Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks

An Information Processing Approach

1st Edition - July 6, 2004

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  • Authors: Feng Zhao, Leonidas Guibas
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080521725

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Description

Information processing in sensor networks is a rapidly emerging area of computer science and electrical engineering research. Because of advances in micro-sensors, wireless networking and embedded processing, ad hoc networks of sensor are becoming increasingly available for commercial, military, and homeland security applications. Examples include monitoring (e.g., traffic, habitat, security), industrail sensing and diagnostics (e.g., factory, appliances), infrastructures (i.e., power grid, water distribution, waste disposal) and battle awareness (e.g., multi-target tracking). This book introduces practitioners to the fundamental issues and technology constraints concerning various aspects of sensor networks such as information organization, querying, routing, and self-organization using concrete examples and does so by using concrete examples from current research and implementation efforts.

Key Features

  • Written for practitioners, researchers, and students and relevant to all application areas, including environmental monitoring, industrial sensing and diagnostics, automotive and transportation, security and surveillance, military and battlefield uses, and large-scale infrastructural maintenance
  • Skillfully integrates the many disciplines at work in wireless sensor network design: signal processing and estimation, communication theory and protocols, distributed algorithms and databases, probabilistic reasoning, energy-aware computing, design methodologies, evaluation metrics, and more
  • Demonstrates how querying, data routing, and network self-organization can support high-level information-processing tasks

Readership

Sensor networking and embedded systems professionals including development engineers, research scientists, system architects, etc., in a wide variety of companies from the defense industry to the home computing and electronics industry

Table of Contents

  • 1 Introduction
    1.1 Unique Constraints and Challenges
    1.2 Advantages of Sensor Networks
    1.2.1 Energy advantage
    1.2.2 Detection advantage
    1.3 Sensor Network Applications
    1.3.1 Habitat monitoring: wildlife conservation through autonomous, non-intrusive sensing
    1.3.2 Tracking chemical plumes: ad hoc, just-in-time deployment mitigating disasters
    1.3.3 Smart transportation: networked sensors making roads safer and less congested
    1.4 Collaborative Processing
    1.5 Key Definitions of Sensor Networks
    1.6 The Rest of the Book

    2 Canonical Problem: Localization and Tracking
    2.1 A Tracking Scenario
    2.2 Problem Formulation
    2.2.1 Sensing model
    2.2.2 Collaborative localization
    2.2.3 Bayesian state estimation
    2.3 Distributed Representation and Inference of States
    2.3.1 Impact of choice of representation
    2.3.2 Design desiderata in distributed tracking
    2.4 Tracking Multiple Objects
    2.4.1 State-space decomposition
    2.4.2 Data association
    2.5 Sensor Models
    2.6 Performance Comparison and Metrics
    2.7 Summary
    2.8 Appendix A: Optimal Estimator Design
    2.9 Appendix B: Particle Filter

    3 Networking Sensors
    3.1 Key Assumptions
    3.2 Medium Access Control
    3.2.1 The S-MAC Protocol
    3.2.2 IEEE 802.15.4 Standard and ZigBee
    3.3 General Issues
    3.4 Geographic, Energy-Aware Routing
    3.4.1 Unicast Geographic Routing
    3.4.2 Routing on a Curve
    3.4.3 Energy-Minimizing Broadcast
    3.4.4 Energy-Aware Routing to a Region
    3.5 Attribute-Based Routing
    3.5.1 Directed Diffusion
    3.5.2 Rumor Routing
    3.5.3 Geographic Hash Tables
    3.6 Summary

    4 Infrastructure Establishment
    4.1 Topology Control
    4.2 Clustering
    4.3 Time Synchronization
    4.3.1 Clocks and Communication Delays
    4.3.2 Interval Methods
    4.3.3 Reference Broadcasts
    4.4 Localization and Localization Services
    4.4.1 Ranging Techniques
    4.4.2 Range-Based Localization Algorithms
    4.4.3 Other Localization Algorithms
    4.4.4 Location Services
    4.5 Summary

    5 Sensor Tasking and Control
    5.1 Task-Driven Sensing
    5.2 Roles of Sensor Nodes and Utilities
    5.3 Information-Based Sensor Tasking
    5.3.1 Sensor selection
    5.3.2 IDSQ: Information-driven sensor querying
    5.3.3 Cluster leader based protocol
    5.3.4 Sensor tasking in tracking relations
    5.4 Joint Routing and Information Aggregation
    5.4.1 Moving center of aggregation
    5.4.2 Multi-step information-directed routing
    5.4.3 Sensor group management
    5.4.4 Case study: sensing global phenomena
    5.5 Summary
    5.6 Appendix A: Information Utility Measures
    5.7 Appendix B: Sample Sensor Selection Criteria


    6 Sensor Network Databases
    6.1 Sensor Database Challenges
    6.2 Querying The Physical Environment
    6.3 Query Interfaces
    6.3.1 Cougar sensor database and abstract data types
    6.3.2 Probabilistic queries
    6.4 High-level Database Organization
    6.5 In-Network Aggregation
    6.5.1 Query propagation and aggregation
    6.5.2 TinyDB query processing
    6.5.3 Query processing scheduling and optimization
    6.6 Data-Centric Storage
    6.7 Data Indices and Range Queries
    6.7.1 One-dimensional indices
    6.7.2 Multi-dimensional indices for orthogonal range searching
    6.7.3 Non-orthogonal range searching
    6.8 Distributed Hierarchical Aggregation
    6.8.1 Multi-resolution summarization
    6.8.2 Partitioning the summaries
    6.8.3 Fractional cascading
    6.8.4 Locality preserving hashing
    6.9 Temporal Data
    6.9.1 Data aging
    6.9.2 Indexing motion data
    6.10 Summary


    7 Sensor Network Platforms and Tools
    7.1 Sensor Network Hardware
    7.1.1 Berkeley motes
    7.2 Sensor Network Programming Challenges
    7.3 Node-Level Software Platforms
    7.3.1 Operating system: TinyOS
    7.3.2 Imperative language: nesC
    7.3.3 Dataflow style language: TinyGALS
    7.4 Node-Level Simulators
    7.4.1 ns-2 and its sensor network extensions
    7.4.2 TOSSIM
    7.5 Programming Beyond Individual Nodes: State-centric programming
    7.5.1 Collaboration groups
    7.5.2 PIECES: A state-centric design framework
    7.5.3 Multi-target tracking problem revisited
    7.6 Summary

    8 Applications and Future Directions
    8.1 A Summary of the Book
    8.2 Emerging Applications
    8.3 Future Research Directions
    8.3.1 Secure embedded systems
    8.3.2 Programming models and embedded operating systems
    8.3.3 Management of collaborative groups
    8.3.4 Light-weight signal processing
    8.3.5 Networks of high-data-rate sensors
    8.3.6 Google for the physical world
    8.3.7 Closing the loop with actuators
    8.3.8 Distributed information architecture
    8.4 Conclusion

Product details

  • No. of pages: 376
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2004
  • Published: July 6, 2004
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080521725

About the Authors

Feng Zhao

Feng Zhao is a senior researcher at Microsoft, where he manages the Networked Embedded Computing Group. He received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from MIT and has taught at at Stanford University and Ohio State University. Dr. Zhao was a principal scientist at Xerox PARC and directed PARC’s sensor network research effort. He is serving as the Editor-In-Chief of ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA

Leonidas Guibas

Professor Guibas heads the Geometric Computation group in the Computer Science Department of Stanford University, where he works on algorithms for sensing, modeling, reasoning about, rendering, and acting on the physical world. He is well-known for his work in computational geometry, computer graphics, and discrete algorithms. Professor Guibas obtained his Ph.D. from Stanford, has worked at PARC, MIT, and DEC/SRC, and was recently elected an ACM Fellow.

Affiliations and Expertise

Geometric Computing Group, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

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