Wood Extractives and Their Significance to the Pulp and Paper Industries - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483233215, 9781483258614

Wood Extractives and Their Significance to the Pulp and Paper Industries

1st Edition

Editors: W. E. Hillis
eBook ISBN: 9781483258614
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 534
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Description

Wood Extractives and their Significance to the Pulp and Paper Industries focuses on the promotion of the study of the biochemistry of wood extractives and to elaborate on the effects these materials may pose to the manufacture of pulp and paper.

The publication first elaborates on wood, distribution and formation of polyphenols within the tree, and the simple polyphenolic constituents of plants. Discussions focus on the factors affecting the amounts of polyphenols present in living tissues, glycosidic combination, flavonols, anthocyanins, and leucoanthocyanins, formation of carbohydrates in the tree, types of polyphenols in different tissues of uninjured trees, and variation in structure and properties of wood. The text then examines lignans and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins.

The manuscript takes a look at the alicyclic acid precursors of polyphenols, biosynthesis of polyphenols, and tropolones. Topics include tropolones occurring in wood, polymeric polyphenols, synthesis of pre-aromatic compounds, shikimic acid, and quinic acid. The book then ponders on the influence of extractives on the pulping of wood and the influence of extractives on the color of ground wood and newsprint.

The publication is a valuable reference for researchers interested in the processes and methodologies involved in the manufacture of pulp and paper.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Section A: Wood

Chapter 1 Wood

I. Introduction

II. Structure

III. Development as a Product of a Living Organism

IV. Composition of the Cells

V. Variation in Structure and Properties of Wood

VI. Death of Its Living Cells and Resulting Changes

VII. Influence of Cell Contents on Properties

VIII. General

Section B: Polyphenols in the Tree

Chapter 2 The Distribution and Formation of Polyphenols within the Tree

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Estimation

III. Distribution of Polyphenols in Different Trees

IV. Types of Polyphenols in Different Tissues of Uninjured Trees

V. Abnormal Substances in the Tree

VI. The Formation of Carbohydrates in the Tree

VII. The Origin of Heartwood Polyphenols

VIII. The Sapwood-Heartwood Transformation

IX. The Factor Initiating the Sapwood-Heartwood Transformation

X. Factors Controlling the Amount of Polyphenols Formed

References

Chapter 3 The Simple Polyphenolic Constituents of Plants

I. Introduction

II. The C9 Acids

III. Flavonols, Anthocyanins, and Leucoanthocyanins

IV. Chromones and Xanthones

V. Quinones

VI. Stilbenes

VII. Biflavonyls

VIII. Glycosidic Combination

IX. Smaller Polyphenols

X. Systematic Distribution

XI. Factors Affecting the Amounts of Polyphenols Present in Living Tissues

References

Chapter 4 The Lignans

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence of Lignans

III. Isolation and Purification of Lignans

IV. Classification of Lignans

V. Formulas, Physical and Chemical Properties, and Reference to the Synthesis or Pertinent Degradation of Individual Lignans

VI. Stereochemical Interrelationships of the Lignans

References

Chapter 5 The Condensed Tannins

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence of Condensed Tannins

III. Estimation of Tannin

IV. Classification of Condensed Tannins

V. Chemistry of Condensed Tannins

References

Chapter 6 The Hydrolyzable Tannins

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence

III. Paper Chromatography of Hydrolyzable Tannins

IV. Isolation and Purification

V. Gallotannins

VI. Polyphenolic Carboxylic Acids Related to the Ellagitannins

VII. Ellagitannins

References

Section C: The Biosynthesis of Polyphenols

Chapter 7 Alicyclic Acid Precursors of Polyphenols

I. Introduction

II. Isolation, Detection, and Determination

III. Shikimic Acid

IV. Quinic Acid

V. The Role of Alicyclic Acids in Higher Plants

References

Chapter 8 The Biosynthesis of Polyphenols

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Study

III. Site of Synthesis

IV. The Synthesis of Pre-Aromatic Compounds

V. Aromatic Biosynthesis

VI. The Introduction of Functional Groups

VII. Polymeric Polyphenols

VIII. Conclusions

References

Section D: Other Extractives in Wood

Chapter 9 The Tropolones

I. Introduction

II. General Properties

III. Tropolones Occurring in Wood

IV. Distribution

V. Biosynthesis

References

Chapter 10 Wood Resin

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence of Wood Resin

III. Chemistry of Wood Resin

IV. Biochemistry of Wood Resin

References

Section E: Infuence on Pulp and Paper Manufacture

Chapter 11 The Influence of Extractives on the Pulping of Wood

I. Introduction

II. Reduction in Yield

III. Increased Chemical Consumption

IV. Inhibition of the Pulping Reaction

V. Equipment Corrosion

VI. Pulp Properties

VII. Spent Liquor Recovery

VIII. Epilogue

References

Chapter 12 The Influence of Extractives on the Color of Groundwood and Newsprint

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of Groundwood and Newsprint

III. Color Changes Observed in Wood and Pulp

IV. Color Changes Due to Extractives

V. Procedures to Reduce Discoloration by Extractives

VI: Bleaching

VII. Conclusions

References

Chapter 13 The Influence of Resins on Paper Manufacture

I. Introduction

II. Pitch Problems and Their Control

References

Appendix

The Family, Botanical Name, and Common Name of Species Mentioned in the Text

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
534
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1962
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483258614

About the Editor

W. E. Hillis

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