with cirrhosis were randomly assigned to receive standard care, subcutaneous G-CSF, or G-CSF followed by leukapheresis and intravenous infusion of three doses of CD133-positive haemopoietic stem cells. No significant differences were noted between treatment and control groups in either of the co-primary outcomes: change in MELD score at 3 months, or trend of change in MELD score over time. However, serious adverse events were more frequent in the stem cell infusion group than in the other groups. These results challenge the findings of previous reports, and suggest that G-CSF with or without stem-cell therapy does not improve liver dysfunction or fibrosis, and that such therapies may even increase patient morbidity.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) display wide heterogeneity with highly variable prognosis. Keith J Roberts and colleagues sought to identify variables related to survival after surgical resection of PNET. Female gender, lymph node metastases and increasing WHO 2010 grade were independently associated with reduced overall survival. Patients requiring multi-visceral resection or debulking surgery found to be associated with shortest survival. ENETS and AJCC scoring systems are similarly predictive of 5-year overall survival. This study suggested that multi-visceral or debulking surgery is associated with poor outcomes. Available scoring systems have reasonable accuracy in stratifying disease severity, with no system identified as being superior.
The molecular mechanisms underlying fatty liver progression towards more severe syndromes are complex and only partially understood. Studies have recently reported that lipotoxic fatty acid metabolites are instrumental in the development of hepatocyte injury in the context of fatty liver disease. The recent study by Papazyan et al. published in Cell Metabolism (2016;24(6):863-874) addresses this issue and reveals that rescuing de novo fatty acid synthesis (lipogenesis) through the activation of the transcription factor SREBP-1c can prevent lethality as well as severe lipotoxicity caused by a combined deficiency in lipogenesis and β-oxidation. Altogether, this study reveals that optimizing lipid signals generated by lipogenesis through SREBP-1c can help redirect fatty acids toward beneficial actions, by buffering lipotoxic lipid intermediates even in the setting of lipid overload.
Given the magnitude of pancreatoduodenectomy, Surgeons have historically focused on reporting perioperative morbidity, mortality, and long-term survival as surrogate measures of success. As the the technical expertise of the surgical community has increased, the numbers of patients being subjected to pancreatoduodenectomy, has continued to expand. Yet the short to medium term outcomes remain poor with morbidity rates as high as 50% and 25% of patients dying within the first nine months following surgery. So is it time to consider more holistic patient focused outcome measures. Van Dijk and colleagues start this conversation by systematically reviewing the available literature on quality of life in patients with pancreatic cancer following pancreatoduodenectomy.
Hepatic infiltration of neutrophils is a hallmark of steatohepatitis; however, the role of neutrophils in the progression of steatohepatitis remains unknown.
Factors That Contribute to Differences in Survival of Black vs White Patients With Colorectal Cancer
Previous studies reported that black vs white disparities in survival among elderly patients with colorectal cancer were because of differences in tumor characteristics (tumor stage, grade, nodal status, and comorbidity) rather than differences in treatment. Read more of the authors findings from an analysis of data from the National Cancer Database.
From the AGA Institute High-Value Care Series, Cost Effective Therapy for Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction. This article is part of a series on enhancing the value of care in Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Each article in this series examines specific clinical scenarios in which the value of care can be improved over a range of sub-specialties in the field.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), comprising non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), together with their complications of cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer will be the predominant liver diseases of the conceivable future. In this special issue of Journal of Hepatology, four main themes are discussed, with relevance to both clinicians and basic researchers in the field. While the topics selected are by no means exhaustive, they cover the broad themes of disease models, pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and clinical controversies. These areas were selected from a range of over 20 topics suggested to the Editors, cognizant of recent reviews on various aspects of NAFLD published recently in the Journal.
VideoGIE recently began accepting submissions for a new article section, Tools and Techniques. These articles will feature educational videos demonstrating the use of a particular endoscopic tool or technique. The goal of this section is to help trainees, endoscopy nurses, and technicians learn how best to use the tools of endoscopy for high-quality care. Tools and Techniques article submissions comprise a video demonstrating an endoscopic tool or technique with a short accompanying description and several figures. Submit your article today at http://www.editorialmanager.com/vgie, and check out this new section in an upcoming issue.
VideoGIE is now accepting submissions for Tools and Techniques, a new section of informative and educational video articles
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