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Wood as Raw Material - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080123783, 9781483159522

Wood as Raw Material

1st Edition

Source, Structure, Chemical Composition, Growth, Degradation and Identification

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Author: George Tsoumis
eBook ISBN: 9781483159522
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 288
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Wood as Raw Material: Source, Structure, Chemical Composition, Growth, Degradation and Identification focuses on the scientific advancements in general forestry. This book discusses the value of wood as a raw material as looked upon from biological, botanical, and technical perspective. Organized into 12 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the importance of forest trees as sources of wood. This text then examines the chemical composition and ultrastructure of wood. Other chapters explain the biological mechanisms of wood and bark formation by forest trees. This book discusses as well the certain fundamental relationships between tree growth and wood structure. The final chapter deals with wood identification in North America and European forest tree species. This book is a valuable resource for students engaged in the study of forest management, wood science and technology, tree physiology, silviculture, forest soils, forest genetics, forest engineering, pulp and paper technology, forest and wood pathology, and other specialized areas. Foresters and technologists will also find this book useful.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Forest Trees as Sources of Wood

Botanical Classification

Geographical Distribution

Commercial Importance

Utilization of Individual Trees


Chapter 2. Macroscopic Characteristics of Wood

Characteristics of a Transverse Surface

Characteristics of Radial and Tangential Surfaces


Chapter 3. Physical Characteristics of Wood





Texture, Grain, and Figure

Weight and Hardness


Chapter 4. Wood under the Microscope

General Appearance of Individual Wood Cells

Wood Tissue: Cell Lumina, Walls, and Cementing Substance

Structure and Arrangement of Pits

Description of Cell Types


Vessel Members

Vascular and Vasicentric Tracheids



Intercellular Canals


Chapter 5. Chemical Composition and Ultrastructure of Wood

Elementary Chemical Composition

Organic Components of Wood


Ultrastructural Architecture of Wood

Microfibrils and their Structure

Orientation of Microfibrils: Cell-Wall Layers

Spiral Thickenings

Ultrastructure of Pits

The Warty Layer

Ultrastructure of Tyloses

Distribution of Chemical Components in Cell Walls

Effects of Chemical Components on Wood Properties and Uses

Biological Aspects


Chapter 6. The Mechanism of Wood Formation

Primary Growth

Secondary Growth

Cell Development


Chapter 7. Formation and Structure of the Bark

Formation and Function of Periderms

Inner and Outer Bark

Cellular Structure

a. Cellular Structure in the Bark of Softwoods

b. Cellular Structure in the Bark of Hardwoods

c. Changes in Cellular Structure

Lignification in Bark Cells

Growth Increments in Bark


Chapter 8. Tree Growth and Variation of Wood Structure

Variation Within a Tree

a. Horizontal Variation

b. Vertical Variation

Factors Affecting Variation within a Tree

Variation between Trees

Quality Control


Chapter 9. the Wood of Branches and Roots

The Wood of Branches

The Wood of Roots


Chapter 10. Abnormalities in Wood

1. Growth Abnormalities

a. Deviations from Typical Tree Form

b. Spiral Grain and Other Grain Deviations

c. Abnormal Arrangement of Growth Rings

d. Reaction Wood: Compression Wood and Tension Wood

e. Disruption of the Continuity of Inner Wood Tissues

f. Abnormal Color

g. Abnormalities Due to Wounding

h. Abnormalities Due to Atomic Radiation

2. Natural Growth Characteristics

a. Knots

b. Pith


Chapter 11. Degradation of Wood

1. Bacterial Attack

2. Fungal Attack

a. Stains

b. Decay

3. Attack by Insects

4. Attack by Marine Organisms

5. Fire

6. Degradation by Chemicals

7. Degradation in Drying

8. Weathering

9. Mechanical Wear


Chapter 12. Identification of Wood

1. Macroscopic Key to North American Softwoods with Resin Canals

2. Macroscopic Key to North American Pines

3. Macroscopic Key to North American Softwoods without Resin Canals

4. Microscopic Key to North American Softwoods

5. Microscopic Key to North American Pines

6. Key to North American Ring-Porous Hardwoods

7. Key to North American Diffuse-Porous Hardwoods

8. Macroscopic Key to European Softwoods

9. Microscopic Key to European Softwoods

10. Macroscopic Key to European Pines

11. Microscopic Key to European Pines

12. Key to European Ring-Porous Hardwoods

13. Key to European Diffuse-Porous Hardwoods


Appendix: Techniques for Microscopic Investigation of Wood

Light Microscopy

Sample Preparation

Microscopic Measurements


Electron Microscopy

Sample Preparation

Other Microtechniques


English and Metric System Equivalents



No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1968
1st January 1968
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

George Tsoumis

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