Xenes

Xenes

2D Synthetic Materials Beyond Graphene

1st Edition - June 29, 2022

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  • Editors: Alessandro Molle, Carlo Grazianetti
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128238387
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128238240

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Description

Xenes: 2D Synthetic Materials Beyond Graphene includes all the relevant information about Xenes thus far reported, focusing on emerging materials and new trends. The book's primary goal is to include full descriptions of each Xene type by leading experts in the area. Each chapter will provide key principles, theories, methods, experiments and potential applications. The book also reviews the key challenges for synthetic 2D materials such as characterization, modeling, synthesis, and integration strategies. This comprehensive book is suitable for materials scientists and engineers, physicists and chemists working in academia and R&D in industry. The discovery of silicene dates back to 2012. Since then, other Xenes were subsequently created with synthetic methods. The portfolio of Xenes includes different chemical elements of the periodic table and hence the related honeycomb-like lattices show a wealth of electronic and optical properties that can be successfully exploited for applications.

Key Features

  • Introduces the most important Xenes, including silicene, germanene, borophene, gallenene, phosphorene, and more
  • Provides the fundamental principles, theories, experiments and applications for the most relevant synthetic 2D materials
  • Addresses techniques for the characterization, synthesis and integration of synthetic 2D materials

Readership

Materials Scientists and Engineers, Physicists, Chemists

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Two-dimensional materials beyond graphene: the rise of the Xenes
  • A brief overview of the Xenes from the periodic table
  • Xenes toward nanotechnologies
  • Conclusions
  • 1. Silicene
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Historical background: the Schottky problem
  • 1.3 Silicene: the concept
  • 1.4 Exotic phases of silicene and their topological electronic properties—theory
  • 1.5 Discovery of one-dimensional silicon nanoribbons
  • 1.6 The birth of two-dimensional silicene
  • 1.7 Hydrogenation of the canonical 3×3/4×4 silicene phase on Ag(1 1 1)
  • 1.8 Other allotropic phases of silicene on Ag(1 1 1) and multilayer silicene
  • 1.9 Reactivity and adsorption on silicene, silicene on other substrates, and silicene by wet chemistry
  • 1.10 Exotic variants of silicene: penta-silicene nanoribbons and kagome silicene
  • 1.11 Properties, applications, and perspectives
  • 1.12 Conclusion
  • Note
  • References
  • 2. Germanene
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction two-dimensional Dirac materials
  • 2.2 Synthesis of germanene
  • 2.3 Structural and electronic properties of germanene
  • 2.4 Anomalous quantum Hall effect and quantum spin Hall effect
  • 2.5 Bandgap opening in germanene
  • 2.6 Bilayer germanene and twisted bilayer germanene
  • 2.7 Summary
  • References
  • 3. Stanene and Plumbene
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Introduction: tin and stanene, lead and plumbene
  • 3.2 The theoretical prediction of stanene and plumbene
  • 3.3 Theoretical prediction for stanene to be a two-dimensional topological insulator
  • 3.4 The synthesis and characterization of stanene
  • 3.5 The synthesis and characterization of plumbene
  • 3.6 Perspectives on the applications of stanene and plumbene
  • References
  • 4. Borophene
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Theoretical aspects of borophene
  • 4.3 Synthesis of borophene
  • 4.4 Physical properties of borophene
  • 4.5 Perspective
  • References
  • 5. Gallenene
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Evidence of two-dimensionality in bulk gallium
  • 5.2 Evidence of two-dimensionality in gallium nanostructures
  • 5.3 Experimental discovery
  • 5.4 Electronic properties
  • 5.5 Thermal stability
  • 5.6 How unique is gallenene?
  • 5.7 Properties and applications of gallenene
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 6. Phosphorene
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Properties of two-dimensional black phosphorus
  • 6.3 Applications
  • 6.4 Fabrication
  • 6.5 Functionalization
  • 6.6 Oxidation and surface protection
  • 6.7 Conclusion and outlook
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 7. Arsenene and Antimonene
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Arsenic and antimony allotropes
  • 7.3 Two-dimensional arsenene and antimonene
  • 7.4 Doping of arsenene and antimonene
  • 7.5 Applications and future prospects of arsenene and antimonene
  • 7.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 8. Bismuthene
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Structure and properties of two-dimensional bismuth
  • 8.3 Preparation of two-dimensional bismuth
  • 8.4 Characterization of two-dimensional bismuth
  • 8.5 Applications of two-dimensional bismuth
  • 8.6 Summary
  • References
  • 9. Selenene and Tellurene
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Selenene
  • 9.3 Tellurene
  • 9.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • 10. Technical evolution for the identification of Xenes: from microscopy to spectroscopy
  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Working principles of scanning tunneling microscopy and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
  • 10.3 Applications of scanning tunneling microscopy and angular-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in Xenes
  • 10.4 Emerging techniques used in Xenes
  • References
  • 11. Chemical methods for Xenes
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Surface functionalization metrology
  • 11.3 Analogy of Si(111) and Ge(111) surface functionalization
  • 11.4 Chemical treatments and reactivity of Si, Ge, Sn Xenes
  • 11.5 Topotactic transformations of Zintl phases in the synthesis of functionalized Xenes
  • 11.6 Ligand substitution reactions of functionalized Si and Ge Xenes
  • 11.7 Covalent modification of other Xenes
  • 11.8 Functionalization-induced changes in thermal and electronic properties of group 14 Xenes
  • 11.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • 12. Topological physics of Xenes
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Two-dimensional topological insulators
  • 12.2 Quantum anomalous Hall effect in Xene
  • 12.3 Topological superconductivity and Ising superconductivity
  • 12.4 Thermoelectric properties in Xenes
  • 12.5 Summary and outlook
  • References
  • 13. Optical properties of Xenes
  • Abstract
  • Abbreviations
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Theoretical methods
  • 13.3 Results
  • 13.4 Summary and conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 14. Two-dimensional magnetism in Xenes
  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Theoretical predictions of magnetism in Xenes
  • 14.3 Intrinsic magnetism in Xene multilayer three-dimensional compounds
  • 14.4 Two-dimensional ferromagnetism in silicene materials
  • 14.5 Two-dimensional ferromagnetism in germanene materials
  • 14.6 Electron transport in two-dimensional magnetic Xene compounds
  • 14.7 Extension of two-dimensional ferromagnetism to graphene
  • 14.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 15. Xene heterostructures
  • Abstract
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Xene homostructures
  • 15.3 Xene heterostructures
  • 15.4 Challenges, bottlenecks, potential and perspectives
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 16. Integration paths for Xenes
  • Abstract
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Review of existing electronic devices
  • 16.3 Current and future applications of Xenes
  • 16.4 Perspectives on integration of Xenes with silicon
  • 16.5 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 474
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: June 29, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128238387
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128238240

About the Editors

Alessandro Molle

Alessandro Molle is a senior researcher at the CNR-IMM, unit of Agrate Brianza, Italy, where he carried out his postdoc fellowship after his Ph.D. and M.Sc. at the University of Genoa. He has been chairing M.Sc. and Ph.D. courses at the University of Milan-Bicocca and he coedited a book (CRC Press) on 2D materials for nanoelectronics. He is the principal investigator of an ERC Consolidator Grant 2017, and has been in charge of national and international grants. His main research interests are on 2D Xenes and transition metal dichalcogenides, and their device applications to nanotechnology. On these topics, he has been a symposium organizer at the E-MRS and MRS meetings.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, CNR-IMM Unit, Agrate Brianza, Italy

Carlo Grazianetti

Carlo Grazianetti received his Ph.D. degree from the Università degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Italy, in 2014, defending a thesis on the scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of III–V semiconductors and new 2D nanolattices. He is currently a research scientist at the CNR-IMM unit of Agrate Brianza, Italy. His interdisciplinary research expertise covers 2D materials beyond graphene and their applications for nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Since 2011, he has been involved as key investigator of molecular beam epitaxy and scanning probe microscopy tasks in EU projects focused on the synthesis and integration into devices of Xenes (silicene, germanene, stanene, and phosphorene).

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, CNR-IMM Unit, Agrate Brianza, Italy

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