Working Guide to Drilling Equipment and Operations - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856178433, 9781856178440

Working Guide to Drilling Equipment and Operations

1st Edition

Authors: William Lyons
eBook ISBN: 9781856178440
Paperback ISBN: 9781856178433
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 1st October 2009
Page Count: 352
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Working Guide to Drilling Equipment and Operations offers a practical guide to drilling technologies and procedures. The book begins by introducing basic concepts such as the functions of drilling muds; types of drilling fluids; testing of drilling systems; and completion and workover fluids. This is followed by discussions of the composition of the drill string; air and gas drilling operations; and directional drilling. The book identifies the factors that should be considered for optimized drilling operations: health, safety, and environment; production capability; and drilling implementation. It explains how to control well pressure. It details the process of fishing, i.e. removal of a fish (part of the drill string that separates from the upper remaining portion of the drill string) or junk (small items of non-drillable metals) from the borehole. The remaining chapters cover the different types of casing and casing string design; well cementing; the proper design of tubing; and the environmental aspects of drilling.

Key Features

  • Drilling and Production Hoisting Equipment
  • Hoisting Tool Inspection and Maintenance Procedures
  • Pump Performance Charts
  • Rotary Table and Bushings
  • Rig Maintenance of Drill Collars
  • Drilling Bits and Downhole Tools


Drilling engineers, Production engineers, Reservoir engineers

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Drilling Muds and Completion Systems

1.1 Functions of Drilling Muds

1.1.1 Drilling Fluid Definitions and General Functions

1.1.2 Cool and Lubricate the Bit and Drill String

1.1.3 Clean the Bit and the Bottom of the Hole

1.1.4 Suspend Solids and Transport Cuttings and Sloughings to the Surface

1.1.5 Stabilize the Wellbore and Control Subsurface Pressures

1.1.6 Assist in the Gathering of Subsurface Geological Data and Formation Evaluation

1.1.7 Other Functions

1.2 Classifications

1.2.1 Freshwater Muds—Dispersed Systems

1.2.2 Inhibited Muds—Dispersed Systems

1.2.3 Low Solids Muds—Nondispersed Systems

1.2.4 Nonaqueous Fluids

1.3 Testing of Drilling Systems

1.3.1 Water-Base Muds Testing

1.3.2 Oil-Base and Synthetic-Base Muds (Nonaqueous Fluids Testing)

1.3.3 Specialized Tests

1.3.4 Specialized Filtration Testing

1.3.5 Shale Characterization Testing

1.3.6 Drilling Fluid Additives

1.3.7 Clay Chemistry

1.3.8 Water-Base Muds

1.3.9 Special Muds

1.3.10 Environmental Aspects of Drilling Fluids

1.4 Completion and Workover Fluids

1.4.1 Solids-Free Fluids

1.4.2 Single-Salt Brines

1.4.3 Two-Salt Brines

1.4.4 Three-Salt Brines

1.4.5 Classification of Heavy Brines

1.5 Safety Aspects of Handling Brines

1.5.1 Potassium Chloride

1.5.2 Sodium Chloride

1.5.3 Calcium Chloride

1.5.4 Calcium Bromide

1.5.5 Zinc Bromide

1.6 Preventing Contamination

1.6.1 Brine Filtration

1.6.2 Cartridge Filters

1.6.3 Tubular Filters

Chapter 2 Drill String: Composition and Design

2.1 Drill Collar

2.1.1 Selecting Drill Collar Size

2.1.2 Length of Drill Collars

2.1.3 Drill Collar Connections

2.1.4 Recommended Makeup Torque for Drill Collars

2.1.5 Drill Collar Buckling

2.1.6 Rig Maintenance of Drill Collars

2.2 Drill Pipe

2.2.1 Classification of Drill Pipe

2.2.2 Load Capacity of Drill Pipe

2.2.3 Tool Joints

2.2.4 Makeup Torque

2.2.5 Heavy-Weight Drill Pipe

2.2.6 Fatigue Damage to Drill Pipe

2.3 Drill String Inspection Procedure

2.3.1 Drill String Design

Chapter 3 Air and Gas Drilling

3.1 Bottomhole Pressure

3.2 Minimum Volumetric Flow Rate

3.3 Drill Bit Orifices or Nozzles

3.4 Injection Pressure

3.5 Water Injection

3.6 Saturation of Gas

3.7 Eliminate Stickiness

3.8 Suppression of Hydrocarbon Combustion

3.9 Aerated Drilling (Gasified Fluid Drilling)

3.9.1 Minimum Volumetric Flow Rate

3.9.2 Bottomhole Pressure

3.9.3 Drill Bit Orifices and Nozzles

3.9.4 Injection Pressure

3.10 Stable Foam Drilling

3.10.1 Foam Models

3.10.2 Bottomhole Pressure

3.10.3 Minimum Volumetric Flow Rate

3.10.4 Drill Bit Orifices and Nozzles

3.10.5 Injection Pressure

3.11 Completions Operations

3.11.1 Sloughing Shales

3.11.2 Casing and Cementing

3.11.3 Drilling with Casing

3.12 Compressor and Inert Air Generator Units

3.12.1 Compressor Units

3.12.2 Allowable Oxygen Content

3.12.3 Inert Air Generator Units

3.12.4 Liquid Nitrogen

3.13 Highly Deviated Well Drilling and Completions

3.13.1 Drilling Operations

3.13.2 Completions Operations

3.14 Downhole Motors

3.14.1 Background

3.14.2 Turbine Motors

3.14.3 Positive Displacement Motor

3.14.4 Down the Hole Air Hammers

3.14.5 Special Applications

Chapter 4 Directional Drilling

4.1 Glossary of Terms used in Directional Drilling

4.2 Dogleg Severity (Hole Curvature) Calculations

4.2.1 Tangential Method

4.2.2 Radius of Curvature Method

4.2.3 Deflection Tool Orientation

4.2.4 Vectorial Method of D. Ragland

4.2.5 Three-Dimensional Deflecting Model

Chapter 5 Selection of Drilling Practices

5.1 Health, Safety and Environment

5.1.1 Health

5.1.2 Safety

5.1.3 Environment

5.2 Production Capacity

5.3 Well Planning and Implementation

5.3.1 Optimum Well Planning

5.4 Drilling Implementation

5.4.1 Rate of Penetration

5.4.2 Special Well Types

5.4.3 Real Time Optimization Practices

5.4.4 Drill-off Tests

5.4.5 Downhole Vibration

5.4.6 Trendology

5.5 Post-Run Evaluation

Chapter 6 Well Pressure Control

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Surface Equipment

6.3 When and How to Close the Well

6.4 Gas-Cut Mud

6.5 The Closed Well

6.6 Kick Control Procedures

6.6.1 Driller’s Method

6.6.2 Engineer’s Method

6.6.3 Volumetric Method

6.7 Maximum Casing Pressure

6.8 Maximum Borehole Pressure

Chapter 7 Fishing Operations and Equipment

7.1 Causes and Prevention

7.2 Pipe Recovery and Free Point

7.3 Parting the Pipe

7.3.1 Chemical Cut

7.3.2 Jet Cutter

7.3.3 Internal Mechanical Cutter

7.3.4 Outside Mechanical Cutter

7.3.5 Multi-String Cutter

7.3.6 Severing Tool

7.3.7 Washover Back-off Safety Joint/Washover Procedures

7.4 Jars, Bumper Subs and Intensifiers

7.4.1 Drill Collars in a Jarring Assembly

7.4.2 Fluid Accelerator or Intensifier

7.5 Attachment Devices

7.5.1 Cutlip Screw-in Sub

7.5.2 Skirted Screw-in Assembly

7.5.3 External Engaging Devices

7.5.4 Series 150 Releasing and Circulating Overshot

7.5.5 High-Pressure Pack-Off

7.5.6 Oversize Cutlip Guide

7.5.7 Wallhook Guide

7.5.8 Hollow Mill Container and Hollow Mill

7.5.9 Bowen Series 70 Short Catch Overshot

7.5.10 Internal Engaging Devices

7.5.11 Box Taps and Taper Taps

7.6 Fishing for Junk

7.6.1 Poor Boy Junk Basket

7.6.2 Boot Basket

7.6.3 Core Type Junk Basket

7.6.4 Jet Powered Junk Baskets and Reverse Circulating Junk Baskets

7.6.5 Hydrostatic Junk Baskets

7.6.6 Milling Tools

7.6.7 Mill Designs

7.6.8 Impression Block

7.6.9 Fishing Magnets

7.6.10 Junk Shot

7.7 Abandonment

7.8 Wirelines

7.8.1 Wireline Construction

7.8.2 Electrical Conductors

7.8.3 Simple Armored Wirelines

7.8.4 Armored Wirelines with Electrical Conductors

7.8.5 Wireline Operating and Breaking Strengths

7.8.6 Wireline Stretching

Chapter 8 Casing and Casing String Design

8.1 Types of Casing

8.2 Casing Data

8.2.1 Process of Manufacture

8.2.2 Material Requirements (Section 7, API Specification 5CT)

8.2.3 Dimensions, masses, tolerances (section 8, API Specification 5CT)

8.2.4 Elements of Threads

8.2.5 Extreme-Line Casing (Integral Connection)

8.2.6 Thread Protectors

8.2.7 Joint Strength (Section 9 of API 5C3)

8.3 Combination Casing Strings

8.3.1 Design Consideration

8.3.2 Surface and Intermediate Strings

8.3.3 Production String

8.3.4 Tension Load

8.3.5 Compression Load

8.4 Running and Pulling Casing

8.4.1 Preparation and Inspection Before Running

8.4.2 Drifting of Casing

8.4.3 Stabbing, Making Up, and Lowering

8.4.4 Field Makeup

8.4.5 Casing Landing Procedure

8.4.6 Care of Casing in Hole

8.4.7 Recovery of Casing

8.4.8 Causes of Casing Troubles

Chapter 9 Well Cementing

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Chemistry of Cements

9.3 Cementing Principles

9.4 Standardization and Properties of Cements

9.5 Properties of Cement Slurry and Set Cement

9.5.1 Specific Weight

9.5.2 Thickening Time

9.5.3 Strength of Set Cement

9.6 Cement Additives

9.6.1 Specific Weight Control

9.6.2 Thickening Setting Time Control

9.6.3 Filtration Control

9.6.4 Viscosity Control

9.6.5 Special Problems Control

9.7 Primary Cementing

9.7.1 Normal Single-Stage Casing Cementing

9.7.2 Large-Diameter Casing Cementing

9.7.3 Multistage Casing Cementing

9.7.4 Liner Cementing

9.8 Secondary Cementing

9.8.1 Squeeze Cementing

Chapter 10 Tubing and Tubing String Design

10.1 API Physical Property Specifications

10.1.1 Dimensions,Weights and Lengths

10.1.2 Performance Properties

10.2 Running and Pulling Tubing

10.3 Preparation and Inspection before Running

10.3.1 Stabbing, Making Up and Lowering

10.3.2 Field Makeup

10.3.3 Pulling Tubing

10.3.4 Causes of Tubing Trouble

10.3.5 Selection of Wall Thickness and Steel Grade of Tubing

10.3.6 Tubing Elongation/Contraction Due to the Effect of Changes in Pressure and Temperature

10.3.7 Packer-To-Tubing Force

10.3.8 Permanent Corkscrewing

10.4 Packers

10.4.1 Protecting the Casing

10.4.2 Safety

10.4.3 Energy Conservation

10.4.4 Improve Productivity

10.4.5 Piston Effect

10.4.6 Buckling Effect

10.4.7 Ballooning Effect

10.4.8 Temperature Effect

10.4.9 Total Effect

10.4.10 Coiled Tubing

Chapter 11 Environmental Considerations for Drilling Operations

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Well Site

11.3 Environmental Regulations

11.4 Site Assessment and Construction

11.4.1 Access and Pad

11.4.2 Rig Considerations

11.4.3 Drilling Fluid Considerations

11.4.4 Periodic Operations

11.4.5 Completions

11.4.6 Pad Construction

11.5 Environmental Concerns While in Operation

11.5.1 Drilling

11.5.2 Rig Practice

11.5.3 Completions

11.5.4 Reclamation of the Drill Site

11.5.5 Reserve Pit Closure

11.5.6 Evaporation

11.5.7 Fixation of Reserve Pit Water and Solids

11.5.8 Final Closure



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About the Author

William Lyons

William C. Lyons, Ph.D., P.E. (retired), holds nine patents in industrial drilling and has been responsible for the development of several important innovations in drilling and production technology. He is the lead Editor of the Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Gas Engineering, 3rd edition, publishing with Elsevier and co-author of several other professional books in drilling and production engineering for the petroleum industry. Dr. Lyons was a Professor in Petroleum Engineering and in Mechanical Engineering at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology for 30 years. He also served two one-year tours as a Distinguished Visiting Professor in Mechanical Engineering at the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs during his academic career. Since retiring from teaching, Dr. Lyons is currently a Technical Learning Advisor with Chevron's Clear Leader Center in Houston, TX.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technical Learning Advisor, Chevron, Houston, TX