Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124017160, 9780124046047

Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health

1st Edition

Benefits, risks and mechanisms of whole grains in health promotion

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Editors: Ronald Watson Victor Preedy Sherma Zibadi
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124017160
eBook ISBN: 9780124046047
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th February 2014
Page Count: 576
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Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health reviews the wide range of studies focusing on the health benefits and disease prevention associated with the consumption of wheat and rice, the two most widely consumed whole grains. This book provides researchers, clinicians, and students with a comprehensive, definitive, and up-to-date compendium on the diverse basic and translational aspects of whole grain consumption and its protective effects across human health and disease. It serves as both a resource for current researchers as well as a guide to assist those in related disciplines to enter the realm of whole grain and nutrition research.

Overall, studies have shown that a decrease in the amount of whole grains in the modern diet is related to a corresponding increase in health problems that are attributed to this all-too-common dietary imbalance. The resulting health issues associated with an over-processed diet, which provides inadequate levels of nutrients from whole grains, may include obesity, diabetes, high blood lipids, chronic inflammatory states, and an excess of oxidative stress. Strength and endurance may also suffer as a result of these nutrient deficiencies, followed by declines in energy and immunity.

Key Features

  • Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the latest details on a broad range of nutritional and epidemiological issues
  • Provides a common language for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, epidemiologists, and dietitians to discuss how the action of wheat and rice protect against disease and modify human health
  • Preclinical, clinical, and population studies help nutritionists, dieticians, and clinicians map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations


Academic, government, and corporate researchers in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; graduate students in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; and practicing nutritionists, dietitians, and epidemiologists.

Table of Contents




Part I Wheat and Health

Section A Wheat Components in Disease Prevention: Overview

Chapter 1. Whole Wheat Pasta and Health

Current Health Condition and Whole Grains

Use of Whole Grain in Pasta Products

Bioactive Compounds of Whole Grain Found in Pasta

Nutrients in Whole Grain Pasta

Chapter 2. Whole Grain and Phytate-Degrading Human Bifidobacteria

Lines of Evolution in Consumption of Whole Grains

The Role of Cereals in the Diet

Phytic Acid (Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate, InsP6)

Section B Wheat in Commercial Animal Production

Chapter 3. Effect of Whole Wheat Feeding on Gut Function and Nutrient Utilization in Poultry


Effect of Modern Processing Technology on the Development of the Digestive Tract

Methods of Whole Wheat Feeding

Effect of Whole Wheat Feeding on gut Health

Effect of Whole Grain Inclusion on Nutrient Utilization

Use of Other Whole Grains


Chapter 4. Whole Wheat in Commercial Poultry Production

Wheat as a Feed Grain

Whole Wheat Grain in Relation to Production Level and Livability as an Indicator of Health Status in Poultry

Whole Wheat as Related to Quality of Poultry Products and Human Health

Whole Wheat as Related to Digestive Tract Morphology, Intestinal Microflora, Activity of Digestive Enzymes, and Health of Farmed Birds

Section C Wheat in Diabetes and Heart Disease Prevention

Chapter 5. Wheat Fiber in Postprandial Metabolic Profile and Health


Effects of Wheat on Postprandial Insulin and Glucose Responses

Potential Mechanisms of Action


Chapter 6. Bioavailability of Calcium, Iron, and Zinc in Whole Wheat Flour


Mineral Requirements and Consequences of Deficiency

Phytic Acid: A Potential Inhibitor of Minerals

Micronutrient Interactions

Bioavailability Studies


Chapter 7. Nutritive and Digestive Effects of Starch and Fiber in Whole Wheat




Nutritional Effects – Whole Wheat Flour and Obesity

Whole Wheat Flour and Glucose Metabolism

Section D Wheat in Cancer Prevention

Chapter 8. Colorectal Cancer Prevention by Wheat Consumption


Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology

Screening for Colorectal Cancer

Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

Wheat Cultivation, Cropping, and Biology

The History of Wheat Domestication

The Definition of Wheat Bran and Dietary Fiber, and a Brief Chemistry

Biological Activity of Wheat Bran and Dietary Fiber Compounds in Colorectal Normal and Cancer Cells

Wheat Bran Consumption, Adenomatous Polyps, and Colorectal Cancer


Chapter 9. Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer


Experimental and Clinical Studies Suggesting a Prostate Cancer-Protective Effect of Whole Grains

Mechanisms Suggested for Dietary Fiber and Whole Grains to Play a Role in Prostate Cancer Etiology

Epidemiological Studies Relating Habitual Intake of Whole Grains or Dietary Fiber to Risk of Prostate Cancer


Chapter 10. Bioactive Phytochemicals in Wheat Bran for Colon Cancer Prevention


Wheat Bran and Colon Cancer

Bioactive Phytochemicals in Wheat Bran


Section E Gluten and Disease

Chapter 11. Immunologic Reactions to Wheat


Celiac Disease

Wheat Allergy

Gluten Sensitivity

Why is it Important to know the Difference Between Celiac Disease, Wheat Allergy, and Gluten Sensitivity?

Chapter 12. Celiac Disease and its Therapy



Clinical Presentation




Chapter 13. Gluten Metabolism in Humans



Gluten Metabolism in Healthy People

Gluten Toxicity, Celiac Disease and Gluten Metabolism


Chapter 14. Adverse Reactions to Gluten


Sourdough and Celiac Disease

Sourdough and Cereal Allergies

Sourdough and Gluten Sensitivity

Concluding Remarks

Section F Wheat Fiber

Chapter 15. Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran against Oxidative Stress


What is Stress?

Oxidative Stress

Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran


Chapter 16. Wheat and Rice Dietary Fiber in Colorectal Cancer Prevention and the Maintenance of Health


Changes in the Definition of Dietary Fiber

Dietary Fiber Components

Changes in Analytical Methods for Determining Dietary Fiber

Implications of Changing Definitions of Dietary Fiber for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer by Whole Grain Wheat and Rice Dietary Fiber

Cohort Studies on Dietary Fiber Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk

Dietary Intervention Studies

The Capp Trials

Chapter 17. Sensory, Technological, and Health Aspects of Adding Fiber to Wheat-Based Pasta


Health Effects of Pasta Supplementation with Fiber

Sensory and Technological Impacts


Chapter 18. Dietary Fiber and Wheat Bran in Childhood Constipation and Health


Prevention of Childhood Functional Constipation

Population Surveys of DF Intake

The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Treatment of Childhood Functional Constipation

Final Remarks

Chapter 19. Wheat Bran and Cadmium in Human Health


Dietary Factors Affecting Mineral Bioavailability


Wheat Bran and Cadmium Exposure


Section G Wheat Toxicity

Chapter 20. Wheat Contaminants (Pesticides) and their Dissipation during Processing


Mode of Entry of Pesticide Residues and Their Impact on Health

Pesticide Residues in Wheat at Harvest and During Storage

Fate of Pesticide Residues in Wheat Milling

Dissipation of Pesticide Residues in Baked Wheat Products


Part II Rice and Other Whole Grains in Health

Section A Overview of Rice and Health

A1 Nutrients and Rice Consumption

Chapter 21. Genetically Modified Rice with Health Benefits as a Means to Reduce Micronutrient Malnutrition


What’s at Stake? The Global Burden of Micronutrient Malnutrition

GM Biofortification as a Novel Micronutrient Intervention

GM Biofortification as a Novel Approach to Crop Improvement

The Global Status of (GM) Biofortification and GM Rice

GM Rice Crop with Health Benefits: The Case of Rice Biofortification

Published Research Coverage on GM Food, GM Rice, Biofortification, and Golden Rice

Consumer Preferences for GM Biofortified Rice

Potential Cost-Effectiveness of GM Biofortified Rice

Key Challenges of the Commercialization of GM Biofortified Rice


Chapter 22. Rice Bran


Common Terminology For Dietary Rice Bran and Public Health Opportunities

Current Challenges for Dietary Rice Bran

Dietary Rice Bran Opportunities Throughout the Lifespan

Global Rice Genetic Variation


Chapter 23. Rice Bran Oil


Rice Bran Oil: Extraction and Composition

Potential Biomedical Applications of Rice Bran Oil

Trends in the use of Rice Bran Oil or its Derivates in Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, and Nutraceutical Formulations


Chapter 24. Rice Intake, Weight Change and Metabolic Syndrome


History and Consumption of Rice

Nutrition and Metabolic Characteristics of Rice

Rice Intake and Weight Change

Association Between Rice Consumption and Individual Components of Metabolic Syndrome

Association Between Rice Intake and Mets

Physiological Mechanisms


A2 Rice in Diabetes Prevention and Treatment

Chapter 25. Glycemic Index of Indian Cereal Staple Foods and their Relationship to Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome


Indian Cereal Staple Foods

Nutritional Composition of Cereal Staple Foods

Glycemic Index and Metabolic Health

Factors Influencing GI of Staple Foods


Chapter 26. Rice and Type 2 Diabetes


Rice Intake in Japan

Rice Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective (JPHC) Study

Rice Intake and Type 2 Diabetes: Result of Meta-Analysis

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Type 2 Diabetes

Carbohydrate Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

Low-Carbohydrate Diet Score and Type 2 Diabetes


Chapter 27. Rice and the Glycemic Index


GI and the Dietary Fiber Content of Rice

GI and the Particle Size and form of Rice

GI and Post-Harvest Treatment of Rice: Parboiling and Milling

GI and the Cooking of Rice: Gelatinization

A3 Rice Toxicity and Toxic Contaminants

Chapter 28. Arsenic in Rice


Arsenic in Rice Grain

Arsenic Speciation in Rice Grain

Arsenic in Cooked Rice

Arsenic Speciation in Cooked Rice

Sources of Arsenic in Rice

Human Health Risk of Arsenic From Rice Diet

Mitigation of Arsenic Exposure From Rice

Chapter 29. Arsenic in Rice-Based Infant Foods


Arsenic Contents in Rice-Based Infant Products

Arsenic Toxicity and Metabolism in the Human Body

Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Content During Rice Processing


Chapter 30. Inorganic Arsenic in Rice and Rice Bran


Inorganic Arsenic Toxicity

Risk Assessment for Inorganic Arsenic

Accumulation of Arsenic in Rice

Inorganic Arsenic in Rice

Health Implications

A4 Rice Fiber

Chapter 31. Apoptosis and Arabinoxylan Rice Bran

The Manufacture of MGN-3/Biobran®

Synergy of MGN-3/Biobran with Interleukin-2 for the Activation of Human NK Cells

Synergy of MGN-3/Biobran with Other Therapeutic Modalities for the Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis


Chapter 32. γ-Oryzanol


Classification and Biosynthesis of γ-Oryzanol

Extraction and Isolation Of γ-Oryzanol

γ-Oryzanol Analysis and Characterization – Identification of Different Components

Pharmacological Activities and Applications Of γ-Oryzanol



Chapter 33. Evaluation of Physical and Nutritional Properties of Extruded Products Based on Brown Rice and Wild Legume Mixtures


Extruded Products


Chapter 34. Rice Bran Antioxidants in Health and Wellness

Rice Bran Antioxidants

Biomedical Importance of Rice Bran Antioxidants for Oxidative Stress

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Gastrointestinal Complaints

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Inflammation

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Hypercholesterolemic–Hyperlipidemic Patients

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Neoplasia

Rice Bran Antioxidants Ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes Via Increased Adiponectin Secretion

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Allergy Syndrome

Rice Bran Antioxidants for Post-Menopausal Syndrome

Rice Bran Antioxidants in Reducing Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Rice Bran Antioxidants in Preservation of Food and Skin Color

Miscellaneous Uses of Rice Bran Phytochemicals

Chapter 35. Organic Rice Bran Oils in Health


Conventional RBO Production

Organic RBO Production

Effects of Processing on RBO Components

Health Benefits of RBO



Chapter 36. Fermented Rice Bran Attenuates Oxidative Stress


Fermented Cereal Foods and Prevention of Oxidative Disorders

Fermented Rice Bran

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Rice Bran on Oxidative Stress


Chapter 37. Rice Bran Oil’s Role in Health and Cooking


Recovering Rice Bran Oil

Physicochemical Properties of Rice Bran Oil

Nutritional Aspects of Rice Bran Oil


Section B Novel Approaches to Bran and Whole Grains

Chapter 38. Amino Acid Production from Rice Straw Hydrolyzates


Lignocellulosic Biomass as Wastes from Agro-Industry

Corynebacterium Glutamicum as a Workhorse for Biotechnology


Chapter 39. Germinated Barley Foodstuff Dampens Inflammatory Bowel Disease


Preparation of GBF and its Properties

GBF as a Prebiotic in Healthy Human Subjects and Animals

The Effects of GBF on Dysfunction of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Animal Models

GBF as a Benefical Food for Ulcerative Colitis Patients

Further Prospects for GBF as a Neutraceutical


Chapter 40. Development of Functional Foods (Enzyme-Treated Rice Fiber) from Rice By-products


Preparation of Enzyme-Treated Rice Fiber (ERF) and its Characteristics

The Effects of ERF on Dysfunction of Gastrointestinal Tract in Animal Models

Modulation of Colonic Environment by Rice Bran and its Health Benefits


Chapter 41. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Fortification of Cereal-Based Foods to Increase Fiber and Phytochemical Content


Carbohydrate and Antioxidant Profile of Chickpea Seeds

Technological Processes to Improve the Chickpea Nutritional Profile

Chickpea Flour in Cereal-Based Products



Color Plates


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2014
24th February 2014
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a staff member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine within King's College London. He is also a member of the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences (research) and the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics (teaching). Professor Preedy is also Director of the Genomics Centre of King's College London. Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctorate (DSc), for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism in health and disease. Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow to the Institute of Biology in 1995 and to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. Since then he has been elected as a Fellow to the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long standing interest in neurological disease and tissue pathology. He has lectured nationally and internationally. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Biochemistry; Director of the Genomics Centre, King’s College, London, UK

Sherma Zibadi

Dr. Sherma Zibadi received her Ph.D. in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Arizona. Her medical degree and training were done at the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. She then completed her post-doctoral research fellowship awarded by the American Heart Association where her research involved cardiology and complementary medicine studies. Her research has involved maladaptive cardiac remodeling process, which helps to identify new targets for treatment of heart failure. Dr. Zibadi’s research interest also extends into foods as medicines, exploring the preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary supplements on heart failure and its major risk factors in both basic animal and clinical studies, translating lab research findings into clinical practice. Dr. Zibadi is an author of more than 35 research papers in peer reviewed journals. She has been an editor on 8 scientific books like this one being proposed. She has edited on a variety of clinical topics: breast milk, bottle feeding, wheat and rice in health, polyphenols and health, omega 3 fatty acids, dietary supplements in immune modulation, and dietary fat and health. She and Dr. Watson have collaborated extensively on both laboratory research and editing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Research Associate of Public Health, Department of Pathology, University of South Florida Medical School, Tampa, USA

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