Whisky - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124017351, 9780124046030


2nd Edition

Technology, Production and Marketing

Series Volume Editors: Inge Russell Charles Bamforth Graham Stewart
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124017351
eBook ISBN: 9780124046030
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th August 2014
Page Count: 444
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Whisky: Technology, Production and Marketing explains in technical terms the science and technology of producing whisky, combined with information from industry experts on successfully marketing the product. World experts in Scotch whisky provide detailed insight into whisky production, from the processing of raw materials to the fermentation, distillation, maturation, blending, production of co-products, and quality testing, as well as important information on the methodology used for packaging and marketing whisky in the twenty-first century. No other book covers the entire whisky process from raw material to delivery to market in such a comprehensive manner and with such a high level of technical detail.

Key Features

  • Only available work to cover the entire whisky process from raw material to delivery to the market in such a comprehensive manner
  • Includes a chapter on marketing and selling whisky
  • Foreword written by Alan Rutherford, former Chairman and Managing Director of United Malt and Grain Distillers Ltd.


Fermentation scientists, brewers and distillers; employees in many areas (technical, production, R&D, marketing) of the alcoholic beverage industry, alcohol manufacturers, students studying whisky and alcohol, and individuals with an interest in whisky who want to have an advanced understanding of the science behind whisky.

Table of Contents

  • About the authors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: An introduction to whisk(e)y and the development of Scotch whisky
    • Abstract
    • Early days
    • Effects of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions
    • Controls, taxation, and amalgamation
    • The future
  • Chapter 2: Irish whiskey
    • Abstract
    • History and commercial development
    • Pot still whiskey production
    • Malt whiskey production
    • Grain whiskey production
    • Maturation
    • The future
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 3: Japanese whisky
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • History
    • Production processes
    • Research and development
    • Final thoughts
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 4: Indian whiskies
    • Abstract
    • History of alcoholic beverages in India
    • The Indian alcoholic beverage market
    • Indian whisky
    • Raw materials
    • Indian whisky production
    • Flavour profiling of whiskies
    • Drinking patterns in India
    • Worldwide ranking of Indian whiskies
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 5: North American whiskies: a story of evolution, experience, and an ongoing entrepreneurial spirit
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Development and differentiation of North American whiskies
    • The craft distilling revolution
    • A bright future—and the need for education
  • Chapter 6: Scotch whisky: raw material selection and processing
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Supply chain sustainability
    • Raw materials
    • Cereal breeding
    • Raw materials for malt distilling
    • Raw materials for grain distilling
    • Cereals processing
    • Malt distillery processing
    • Principles of milling
    • Grain distillery processing and principles
    • The conventional cooking process
    • Conversion
    • Water as a raw material
    • Future trends
  • Chapter 7: Distilling yeast and fermentation
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Sourcing the yeast
    • Yeast nomenclature
    • Understanding the structure of the yeast cell
    • Carbohydrate metabolic pathways
    • What happens inside of the yeast cell under aerobic conditions?
    • Yeast and nitrogen metabolism
    • Distiller’s yeast and oxygen
    • The commercial cultivation of distiller’s yeast
    • How much yeast is needed to pitch a distilling fermentation?
    • Fermentation congeners
    • Wort fermentation
    • Sugar uptake from a distiller’s wort
    • Summary
  • Chapter 8: Contamination: bacteria and wild yeasts in a whisky fermentation
    • Abstract
  • Chapter 9: Batch distillation
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • History
    • Distillery design
    • Wash still operation
    • Spirit still operation
    • Product quality
    • Efficiency and production yield
    • Triple distillation
    • Dealing with distillation problems
    • The role of copper in the quality of new whisky
    • The future
  • Chapter 10: Grain whisky distillation
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Feedstock for distillation
    • Theory of continuous distillation
    • Continuous still design and operation
    • Distillation design
    • Operation
    • Plate and tray design
    • Thermocompressor operation
    • Development of flavour
    • Energy and utilities
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 11: Maturation
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Cooperage oak wood
    • Structure of wood
    • Cask manufacture
    • Cask regeneration
    • Warehousing
    • Wood policy
    • Acknowledgement
  • Chapter 12: Blending
    • Abstract
    • The role of the blender
    • Scotch whisky
    • Blended Scotch whisky
    • The blending process
    • The blenders’ challenge
    • New product development and innovation
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 13: Sensory analysis
    • Abstract
    • Whisky flavour and other sensory characteristics
    • Evaluation of sensory characteristics
    • Benefits of sensory evaluation
  • Chapter 14: Whisky analysis
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Whiskies of the world and their regulatory definitions
    • Composition and analysis of whisky
    • Quality assurance and analysis in the whisky production process
    • Whisky authenticity
    • Recent issues
  • Chapter 15: Co-products
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Animal Feeds
    • Energy from co-products
    • Other co-products
    • Conclusions
  • Chapter 16: Water: an essential raw material for whisk(e)y production
    • Abstract
    • Process water
    • Water treatment
    • Treatment of copper in the effluent
    • Water conservation and the future
  • Chapter 17: Designing for cleanliness in the distillery
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Cleaning basics
    • Cleaning in whisky production
    • Cleaning chemistry
    • Cleaning validation
    • Sanitary design
    • CIP systems
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 18: Whisky global packaging developments
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Aims of packaging
    • Preparation of whisky for packaging
    • Packaging materials—“dry goods”
    • The whisky bottling line
    • Assessment of packaging line performance
    • Spirit and packaging material losses
    • Packaging and the environment
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 19: Marketing Scotch whisky in the 21st century and previously
    • Abstract
    • Introduction: The marketing continuum for Scotch whisky
    • Phases of the continuum
    • Foundations: Creation of the Scotch whisky market
    • Rise and fall: The vital importance of equilibrium
    • Return to form
    • The marketing challenge of the future
    • Themes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 20: Marketing Scotch whisky
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • The origins of demand
    • Economics of the whisky industry – The value chain
    • Branding
    • Routes to market
    • The product
    • Managing price
    • Advertising and promotion
    • Market research
    • General conclusions
    • Acknowledgements
  • Appendix
    • Appendix A
    • Appendix B
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
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About the Series Volume Editor

Inge Russell

Inge Russell is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of the Institute of Brewing, a Visiting Professor at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, a Professor at the Alltech Brewing and Distilling Academy and a Fellow of the Institute of Brewing. She has over 40 years of research experience in the brewing and distilling industry. She has served as President of both the American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC) and the Master Brewers Association of the Americas (MBAA). She holds a PhD and DSc from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. She has authored over 150 papers in the area of yeast biotechnology and is a co-founder and co-editor of the journal “Critical Reviews in Biotechnology”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Heriot-Watt University, Scotland

Charles Bamforth

Charles W. Bamfforth, PhD, DSc, FIBD,FIBiol, FIAFoST is the Anheuser-Busch Endowed Professor of Malting and Brewing Sciences at the University of California, Davis. He has held positions as director of research for Brewing Research International and as research and quality assurance manager for Bass Breweries in the UK. He is the author of numerous books and papers as well as being the editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists.

Dr. Bamforth specializes in the science of malting and brewing. His current research program focuses primarily on the wholesomeness of beer, including studies on the psychophysics of beer perception, on polyphenols and on the residues from non-starchy polysaccharide digestion that constitute soluble fiber and potential prebiotics in beer. Research in the laboratory also embraces the enzymology of the brewing process, foam stability, preventing oxidation in wort and beer and alternative paradigms for beer production. He has received the Award of Distinction, American Society of Brewing Chemists, 2011, and the Cambridge Prize, Institute of Brewing, 1984

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Graham Stewart

Graham G. Stewart has been Emeritus Professor in Brewing and Distilling at Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland since he retired in 2007. From 1994-2007 he was Professor of Brewing and Distilling and Director of the International Centre for Brewing and Distilling (ICBD), Heriot-Watt University. For 25 years prior to this he was employed by the Labatt Brewing Company in Canada, holding a number of scientific/technical positions and from 1986-1994 was its Technical Director. He holds a PhD and DSc from Bath University and is a Fellow of the Institute of Brewing. He was President of the Institute of Brewing and Distilling in 1999 and 2000. He has over 300 publications (books, patents, review papers, articles and peer reviewed papers) to his name and is a co-founder and co-editor of the journal “Critical Reviews in Biotechnology”.

Affiliations and Expertise

Heriot-Watt University, Scotland


"No other book covers the entire whisky process from raw material to delivery to market in such a comprehensive manner and with such a high level of technical detail." --Brewer & Distiller International, December 2014

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