Wood as Raw Material

Wood as Raw Material

Source, Structure, Chemical Composition, Growth, Degradation and Identification

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Author: George Tsoumis
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483159522

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Wood as Raw Material: Source, Structure, Chemical Composition, Growth, Degradation and Identification focuses on the scientific advancements in general forestry. This book discusses the value of wood as a raw material as looked upon from biological, botanical, and technical perspective. Organized into 12 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the importance of forest trees as sources of wood. This text then examines the chemical composition and ultrastructure of wood. Other chapters explain the biological mechanisms of wood and bark formation by forest trees. This book discusses as well the certain fundamental relationships between tree growth and wood structure. The final chapter deals with wood identification in North America and European forest tree species. This book is a valuable resource for students engaged in the study of forest management, wood science and technology, tree physiology, silviculture, forest soils, forest genetics, forest engineering, pulp and paper technology, forest and wood pathology, and other specialized areas. Foresters and technologists will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents

  • Prologue



    Chapter 1. Forest Trees as Sources of Wood

    Botanical Classification

    Geographical Distribution

    Commercial Importance

    Utilization of Individual Trees


    Chapter 2. Macroscopic Characteristics of Wood

    Characteristics of a Transverse Surface

    Characteristics of Radial and Tangential Surfaces


    Chapter 3. Physical Characteristics of Wood





    Texture, Grain, and Figure

    Weight and Hardness


    Chapter 4. Wood under the Microscope

    General Appearance of Individual Wood Cells

    Wood Tissue: Cell Lumina, Walls, and Cementing Substance

    Structure and Arrangement of Pits

    Description of Cell Types


    Vessel Members

    Vascular and Vasicentric Tracheids



    Intercellular Canals


    Chapter 5. Chemical Composition and Ultrastructure of Wood

    Elementary Chemical Composition

    Organic Components of Wood


    Ultrastructural Architecture of Wood

    Microfibrils and their Structure

    Orientation of Microfibrils: Cell-Wall Layers

    Spiral Thickenings

    Ultrastructure of Pits

    The Warty Layer

    Ultrastructure of Tyloses

    Distribution of Chemical Components in Cell Walls

    Effects of Chemical Components on Wood Properties and Uses

    Biological Aspects


    Chapter 6. The Mechanism of Wood Formation

    Primary Growth

    Secondary Growth

    Cell Development


    Chapter 7. Formation and Structure of the Bark

    Formation and Function of Periderms

    Inner and Outer Bark

    Cellular Structure

    a. Cellular Structure in the Bark of Softwoods

    b. Cellular Structure in the Bark of Hardwoods

    c. Changes in Cellular Structure

    Lignification in Bark Cells

    Growth Increments in Bark


    Chapter 8. Tree Growth and Variation of Wood Structure

    Variation Within a Tree

    a. Horizontal Variation

    b. Vertical Variation

    Factors Affecting Variation within a Tree

    Variation between Trees

    Quality Control


    Chapter 9. the Wood of Branches and Roots

    The Wood of Branches

    The Wood of Roots


    Chapter 10. Abnormalities in Wood

    1. Growth Abnormalities

    a. Deviations from Typical Tree Form

    b. Spiral Grain and Other Grain Deviations

    c. Abnormal Arrangement of Growth Rings

    d. Reaction Wood: Compression Wood and Tension Wood

    e. Disruption of the Continuity of Inner Wood Tissues

    f. Abnormal Color

    g. Abnormalities Due to Wounding

    h. Abnormalities Due to Atomic Radiation

    2. Natural Growth Characteristics

    a. Knots

    b. Pith


    Chapter 11. Degradation of Wood

    1. Bacterial Attack

    2. Fungal Attack

    a. Stains

    b. Decay

    3. Attack by Insects

    4. Attack by Marine Organisms

    5. Fire

    6. Degradation by Chemicals

    7. Degradation in Drying

    8. Weathering

    9. Mechanical Wear


    Chapter 12. Identification of Wood

    1. Macroscopic Key to North American Softwoods with Resin Canals

    2. Macroscopic Key to North American Pines

    3. Macroscopic Key to North American Softwoods without Resin Canals

    4. Microscopic Key to North American Softwoods

    5. Microscopic Key to North American Pines

    6. Key to North American Ring-Porous Hardwoods

    7. Key to North American Diffuse-Porous Hardwoods

    8. Macroscopic Key to European Softwoods

    9. Microscopic Key to European Softwoods

    10. Macroscopic Key to European Pines

    11. Microscopic Key to European Pines

    12. Key to European Ring-Porous Hardwoods

    13. Key to European Diffuse-Porous Hardwoods


    Appendix: Techniques for Microscopic Investigation of Wood

    Light Microscopy

    Sample Preparation

    Microscopic Measurements


    Electron Microscopy

    Sample Preparation

    Other Microtechniques


    English and Metric System Equivalents


Product details

  • No. of pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483159522

About the Author

George Tsoumis

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