World Tuberculosis Day

March 24, 2017

Although the number of deaths worldwide from tuberculosis—a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis—fell by 22% between 2000 and 2015, it remains humanity’s biggest infectious killer and one of the top ten causes of all deaths. The 2016 WHO Global Tuberculosis Report estimated that in 2015 there were 10.4 million new tuberculosis cases and 1.4 million deaths. The interaction between tuberculosis and HIV is important, with an estimated 400 000 additional deaths occurring among people with co-infection. Perhaps most troubling, is that the new cases of tuberculosis include about 480 000 people with the multidrug-resistant form of the disease—that is, resistant to treatment with two of the first-line medications against tuberculosis, isoniazid and rifampicin. Only about 20% of people newly eligible for treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2015 were enrolled in treatment. One of the UN Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 is a 90% reduction in tuberculosis deaths and 80% reduction in new cases (incidence) compared with 2015. However, the current annual rate of decline of incidence is only 1.5% and needs to reach 4–5% for the milestone to be achieved. Furthermore, unless investment in tuberculosis treatment and prevention increases, there will be a US$6 billion funding gap by 2020. Tuberculosis remains a treatable disease—even the multidrug-resistant form, albeit with a complex and time-consuming drug regimen. Although it is primarily a disease of poor and disadvantaged people, everyone on Earth is potentially at risk of tuberculosis. World TB Day is an opportunity to highlight the challenges—and opportunities—to achieve the goal of controlling tuberculosis through sustained prevention, detection, and treatment.

John McConnell, Editor, The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Onisillos Sekkides, Deputy Editor, The Lancet Infectious Diseases

Article Collection

Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for detection of drug resistance: a systematic review
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2017, Pages 61–68
D. Papaventsis, N. Casali, I. Kontsevaya, F. Drobniewski, D.M. Cirillo, V. Nikolayevskyy

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and whole genom sequencing: a practical guide and online tools available for the clinical microbiologist
Clinical Microbiology and Infection,Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2017,Pages 69–72
G. Satta, A. Atzeni, T.D.McHugh

Clinical management of adults and children with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 23, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 131-140
K. Dheda, K.C. Chang, L. Guglielmetti, J. Furin, H.S. Schaaf, D. Chesov, A. Esmail, C. Lange

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and migration to Europe
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 23, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 141-146
S. Hargreaves, K. Lönnroth, L.B. Nellums, I.D. Olaru, R.R. Nathavitharana, M. Norredam, J.S. Friedland

Preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and protecting contacts of infectious cases
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 23, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 147-153
G.J. Fox, H.S. Schaaf, A. Mandalakas, E. Chiappini, A. Zumla, B.J. Marais

Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug-resistance testing: challenges, recent developments and perspectives
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 23, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 154-160
T. Schön, P. Miotto, C.U. Köser, M. Viveiros, E. Böttger, E. Cambau

Whole genome sequencing for M/XDR tuberculosis surveillance and for resistance testing
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 23, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 161-166
T.M. Walker, M. Merker, T.A. Kohl, D.W. Crook, S. Niemann, T.E.A. Peto

Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

Evaluation of three real-time PCR assays for differential identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria species in liquid culture media
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Volume 85, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 186–191
Y.J. Jung, J.-Y. Kim, D.J. Song, W.-J. Koh, H.J. Huh, C.-S. Ki, N.Y. Lee

Molecular analysis of genetic mutations among cross-resistant second-line injectable drugs reveals a new resistant mutation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Volume 85, Issue 4, August 2016, Pages 433–437
L. Malinga, J. Brand, S. Olorunju, A. Stoltz, M. van der Walt

Adenosine deaminase is a useful biomarker to diagnose pleural tuberculosis in low to medium prevalence settings
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Volume 84, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 215–220
J.-M. Michot, Y. Madec, S. Bulifon, C. Thorette-Tcherniak, N. Fortineau, N. Noël, O. Lambotte, Y.  El Jahiri, H. Delacour, J.-F. Delfraissy, F.-X. Blanc

Infection, Genetics and Evolution

RNA expression analysis of efflux pump genes in clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Korea
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Volume 49, April 2017, Pages 111–115
T.S. Oh, Y.J. Kim, H.Y. Kang, C.-K. Kim, S.Y. Cho, H.J. Lee

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

Drug-resistant tuberculosis viewed from bacterial and host genomes
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 48, Issue 4, October 2016, Pages 353–360
I.Ben-Kahla, S. AL-Hajoj

pncA mutations are associated with slower sputum conversion during standard treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 49, Issue 2, February 2017, Pages 183–188
X. Zheng, Z. Ning, F. Drobniewski, J. Yang,Q. Li, Z. Zhang,Y. Hu

Activity of moxifloxacin and linezolid against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in combination with potentiator drugs verapamil, timcodar, colistin and SQ109
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 49, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 302–307
G.J. de Knegt, A. van der Meijden, C.P. de Vogel, R.E. Aarnoutse, J.E.M. de Steenwinkel

International Journal of Medical Microbiology

Substantial molecular evolution and mutation rates in prolonged latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans
International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 306, Issue 7, November 2016, Pages 580–585
T. Lillebaek,  A. Norman, E.M. Rasmussen, R.L. Marvig, D.B. Folkvardsen, Å.B. Andersen, L. Jelsbak

A hypervariable genomic island identified in clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis isolates from Germany
International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 306, Issue 7, November 2016, Pages 495–503
A. Sanchini, T.  Semmler, L. Mao, N. Kumar, F. Dematheis, K. Tandon,V. Peddireddy, N. Ahmed, A. Lewin

Journal of Infection

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells from patients with tuberculosis exhibit impaired immune response
Journal of Infection, Volume 72, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 338–352
J. Jiang, B. Yang, H. An, X. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Cao, F. Zhai, R. Wang, Y. Cao, X. Cheng

Diagnostic usefulness of T-cell based assays for tuberculous meningitis in HIV-uninfected patients
Journal of Infection, Volume 72, Issue 4, April 2016, Pages 486–497
K.-H. Park, M.S. Lee, S.-M Kim, . S.-J.Park, Y.P. Chong, S.-O. Lee, S.-H. Choi, Y.S. Kim, J.H. Woo, J.K. Kang, S.-A. Lee, S.-H. Kim

Comparison of TB-LAMP, GeneXpert MTB/RIF and culture for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in The GambiaOriginal Research Article
Journal of Infection, Volume 72, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 332-337
A.L. Bojang, F.S. Mendy, L.D. Tientcheu, J. Otu, M. Antonio,B. Kampmann, S. Agbla, J.S.  Sutherland

Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases

Impact of fluoroquinolone treatment on delay of tuberculosis diagnosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Volume 6, January 2017, Pages 1–7
C.A. Hogan, L. Puri, G. Gore, M. Pai

Intraocular manifestations of mycobacterium tuberculosis: A review of the literature
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Volume 7, May 2017, Pages 13–21
L.A. Dalvin, W.M. Smith

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans displays a chemotaxis behavior to tuberculosis-specific odorants
Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Volume 4, August 2016, Pages 44–49
M.F. Neto, Q.H. Nguyen, J.  Marsili, S.M. McFall, C. Voisine

Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Antimicrobial resistance and the growing threat of drug-resistant tuberculosis
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 45–47
M. Pai, Z.A. Memish

Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 37–44
M.J. Alkhalawi, S.J.N. McNabb, A.M. Assiri, Z.A. Memish

Drug resistance detection and mutation patterns of multidrug resistant tuberculosis strains from children in Delhi
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, Available online 7 February 2017
J. Arora, R. Singhal, M. Bhalla, A. Verma,N. Singh,D. Behera, R. Sarin, V.P. Myneedu

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine

The war on tuberculosis must continue to be fought

“Practices for the management of individual patients in settings with a high tuberculosis burden are not sufficient to prevent the emergence, amplification, and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis” is one of the key messages from The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission, led by Keertan Dheda from the University of Cape Town. The Commission focuses on multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis, and highlights the growing burden of disease, its implications for patient management, as well as social and legal aspects. The authors also provide practical solutions for tackling emerging resistant cases - an exponentially increasing concern in high burden countries.

For more on The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Commission, go to  http://www.thelancet.com/commissions/drug-resistant-tuberculosis

The Lancet Infectious Diseases

Treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis with first-line drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 2, February 2017, Pages 223–234
M. Gegia, N. Winters, A. Benedetti, D. van Soolingen, D. Menzies

Use of standardised patients to assess antibiotic dispensing for tuberculosis by pharmacies in urban India: a cross-sectional study
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 16, Issue 11, November 2016, Pages 1261–1268
S. Satyanarayana, A. Kwan, B. Daniels, R. Subbaraman, A. McDowell, S. Bergkvist, R.K. Das, V. Das, J. Das, M. Pai

The number of privately treated tuberculosis cases in India: an estimation from drug sales data
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 16, Issue 11, November 2016, Pages 1255–1260
N. Arinaminpathy, D. Batra, S. Khaparde, T. Vualnam, N. Maheshwari, L. Sharma, S.A. Nair, P. Dewan

Effect of new tuberculosis diagnostic technologies on community-based intensified case finding: a multicentre randomised controlled trial
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Available online 5 January 2017
G.L. Calligaro, L.S. Zijenah, J.G. Peter, G.Theron, V. Buser, R. McNerney, W. Bara, T. Bandason, U. Govender, M. Tomasicchio, L. Smith, B.M. Mayosi, K. Dheda

Mortality in children diagnosed with tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 3, March 2017, Pages 285–295
H.E. Jenkins, C.M. Yuen, C.A. Rodriguez, R.R. Nathavitharana, M.M. McLaughlin, P. Donald, B.J. Marais, M.C. Becerra

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis as a three-act play: A new paradigm for the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, Volume 97, March 2016, Pages 8–17
R.L. Hunter

Antibodies and tuberculosis
Tuberculosis, Volume 101, December 2016, Pages 102–113
A.J. Jacobs, J. Mongkolsapaya, G.R. Screaton,  H. McShane, R.J. Wilkinson

Tuberculosis: A disease without boundaries
Tuberculosis, Volume 95, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages 527–531
N. Fogel

International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Special Issue: Commemorating World Tuberculosis Day 2017