Wood Extractives and Their Significance to the Pulp and Paper Industries

Wood Extractives and Their Significance to the Pulp and Paper Industries

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Editor: W. E. Hillis
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258614

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Description

Wood Extractives and their Significance to the Pulp and Paper Industries focuses on the promotion of the study of the biochemistry of wood extractives and to elaborate on the effects these materials may pose to the manufacture of pulp and paper. The publication first elaborates on wood, distribution and formation of polyphenols within the tree, and the simple polyphenolic constituents of plants. Discussions focus on the factors affecting the amounts of polyphenols present in living tissues, glycosidic combination, flavonols, anthocyanins, and leucoanthocyanins, formation of carbohydrates in the tree, types of polyphenols in different tissues of uninjured trees, and variation in structure and properties of wood. The text then examines lignans and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. The manuscript takes a look at the alicyclic acid precursors of polyphenols, biosynthesis of polyphenols, and tropolones. Topics include tropolones occurring in wood, polymeric polyphenols, synthesis of pre-aromatic compounds, shikimic acid, and quinic acid. The book then ponders on the influence of extractives on the pulping of wood and the influence of extractives on the color of ground wood and newsprint. The publication is a valuable reference for researchers interested in the processes and methodologies involved in the manufacture of pulp and paper.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    Section A: Wood

    Chapter 1 Wood

    I. Introduction

    II. Structure

    III. Development as a Product of a Living Organism

    IV. Composition of the Cells

    V. Variation in Structure and Properties of Wood

    VI. Death of Its Living Cells and Resulting Changes

    VII. Influence of Cell Contents on Properties

    VIII. General

    Section B: Polyphenols in the Tree

    Chapter 2 The Distribution and Formation of Polyphenols within the Tree

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Estimation

    III. Distribution of Polyphenols in Different Trees

    IV. Types of Polyphenols in Different Tissues of Uninjured Trees

    V. Abnormal Substances in the Tree

    VI. The Formation of Carbohydrates in the Tree

    VII. The Origin of Heartwood Polyphenols

    VIII. The Sapwood-Heartwood Transformation

    IX. The Factor Initiating the Sapwood-Heartwood Transformation

    X. Factors Controlling the Amount of Polyphenols Formed

    References

    Chapter 3 The Simple Polyphenolic Constituents of Plants

    I. Introduction

    II. The C9 Acids

    III. Flavonols, Anthocyanins, and Leucoanthocyanins

    IV. Chromones and Xanthones

    V. Quinones

    VI. Stilbenes

    VII. Biflavonyls

    VIII. Glycosidic Combination

    IX. Smaller Polyphenols

    X. Systematic Distribution

    XI. Factors Affecting the Amounts of Polyphenols Present in Living Tissues

    References

    Chapter 4 The Lignans

    I. Introduction

    II. Occurrence of Lignans

    III. Isolation and Purification of Lignans

    IV. Classification of Lignans

    V. Formulas, Physical and Chemical Properties, and Reference to the Synthesis or Pertinent Degradation of Individual Lignans

    VI. Stereochemical Interrelationships of the Lignans

    References

    Chapter 5 The Condensed Tannins

    I. Introduction

    II. Occurrence of Condensed Tannins

    III. Estimation of Tannin

    IV. Classification of Condensed Tannins

    V. Chemistry of Condensed Tannins

    References

    Chapter 6 The Hydrolyzable Tannins

    I. Introduction

    II. Occurrence

    III. Paper Chromatography of Hydrolyzable Tannins

    IV. Isolation and Purification

    V. Gallotannins

    VI. Polyphenolic Carboxylic Acids Related to the Ellagitannins

    VII. Ellagitannins

    References

    Section C: The Biosynthesis of Polyphenols

    Chapter 7 Alicyclic Acid Precursors of Polyphenols

    I. Introduction

    II. Isolation, Detection, and Determination

    III. Shikimic Acid

    IV. Quinic Acid

    V. The Role of Alicyclic Acids in Higher Plants

    References

    Chapter 8 The Biosynthesis of Polyphenols

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Study

    III. Site of Synthesis

    IV. The Synthesis of Pre-Aromatic Compounds

    V. Aromatic Biosynthesis

    VI. The Introduction of Functional Groups

    VII. Polymeric Polyphenols

    VIII. Conclusions

    References

    Section D: Other Extractives in Wood

    Chapter 9 The Tropolones

    I. Introduction

    II. General Properties

    III. Tropolones Occurring in Wood

    IV. Distribution

    V. Biosynthesis

    References

    Chapter 10 Wood Resin

    I. Introduction

    II. Occurrence of Wood Resin

    III. Chemistry of Wood Resin

    IV. Biochemistry of Wood Resin

    References

    Section E: Infuence on Pulp and Paper Manufacture

    Chapter 11 The Influence of Extractives on the Pulping of Wood

    I. Introduction

    II. Reduction in Yield

    III. Increased Chemical Consumption

    IV. Inhibition of the Pulping Reaction

    V. Equipment Corrosion

    VI. Pulp Properties

    VII. Spent Liquor Recovery

    VIII. Epilogue

    References

    Chapter 12 The Influence of Extractives on the Color of Groundwood and Newsprint

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparation of Groundwood and Newsprint

    III. Color Changes Observed in Wood and Pulp

    IV. Color Changes Due to Extractives

    V. Procedures to Reduce Discoloration by Extractives

    VI: Bleaching

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 13 The Influence of Resins on Paper Manufacture

    I. Introduction

    II. Pitch Problems and Their Control

    References

    Appendix

    The Family, Botanical Name, and Common Name of Species Mentioned in the Text

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 534
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258614

About the Editor

W. E. Hillis

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