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Wood Coatings addresses the factors responsible for the performance of wood coatings in both domestic and industrial situations. The term 'wood coatings' covers a broad range of products including stains, varnishes, paints and supporting ancillary products that may be used indoors or outdoors. Techniques for coating wood go back many centuries but in recent decades there has been a move towards more environmentally-friendly materials, for example, the use of water-borne rather than solvent-borne chemicals. A major objective of Wood Coatings is to explain the underlying factors that influence selection, application and general operational issues. Basic information on the chemistry and technology of coatings is included for the benefit of students and laboratory technicians. Additionally, the book includes individual chapters of interest to architects, specifiers, and industrial users.
- Offers up-to-date guidance on current availability and usage of wood coatings
- Provides the reader with a basic understanding of both coating and substrate interactions
- Covers both architectural (trade and DIY) and industrial sectors
Students and laboratory technicians to obtain a basic understanding of the chemistry behind wood coatings. Industrial professionals wishing to update their knowledge.
Chapter 1 Markets for wood and wood coatings
- Markets for wood and wood coatings 2.1. Consumption of timber 2.2. End use sectors – coated wood 2.3. Joinery and windows 2.4. Furniture 2.5. Industrial wood coatings 2.6. Parquet and wood flooring 2.7. Major players in industrial wood coatings 2.8. The decorative 'woodcare' market 2.9. Technology breakdown 2.10. Environmental legislation 2.10.1. Timetable for implementation of the solvents directive
Chapter 2 Wood and wood-based substrates
- Wood and timber
- Chemical composition 3.1. Macromolecular substances 3.1.1. Cellulose 3.1.2. Hemicellulose 3.1.3. Lignin 3.2. Low molecular weight substances (Extractives) 3.2.1. Aromatic phenol derivates 3.2.2. Aliphatic derivates (Fats and Waxes) 3.2.3. Terpenes and terpenoids 3.3. Acidity in wood 3.4. Minerals in wood
- Morphology 4.1. Cellular structures 4.1.1. Softwoods (needlewood or coniferous wood) 4.1.2. Hardwoods (Broadleaf) 4.2. Heartwood and sapwood 4.3. Wood anisotropy 4.4. The cutting of wood 4.5. Wood and water (moisture content) 4.6. Seasoning of wood 4.7. Dimensional movement of wood 4.8. The density of wood
- Biodegradation of wood 5.1. Wood as a nutrient 5.1.1. Decay and fungal attack 5.1.2. Insect attack
- Modified wood
6.1. Thermal treatments
6.2. Chemical treatments
6.3. Surface treatments
- Wood appearance 7.1. Colour
- Utilisation of wood (Timber) in construction and furniture 8.1. Solid wood 8.2. Wood-based panel products 8.2.1. Solid wood panels 8.2.2. Plywood 8.2.3. Particleboards 8.2.4. Fibreboards 8.2.5. Multilaminar wood
- Covering materials 9.1. Decorative veneers 9.2. Impregnated papers 9.2.1. Melamine impregnated papers 9.2.2. Finish impregnated papers 9.3. Plastic sheets 9.4. Laminates 9.4.1. High pressure decorative laminate (HPL) 9.4.2. Continuously pressed laminates (CPL)
- APPENDIX - Some important wood species
Chapter 3 Raw materials for wood coatings (1) - Film formers (Binders, Resins and Polymers)
- Chemistry of coatings 2.1. Drying oils and modified drying oils 2.1.1. Oil composition 2.1.2. Cross linking mechanism 2.1.3. Modified oils 2.2. Natural resins and modified natural resins 2.2.1. Shellac 2.2.2. Colophony or Rosin oil 2.2.3. Waxes 2.3. Cellulosic film formers 2.3.1. Cellulose esters: CAB and CAP 2.3.2. Cellulose nitrate 2.3.3. Cellulose ethers 2.4. Alkyds (oil modified polyester resins) 2.4.1. Drying alkyds 2.4.2. Polyamide modified alkyds 2.4.3. Urethane-modified alkyds 2.4.4. Styrenated and vinyl alkyds 2.4.5. Silicone alkyds 2.4.6. Non-drying alkyds 2.4.7. High solids alkyds 2.5. Isocyanates and polyurethanes 2.5.1. Properties of polyurethanes 2.5.2. Two-component (or two-pack) polyurethanes(2K) 2.6. Amino resins (Urea and Melamine) 2.7. Polyester resins 2.7.1. Unsaturated polyesters 2.8. Acrylic resins 2.8.1. Thermoplastic acrylic resins 2.8.2. Thermosetting acrylic resins. Polycondensation reaction. 2.8.3. Thermosetting acrylic resins. Polyaddition reaction photochemically activated (Radiation Curing) 2.9. Vinyl resins 2.10. Epoxy resins 2.11. Epoxy esters
- Water-borne binders and film-formers 3.1. Water soluble alkyds and polyesters 3.2. Emulsified alkyds 3.3. Water-borne epoxy resins 3.4. Water-borne 2-pack isocyanate systems (Urethanes) 3.5. Aqueous polyurethane dispersions (PUD’s) 3.6. Emulsion polymerisation 3.7. Composition of water-borne dispersions 3.7.1. Cross linking water-borne dispersions 3.7.2. Morphology of polymer particles Chapter 4 Raw Materials for wood coatings (2) – Solvents, Additives and Colorants
- Solvents and Diluents 2.1. Solvent properties 2.1.1. Solvency 2.1.2. Viscosity reduction 2.1.3. Evaporation rate 2.1.4. Surface tension 2.1.5. Flammability 2.1.6. Electrical conductance and resistance 2.1.7. Environmental impact 2.1.8. Odour 2.1.9. Water as a solvent (carrier or diluent)
- Additives 3.1. Additives affecting the properties of liquid coating materials 3.1.1. Anti–skinning agents 3.1.2. Surface active agents 3.1.3. Pigment wetting and dispersing agents 3.1.4. Anti-foaming agents 3.1.5. Anti-settling agents 3.1.6. Rheological modifiers 3.1.7. Coalescing agents 3.1.8. Biocides 3.1.9. Film preservation agents 3.1.10. pH regulators and buffers 3.2. Additives controlling the drying (conversion) of coating materials 3.2.1. Driers (oxidative cross linking) 3.2.2. Catalysts 3.2.3. Photoinitiators 3.3. Additives affecting the properties of the coating film 3.3.1. Additives to improve or modify appearance 3.3.2. Sanding additives 3.3.3. Matting agents 3.3.4. Levelling agents 3.3.5. UV absorbers 3.3.6. Radical scavengers 3.3.7. Flame retardants 3.3.8. Plasticisers
- Colorants (Pigments and Dyes) 4.1. Origin of colorant properties 4.2. Required colorant properties 4.2.1. Colour 4.2.2. Tinctorial strength 4.2.3. Physical form 4.2.4. Durability 4.2.5. Toxicology 4.3. Pigment types 4.3.1. Inorganic white pigments 4.3.2. Coloured inorganic pigments 4.3.3. Coloured organic pigments 4.3.4. Extender pigments
Chapter 5 Classification and formulation of wood coatings
- Classification 2.1. Generic type 2.1.1. Paint 2.1.2. Clear and semi-transparent coatings (Varnishes and Lacquers) 2.1.3. Stains and lasures 2.1.4. Oils, polishes and patinas 2.2. Functional classifications
- Mixture Properties 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Pigment to binder ratios 3.3. Graphical representation of a coating formulation. 3.4. Formulation protocols 3.5. Relevance of formulation data to users
Chapter 6 Properties of wood coatings – Testing and characterisation
- Standards 2.1. Standards organisations
- Characterisation of liquid coatings 3.1. Compositional aspects 3.2. Solid content 3.3. Pigment content 3.4. Density 3.5. Determination of the Volatile Organic Compounds (or content) 3.5.1. Photo curing coatings 3.5.2. Chemically curing polyesters 3.6. Other test methods
- Properties related to application 4.1. Viscosity 4.2. Pot life 4.3. Minimum film formation temperature 4.4. Drying Time
- Applied Coatings (Dry film) 5.1. Properties related to appearance 5.1.1. Light transmission (transparency and hiding power) 5.1.2. Light reflectance (gloss) 5.1.3. Light absorption (Colour)
- Coatings Performance 6.1. General properties 6.1.1. Film thickness 6.1.2. Adhesive performance 6.1.3. Surface hardness 6.1.4. Stackability (Blocking) 6.2. Coatings for exterior use 6.2.1. Weathering methods 6.2.2. Water permeability 6.2.3. Resistance against biological deterioration 6.3. Coatings for interior use 6.3.1. Mechanical stresses 6.3.2. Physical stresses 6.3.3. Resistance to climatic variations 6.3.4. Resistance to light 6.3.5. Chemical interactions
Chapter 7 Market needs and end uses (1) - Architectural (decorative) wood coatings
- Introduction 1.1. Summary of key differences 1.2. Decorative coatings for exterior wood 1.2.1. Exterior wood stains (Lasures) 1.2.2. Varnishes and other clear coats 1.2.3. Paint and paint systems for wood 1.3. Decorative coatings for interior wood 1.3.1. General purpose 1.3.2. Wood flooring 1.4. Durability of exterior wood coatings 1.4.1. Design factors 1.4.2. Preservation of timber 1.4.3. Specification of exterior wood coatings 1.4.4. Maintenance of exterior wood coatings
Chapter 8 Market needs and end uses (2) - Industrial wood coatings
- Industrial finishing of wood joinery 2.1. Preservation 2.2. Coating systems 2.2.2 Typical industrial joinery finishing schedule 2.3. Environmental legislation considerations
- Industrial finishing of furniture 3.1. Coatings for wood furniture - some functional types 3.1.1. Bleaches 3.1.2. Sizes and washcoats 3.1.3. Stains 3.1.4. Fillers 3.1.5. Sealers 3.1.6. Topcoats 3.2. Influence of substrate on coating type 3.3. Coatings for wood furniture – Factors influencing technology choice 3.3.1. Economic factors and economies of scale 3.3.2. Operational factors – Fully assembled or knock-down? 3.3.3. Appearance aspects – Open or closed-pore? 3.4. Functional needs 3.5. Legislation 3.5.1. Assembled furniture 3.5.2. Knock-down furniture 3.6. Coating systems for some typical applications
- Coatings for wood flooring 4.1. Formulating parquet and related coatings
Chapter 9 Operational aspects of wood coatings (1): application and surface preparation.
- Introduction 1.1. Quality 1.2. Application and spreading rates 1.3. Productivity 1.4. Cleaning/Product change/Maintenance 1.5. Transfer efficiency
- Application systems 2.1. Contact methods 2.1.1. Brushing 2.1.2. Padding 2.1.3. Dipping 2.1.4. Autoclave vacuum and pressure application 2.1.5. Roller coating 2.1.6. Curtain coating 2.1.7. Flow coating 2.1.8. Vacuum coaters 2.2. Atomising systems 2.2.1. Conventional air atomised systems - Pneumatic atomisation 2.2.2. Pneumatic atomisation with high air volume and low pressure (HVLP) 2.2.3. Hydraulic atomization (Airless) 2.2.4. Hydraulic air assisted atomization 2.2.5. Operational Aspects of Spray application 2.2.6. Mechanical atomization 2.2.7. Spray application of powder coatings
- Preparation of the substrate 3.1. Sanding of the substrate 3.2. Sanding papers 3.2.1. Metal-wool 3.3. Brush sanding 3.4. Bleaching
Chapter 10 Film formation: drying and curing
- Film formation by evaporation of solvent from solution: physical drying 2.1. Non-aqueous solutions 2.2. High Solids solvent-borne coatings 2.3. Water-borne solutions 2.4. Water-borne emulsions 2.4.1. Water-borne dispersions - Latexes
- Powder coatings
- Film formation and chemical cross-linking 4.1. Thermosetting Resins
- Representative curing technologies 5.1. One component physically drying coatings - lacquers 5.2. One component chemically drying coatings (ambient temperatures). 5.3. Multi-pack chemically drying coatings 5.4. Stoving coatings 5.5. Photo-curing coating
- Industrial drying processes 6.1.1. Infrared lamps (IR) 6.1.2. Infrared plates 6.1.3. Microwave sources 6.2. Radiation-curing systems 6.3. Electron Beam (EB)
- Industrial plants 7.1. Horizontal tunnels 7.2. Vertical ovens 7.3. Multi-level ovens 7.4. Tunnel ovens for multi-layer racks 7.5. Ovens for three-dimensional elements 7.6. Drying chambers
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 2009
- 24th June 2009
- Elsevier Science
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Vice Director, CATAS, Italy
Principal Research Scientist, Paint Resarch Association (PRA), UK
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