COVID-19 Update: We are currently shipping orders daily. However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. To provide all customers with timely access to content, we are offering 50% off Science and Technology Print & eBook bundle options. Terms & conditions.
Wood Coatings - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444528407, 9780080931609

Wood Coatings

1st Edition

Theory and Practice

0.0 star rating Write a review
Authors: Franco Bulian Jon Graystone
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444528407
eBook ISBN: 9780080931609
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 24th June 2009
Page Count: 320
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out Price includes VAT/GST
98.95
79.00
130.00
110.50
122.00
Unavailable
Price includes VAT/GST

Institutional Subscription

Secure Checkout

Personal information is secured with SSL technology.

Free Shipping

Free global shipping
No minimum order.

Description

Wood Coatings addresses the factors responsible for the performance of wood coatings in both domestic and industrial situations. The term 'wood coatings' covers a broad range of products including stains, varnishes, paints and supporting ancillary products that may be used indoors or outdoors. Techniques for coating wood go back many centuries but in recent decades there has been a move towards more environmentally-friendly materials, for example, the use of water-borne rather than solvent-borne chemicals. A major objective of Wood Coatings is to explain the underlying factors that influence selection, application and general operational issues. Basic information on the chemistry and technology of coatings is included for the benefit of students and laboratory technicians. Additionally, the book includes individual chapters of interest to architects, specifiers, and industrial users.

Key Features

  • Offers up-to-date guidance on current availability and usage of wood coatings
  • Provides the reader with a basic understanding of both coating and substrate interactions
  • Covers both architectural (trade and DIY) and industrial sectors

Readership

Students and laboratory technicians to obtain a basic understanding of the chemistry behind wood coatings. Industrial professionals wishing to update their knowledge.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Markets for wood and wood coatings

  1. Prologue
  2. Markets for wood and wood coatings
    1. Consumption of timber
    1. End use sectors – coated wood
    1. Joinery and windows
    1. Furniture
    1. Industrial wood coatings
    1. Parquet and wood flooring
    1. Major players in industrial wood coatings
    1. The decorative 'woodcare' market
    1. Technology breakdown
    1. Environmental legislation
  3. 10.1. Timetable for implementation of the solvents directive

Chapter 2 Wood and wood-based substrates

  1. Introduction
  2. Wood and timber
  3. Chemical composition
    1. Macromolecular substances
  4. 1.1. Cellulose
  5. 1.2. Hemicellulose
  6. 1.3. Lignin
    1. Low molecular weight substances (Extractives)
  7. 2.1. Aromatic phenol derivates
  8. 2.2. Aliphatic derivates (Fats and Waxes)
  9. 2.3. Terpenes and terpenoids
    1. Acidity in wood
    1. Minerals in wood
  10. Morphology
    1. Cellular structures
  11. 1.1. Softwoods (needlewood or coniferous wood)
  12. 1.2. Hardwoods (Broadleaf)
    1. Heartwood and sapwood
    1. Wood anisotropy
    1. The cutting of wood
    1. Wood and water (moisture content)
    1. Seasoning of wood
    1. Dimensional movement of wood
    1. The density of wood
  13. Biodegradation of wood
    1. Wood as a nutrient
  14. 1.1. Decay and fungal attack
  15. 1.2. Insect attack
  16. Modified wood
    1. Thermal treatments
    1. Chemical treatments
    1. Surface treatments
  17. Wood appearance
    1. Colour
  18. Utilisation of wood (Timber) in construction and furniture
    1. Solid wood
    1. Wood-based panel products
  19. 2.1. Solid wood panels
  20. 2.2. Plywood
  21. 2.3. Particleboards
  22. 2.4. Fibreboards
  23. 2.5. Multilaminar wood
  24. Covering materials
    1. Decorative veneers
    1. Impregnated papers
  25. 2.1. Melamine impregnated papers
  26. 2.2. Finish impregnated papers
    1. Plastic sheets
    1. Laminates
  27. 4.1. High pressure decorative laminate (HPL)
  28. 4.2. Continuously pressed laminates (CPL)
  29. APPENDIX - Some important wood species

Chapter 3 Raw materials for wood coatings (1) - Film formers (Binders, Resins and Polymers)

  1. Introduction
  2. Chemistry of coatings
    1. Drying oils and modified drying oils
  3. 1.1. Oil composition
  4. 1.2. Cross linking mechanism
  5. 1.3. Modified oils
    1. Natural resins and modified natural resins
  6. 2.1. Shellac
  7. 2.2. Colophony or Rosin oil
  8. 2.3. Waxes
    1. Cellulosic film formers
  9. 3.1. Cellulose esters: CAB and CAP
  10. 3.2. Cellulose nitrate
  11. 3.3. Cellulose ethers
    1. Alkyds (oil modified polyester resins)
  12. 4.1. Drying alkyds
  13. 4.2. Polyamide modified alkyds
  14. 4.3. Urethane-modified alkyds
  15. 4.4. Styrenated and vinyl alkyds
  16. 4.5. Silicone alkyds
  17. 4.6. Non-drying alkyds
  18. 4.7. High solids alkyds
    1. Isocyanates and polyurethanes
  19. 5.1. Properties of polyurethanes
  20. 5.2. Two-component (or two-pack) polyurethanes(2K)
    1. Amino resins (Urea and Melamine)
    1. Polyester resins
  21. 7.1. Unsaturated polyesters
    1. Acrylic resins
  22. 8.1. Thermoplastic acrylic resins
  23. 8.2. Thermosetting acrylic resins. Polycondensation reaction.
  24. 8.3. Thermosetting acrylic resins. Polyaddition reaction photochemically activated (Radiation Curing)
    1. Vinyl resins
    1. Epoxy resins
    1. Epoxy esters
  25. Water-borne binders and film-formers
    1. Water soluble alkyds and polyesters
    1. Emulsified alkyds
    1. Water-borne epoxy resins
    1. Water-borne 2-pack isocyanate systems (Urethanes)
    1. Aqueous polyurethane dispersions (PUD’s)
    1. Emulsion polymerisation
    1. Composition of water-borne dispersions
  26. 7.1. Cross linking water-borne dispersions
  27. 7.2. Morphology of polymer particles Chapter 4 Raw Materials for wood coatings (2) – Solvents, Additives and Colorants
  28. Introduction
  29. Solvents and Diluents
    1. Solvent properties
  30. 1.1. Solvency
  31. 1.2. Viscosity reduction
  32. 1.3. Evaporation rate
  33. 1.4. Surface tension
  34. 1.5. Flammability
  35. 1.6. Electrical conductance and resistance
  36. 1.7. Environmental impact
  37. 1.8. Odour
  38. 1.9. Water as a solvent (carrier or diluent)
  39. Additives
    1. Additives affecting the properties of liquid coating materials
  40. 1.1. Anti–skinning agents
  41. 1.2. Surface active agents
  42. 1.3. Pigment wetting and dispersing agents
  43. 1.4. Anti-foaming agents
  44. 1.5. Anti-settling agents
  45. 1.6. Rheological modifiers
  46. 1.7. Coalescing agents
  47. 1.8. Biocides
  48. 1.9. Film preservation agents
  49. 1.10. pH regulators and buffers
    1. Additives controlling the drying (conversion) of coating materials
  50. 2.1. Driers (oxidative cross linking)
  51. 2.2. Catalysts
  52. 2.3. Photoinitiators
    1. Additives affecting the properties of the coating film
  53. 3.1. Additives to improve or modify appearance
  54. 3.2. Sanding additives
  55. 3.3. Matting agents
  56. 3.4. Levelling agents
  57. 3.5. UV absorbers
  58. 3.6. Radical scavengers
  59. 3.7. Flame retardants
  60. 3.8. Plasticisers
  61. Colorants (Pigments and Dyes)
    1. Origin of colorant properties
    1. Required colorant properties
  62. 2.1. Colour
  63. 2.2. Tinctorial strength
  64. 2.3. Physical form
  65. 2.4. Durability
  66. 2.5. Toxicology
    1. Pigment types
  67. 3.1. Inorganic white pigments
  68. 3.2. Coloured inorganic pigments
  69. 3.3. Coloured organic pigments
  70. 3.4. Extender pigments

Chapter 5 Classification and formulation of wood coatings

  1. Introduction
  2. Classification
    1. Generic type
  3. 1.1. Paint
  4. 1.2. Clear and semi-transparent coatings (Varnishes and Lacquers)
  5. 1.3. Stains and lasures
  6. 1.4. Oils, polishes and patinas
    1. Functional classifications
  7. Mixture Properties
    1. Introduction
    1. Pigment to binder ratios
    1. Graphical representation of a coating formulation.
    1. Formulation protocols
    1. Relevance of formulation data to users

Chapter 6 Properties of wood coatings – Testing and characterisation

  1. Introduction
  2. Standards
    1. Standards organisations
  3. Characterisation of liquid coatings
    1. Compositional aspects
    1. Solid content
    1. Pigment content
    1. Density
    1. Determination of the Volatile Organic Compounds (or content)
  4. 5.1. Photo curing coatings
  5. 5.2. Chemically curing polyesters
    1. Other test methods
  6. Properties related to application
    1. Viscosity
    1. Pot life
    1. Minimum film formation temperature
    1. Drying Time
  7. Applied Coatings (Dry film)
    1. Properties related to appearance
  8. 1.1. Light transmission (transparency and hiding power)
  9. 1.2. Light reflectance (gloss)
  10. 1.3. Light absorption (Colour)
  11. Coatings Performance
    1. General properties
  12. 1.1. Film thickness
  13. 1.2. Adhesive performance
  14. 1.3. Surface hardness
  15. 1.4. Stackability (Blocking)
    1. Coatings for exterior use
  16. 2.1. Weathering methods
  17. 2.2. Water permeability
  18. 2.3. Resistance against biological deterioration
    1. Coatings for interior use
  19. 3.1. Mechanical stresses
  20. 3.2. Physical stresses
  21. 3.3. Resistance to climatic variations
  22. 3.4. Resistance to light
  23. 3.5. Chemical interactions

Chapter 7 Market needs and end uses (1) - Architectural (decorative) wood coatings

  1. Introduction
    1. Summary of key differences
    1. Decorative coatings for exterior wood
  2. 2.1. Exterior wood stains (Lasures)
  3. 2.2. Varnishes and other clear coats
  4. 2.3. Paint and paint systems for wood
    1. Decorative coatings for interior wood
  5. 3.1. General purpose
  6. 3.2. Wood flooring
    1. Durability of exterior wood coatings
  7. 4.1. Design factors
  8. 4.2. Preservation of timber
  9. 4.3. Specification of exterior wood coatings
  10. 4.4. Maintenance of exterior wood coatings

Chapter 8 Market needs and end uses (2) - Industrial wood coatings

  1. Introduction
  2. Industrial finishing of wood joinery
    1. Preservation
    1. Coating systems
  3. 2.2 Typical industrial joinery finishing schedule
    1. Environmental legislation considerations
  4. Industrial finishing of furniture
    1. Coatings for wood furniture - some functional types
  5. 1.1. Bleaches
  6. 1.2. Sizes and washcoats
  7. 1.3. Stains
  8. 1.4. Fillers
  9. 1.5. Sealers
  10. 1.6. Topcoats
    1. Influence of substrate on coating type
    1. Coatings for wood furniture – Factors influencing technology choice
  11. 3.1. Economic factors and economies of scale
  12. 3.2. Operational factors – Fully assembled or knock-down?
  13. 3.3. Appearance aspects – Open or closed-pore?
    1. Functional needs
    1. Legislation
  14. 5.1. Assembled furniture
  15. 5.2. Knock-down furniture
    1. Coating systems for some typical applications
  16. Coatings for wood flooring
    1. Formulating parquet and related coatings

Chapter 9 Operational aspects of wood coatings (1): application and surface preparation.

  1. Introduction
    1. Quality
    1. Application and spreading rates
    1. Productivity
    1. Cleaning/Product change/Maintenance
    1. Transfer efficiency
  2. Application systems
    1. Contact methods
  3. 1.1. Brushing
  4. 1.2. Padding
  5. 1.3. Dipping
  6. 1.4. Autoclave vacuum and pressure application
  7. 1.5. Roller coating
  8. 1.6. Curtain coating
  9. 1.7. Flow coating
  10. 1.8. Vacuum coaters
    1. Atomising systems
  11. 2.1. Conventional air atomised systems - Pneumatic atomisation
  12. 2.2. Pneumatic atomisation with high air volume and low pressure (HVLP)
  13. 2.3. Hydraulic atomization (Airless)
  14. 2.4. Hydraulic air assisted atomization
  15. 2.5. Operational Aspects of Spray application
  16. 2.6. Mechanical atomization
  17. 2.7. Spray application of powder coatings
  18. Preparation of the substrate
    1. Sanding of the substrate
    1. Sanding papers
  19. 2.1. Metal-wool
    1. Brush sanding
    1. Bleaching

Chapter 10 Film formation: drying and curing

  1. Introduction
  2. Film formation by evaporation of solvent from solution: physical drying
    1. Non-aqueous solutions
    1. High Solids solvent-borne coatings
    1. Water-borne solutions
    1. Water-borne emulsions
  3. 4.1. Water-borne dispersions - Latexes
  4. Powder coatings
  5. Film formation and chemical cross-linking
    1. Thermosetting Resins
  6. Representative curing technologies
    1. One component physically drying coatings - lacquers
    1. One component chemically drying coatings (ambient temperatures).
    1. Multi-pack chemically drying coatings
    1. Stoving coatings
    1. Photo-curing coating
  7. Industrial drying processes
  8. 1.1. Infrared lamps (IR)
  9. 1.2. Infrared plates
  10. 1.3. Microwave sources
    1. Radiation-curing systems
    1. Electron Beam (EB)
  11. Industrial plants
    1. Horizontal tunnels
    1. Vertical ovens
    1. Multi-level ovens
    1. Tunnel ovens for multi-layer racks
    1. Ovens for three-dimensional elements
    1. Drying chambers

Details

No. of pages:
320
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2009
Published:
24th June 2009
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444528407
eBook ISBN:
9780080931609

About the Authors

Franco Bulian

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice Director, CATAS, Italy

Jon Graystone

Affiliations and Expertise

Principal Research Scientist, Paint Resarch Association (PRA), UK

Ratings and Reviews