2D Synthetic Materials Beyond Graphene

1st Edition - July 1, 2022

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  • Editors: Alessandro Molle, Carlo Grazianetti
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128238240

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Xenes: 2D Synthetic Materials Beyond Graphene includes all the relevant information about Xenes thus far reported, focusing on emerging materials and new trends. The book's primary goal is to include full descriptions of each Xene type by leading experts in the area. Each chapter will provide key principles, theories, methods, experiments and potential applications. The book also reviews the key challenges for synthetic 2D materials such as characterization, modeling, synthesis, and integration strategies. This comprehensive book is suitable for materials scientists and engineers, physicists and chemists working in academia and R&D in industry. The discovery of silicene dates back to 2012. Since then, other Xenes were subsequently created with synthetic methods. The portfolio of Xenes includes different chemical elements of the periodic table and hence the related honeycomb-like lattices show a wealth of electronic and optical properties that can be successfully exploited for applications.

Key Features

  • Introduces the most important Xenes, including silicene, germanene, borophene, gallenene, phosphorene, and more
  • Provides the fundamental principles, theories, experiments and applications for the most relevant synthetic 2D materials
  • Addresses techniques for the characterization, synthesis and integration of synthetic 2D materials


Materials Scientists and Engineers, Physicists, Chemists

Table of Contents

  • Section 1  Xenes: Materials aspects
    Chapter 1 Silicene
    • The origin of silicene
    • The first experimental evidence on Ag(111)
    • The Raman spectrum
    • The alternative substrates other than silver
    • The first device
    • The potential applications

    Chapter 2 Germanene
    • The silicene’s twin
    • The evidence on metal substrates
    • The Raman spectrum and electron-phonon coupling

    Chapter 3 Stanene and Plumbene
    • The last elements of column IV
    • The theoretical assumption
    • Experimental evidences
    • The applications to topological devices

    Chapter 4 Borophene
    • The allotropes of boron
    • The predictions of borophene
    • The experimental evidences
    • The potential applications

    Chapter 5 Gallenene
    • Gallenene: a new member in the Boron column
    • The experimental evidences
    • Potential applications

    Chapter 6 Phosphorene
    • The theory of blue phosphorus
    • Differences between blue and black phosphorus
    • The experimental evidences
    • The potential applications

    Chapter 7 Arsenene and Antimonene
    • The need for semiconducting Xenes
    • The theoretical predictions
    • The experimental evidences
    • The applications and the environmental stability

    Chapter 8  Bismuthene
    • The controversy about bismuthene (Bi on metals)
    • The theoretical predictions
    • The experimental evidence of QSH bismuthene
    • The applications to quantum devices

    Chapter 9 Selenene and Tellurene
    • The column VI Xenes
    • The anisotropy
    • Synthesis and characterization
    • The applications to devices

    Section 2: Xenes: Challenges in science and technologies
    Chapter 10 Technical evolution for the identification of Xenes: from atomically resolved microscopy to Raman and photoemission spectroscopies
    • The atomic resolution of the Xenes (STM)
    • The bandstructure determination via ARPES
    • The vibrational properties through Raman and TERS
    • Comparison with DFT models

    Chapter 11 Chemical synthesis of the Xenes
    • The topotactic and liquid phase exfoliation
    • The silicane and germanane
    • The germanane FETs
    • Keys to extend to other potentials Xenes

    Chapter 12 Topological properties of the Xenes
    • The exotic properties of Xenes
    • Hints for experimental discoveries

    Chapter 13 Optical properties of the Xenes

    Chapter 14 Xenes heterostructures
    • New materials by merging Xenes: the Lego-like approach
    • The intercalation path
    • Potential heterostructures and perspective

    Chapter 15 Integration paths for Xenes
    • The role of Xenes in current technologies
    • Strategies to integrate Xenes in silicon technology
    • Perspectives for Xenes in everyday life

Product details

  • No. of pages: 474
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: July 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128238240

About the Editors

Alessandro Molle

Alessandro Molle is a senior researcher at the CNR-IMM, unit of Agrate Brianza, Italy, where he carried out his postdoc fellowship after his Ph.D. and M.Sc. at the University of Genoa. He has been chairing M.Sc. and Ph.D. courses at the University of Milan-Bicocca and he coedited a book (CRC Press) on 2D materials for nanoelectronics. He is the principal investigator of an ERC Consolidator Grant 2017, and has been in charge of national and international grants. His main research interests are on 2D Xenes and transition metal dichalcogenides, and their device applications to nanotechnology. On these topics, he has been a symposium organizer at the E-MRS and MRS meetings.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, CNR-IMM Unit, Agrate Brianza, Italy

Carlo Grazianetti

Carlo Grazianetti received his Ph.D. degree from the Università degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Italy, in 2014, defending a thesis on the scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of III–V semiconductors and new 2D nanolattices. He is currently a research scientist at the CNR-IMM unit of Agrate Brianza, Italy. His interdisciplinary research expertise covers 2D materials beyond graphene and their applications for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Since 2011, he has been involved as key investigator of molecular beam epitaxy and scanning probe microscopy tasks in EU projects focused on the synthesis and integration into devices of Xenes (silicene, germanene, stanene, and phosphorene).

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, CNR-IMM Unit, Agrate Brianza, Italy

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