Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health

Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health

Benefits, risks and mechanisms of whole grains in health promotion

1st Edition - January 22, 2014

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  • Editors: Ronald Watson, Victor Preedy, Sherma Zibadi
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124017160
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046047

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Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health reviews the wide range of studies focusing on the health benefits and disease prevention associated with the consumption of wheat and rice, the two most widely consumed whole grains. This book provides researchers, clinicians, and students with a comprehensive, definitive, and up-to-date compendium on the diverse basic and translational aspects of whole grain consumption and its protective effects across human health and disease. It serves as both a resource for current researchers as well as a guide to assist those in related disciplines to enter the realm of whole grain and nutrition research. Overall, studies have shown that a decrease in the amount of whole grains in the modern diet is related to a corresponding increase in health problems that are attributed to this all-too-common dietary imbalance. The resulting health issues associated with an over-processed diet, which provides inadequate levels of nutrients from whole grains, may include obesity, diabetes, high blood lipids, chronic inflammatory states, and an excess of oxidative stress. Strength and endurance may also suffer as a result of these nutrient deficiencies, followed by declines in energy and immunity.

Key Features

  • Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the latest details on a broad range of nutritional and epidemiological issues
  • Provides a common language for nutritionists, nutrition researchers, epidemiologists, and dietitians to discuss how the action of wheat and rice protect against disease and modify human health
  • Preclinical, clinical, and population studies help nutritionists, dieticians, and clinicians map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations


Academic, government, and corporate researchers in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; graduate students in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; and practicing nutritionists, dietitians, and epidemiologists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface



    Part I Wheat and Health

    Section A Wheat Components in Disease Prevention: Overview

    Chapter 1. Whole Wheat Pasta and Health

    Current Health Condition and Whole Grains

    Use of Whole Grain in Pasta Products

    Bioactive Compounds of Whole Grain Found in Pasta

    Nutrients in Whole Grain Pasta

    Chapter 2. Whole Grain and Phytate-Degrading Human Bifidobacteria

    Lines of Evolution in Consumption of Whole Grains

    The Role of Cereals in the Diet

    Phytic Acid (Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate, InsP6)

    Section B Wheat in Commercial Animal Production

    Chapter 3. Effect of Whole Wheat Feeding on Gut Function and Nutrient Utilization in Poultry


    Effect of Modern Processing Technology on the Development of the Digestive Tract

    Methods of Whole Wheat Feeding

    Effect of Whole Wheat Feeding on gut Health

    Effect of Whole Grain Inclusion on Nutrient Utilization

    Use of Other Whole Grains


    Chapter 4. Whole Wheat in Commercial Poultry Production

    Wheat as a Feed Grain

    Whole Wheat Grain in Relation to Production Level and Livability as an Indicator of Health Status in Poultry

    Whole Wheat as Related to Quality of Poultry Products and Human Health

    Whole Wheat as Related to Digestive Tract Morphology, Intestinal Microflora, Activity of Digestive Enzymes, and Health of Farmed Birds

    Section C Wheat in Diabetes and Heart Disease Prevention

    Chapter 5. Wheat Fiber in Postprandial Metabolic Profile and Health


    Effects of Wheat on Postprandial Insulin and Glucose Responses

    Potential Mechanisms of Action


    Chapter 6. Bioavailability of Calcium, Iron, and Zinc in Whole Wheat Flour


    Mineral Requirements and Consequences of Deficiency

    Phytic Acid: A Potential Inhibitor of Minerals

    Micronutrient Interactions

    Bioavailability Studies


    Chapter 7. Nutritive and Digestive Effects of Starch and Fiber in Whole Wheat




    Nutritional Effects – Whole Wheat Flour and Obesity

    Whole Wheat Flour and Glucose Metabolism

    Section D Wheat in Cancer Prevention

    Chapter 8. Colorectal Cancer Prevention by Wheat Consumption


    Colorectal Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology

    Screening for Colorectal Cancer

    Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Wheat Cultivation, Cropping, and Biology

    The History of Wheat Domestication

    The Definition of Wheat Bran and Dietary Fiber, and a Brief Chemistry

    Biological Activity of Wheat Bran and Dietary Fiber Compounds in Colorectal Normal and Cancer Cells

    Wheat Bran Consumption, Adenomatous Polyps, and Colorectal Cancer


    Chapter 9. Whole Grain and Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of Prostate Cancer


    Experimental and Clinical Studies Suggesting a Prostate Cancer-Protective Effect of Whole Grains

    Mechanisms Suggested for Dietary Fiber and Whole Grains to Play a Role in Prostate Cancer Etiology

    Epidemiological Studies Relating Habitual Intake of Whole Grains or Dietary Fiber to Risk of Prostate Cancer


    Chapter 10. Bioactive Phytochemicals in Wheat Bran for Colon Cancer Prevention


    Wheat Bran and Colon Cancer

    Bioactive Phytochemicals in Wheat Bran


    Section E Gluten and Disease

    Chapter 11. Immunologic Reactions to Wheat


    Celiac Disease

    Wheat Allergy

    Gluten Sensitivity

    Why is it Important to know the Difference Between Celiac Disease, Wheat Allergy, and Gluten Sensitivity?

    Chapter 12. Celiac Disease and its Therapy



    Clinical Presentation




    Chapter 13. Gluten Metabolism in Humans



    Gluten Metabolism in Healthy People

    Gluten Toxicity, Celiac Disease and Gluten Metabolism


    Chapter 14. Adverse Reactions to Gluten


    Sourdough and Celiac Disease

    Sourdough and Cereal Allergies

    Sourdough and Gluten Sensitivity

    Concluding Remarks

    Section F Wheat Fiber

    Chapter 15. Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran against Oxidative Stress


    What is Stress?

    Oxidative Stress

    Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran


    Chapter 16. Wheat and Rice Dietary Fiber in Colorectal Cancer Prevention and the Maintenance of Health


    Changes in the Definition of Dietary Fiber

    Dietary Fiber Components

    Changes in Analytical Methods for Determining Dietary Fiber

    Implications of Changing Definitions of Dietary Fiber for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer by Whole Grain Wheat and Rice Dietary Fiber

    Cohort Studies on Dietary Fiber Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Dietary Intervention Studies

    The Capp Trials

    Chapter 17. Sensory, Technological, and Health Aspects of Adding Fiber to Wheat-Based Pasta


    Health Effects of Pasta Supplementation with Fiber

    Sensory and Technological Impacts


    Chapter 18. Dietary Fiber and Wheat Bran in Childhood Constipation and Health


    Prevention of Childhood Functional Constipation

    Population Surveys of DF Intake

    The Role of Dietary Fiber in the Treatment of Childhood Functional Constipation

    Final Remarks

    Chapter 19. Wheat Bran and Cadmium in Human Health


    Dietary Factors Affecting Mineral Bioavailability


    Wheat Bran and Cadmium Exposure


    Section G Wheat Toxicity

    Chapter 20. Wheat Contaminants (Pesticides) and their Dissipation during Processing


    Mode of Entry of Pesticide Residues and Their Impact on Health

    Pesticide Residues in Wheat at Harvest and During Storage

    Fate of Pesticide Residues in Wheat Milling

    Dissipation of Pesticide Residues in Baked Wheat Products


    Part II Rice and Other Whole Grains in Health

    Section A Overview of Rice and Health

    A1 Nutrients and Rice Consumption

    Chapter 21. Genetically Modified Rice with Health Benefits as a Means to Reduce Micronutrient Malnutrition


    What’s at Stake? The Global Burden of Micronutrient Malnutrition

    GM Biofortification as a Novel Micronutrient Intervention

    GM Biofortification as a Novel Approach to Crop Improvement

    The Global Status of (GM) Biofortification and GM Rice

    GM Rice Crop with Health Benefits: The Case of Rice Biofortification

    Published Research Coverage on GM Food, GM Rice, Biofortification, and Golden Rice

    Consumer Preferences for GM Biofortified Rice

    Potential Cost-Effectiveness of GM Biofortified Rice

    Key Challenges of the Commercialization of GM Biofortified Rice


    Chapter 22. Rice Bran


    Common Terminology For Dietary Rice Bran and Public Health Opportunities

    Current Challenges for Dietary Rice Bran

    Dietary Rice Bran Opportunities Throughout the Lifespan

    Global Rice Genetic Variation


    Chapter 23. Rice Bran Oil


    Rice Bran Oil: Extraction and Composition

    Potential Biomedical Applications of Rice Bran Oil

    Trends in the use of Rice Bran Oil or its Derivates in Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, and Nutraceutical Formulations


    Chapter 24. Rice Intake, Weight Change and Metabolic Syndrome


    History and Consumption of Rice

    Nutrition and Metabolic Characteristics of Rice

    Rice Intake and Weight Change

    Association Between Rice Consumption and Individual Components of Metabolic Syndrome

    Association Between Rice Intake and Mets

    Physiological Mechanisms


    A2 Rice in Diabetes Prevention and Treatment

    Chapter 25. Glycemic Index of Indian Cereal Staple Foods and their Relationship to Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome


    Indian Cereal Staple Foods

    Nutritional Composition of Cereal Staple Foods

    Glycemic Index and Metabolic Health

    Factors Influencing GI of Staple Foods


    Chapter 26. Rice and Type 2 Diabetes


    Rice Intake in Japan

    Rice Intake and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective (JPHC) Study

    Rice Intake and Type 2 Diabetes: Result of Meta-Analysis

    Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and Type 2 Diabetes

    Carbohydrate Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

    Low-Carbohydrate Diet Score and Type 2 Diabetes


    Chapter 27. Rice and the Glycemic Index


    GI and the Dietary Fiber Content of Rice

    GI and the Particle Size and form of Rice

    GI and Post-Harvest Treatment of Rice: Parboiling and Milling

    GI and the Cooking of Rice: Gelatinization

    A3 Rice Toxicity and Toxic Contaminants

    Chapter 28. Arsenic in Rice


    Arsenic in Rice Grain

    Arsenic Speciation in Rice Grain

    Arsenic in Cooked Rice

    Arsenic Speciation in Cooked Rice

    Sources of Arsenic in Rice

    Human Health Risk of Arsenic From Rice Diet

    Mitigation of Arsenic Exposure From Rice

    Chapter 29. Arsenic in Rice-Based Infant Foods


    Arsenic Contents in Rice-Based Infant Products

    Arsenic Toxicity and Metabolism in the Human Body

    Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Content During Rice Processing


    Chapter 30. Inorganic Arsenic in Rice and Rice Bran


    Inorganic Arsenic Toxicity

    Risk Assessment for Inorganic Arsenic

    Accumulation of Arsenic in Rice

    Inorganic Arsenic in Rice

    Health Implications

    A4 Rice Fiber

    Chapter 31. Apoptosis and Arabinoxylan Rice Bran

    The Manufacture of MGN-3/Biobran®

    Synergy of MGN-3/Biobran with Interleukin-2 for the Activation of Human NK Cells

    Synergy of MGN-3/Biobran with Other Therapeutic Modalities for the Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis


    Chapter 32. γ-Oryzanol


    Classification and Biosynthesis of γ-Oryzanol

    Extraction and Isolation Of γ-Oryzanol

    γ-Oryzanol Analysis and Characterization – Identification of Different Components

    Pharmacological Activities and Applications Of γ-Oryzanol



    Chapter 33. Evaluation of Physical and Nutritional Properties of Extruded Products Based on Brown Rice and Wild Legume Mixtures


    Extruded Products


    Chapter 34. Rice Bran Antioxidants in Health and Wellness

    Rice Bran Antioxidants

    Biomedical Importance of Rice Bran Antioxidants for Oxidative Stress

    Rice Bran Antioxidants for Gastrointestinal Complaints

    Rice Bran Antioxidants for Inflammation

    Rice Bran Antioxidants for Hypercholesterolemic–Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Rice Bran Antioxidants for Neoplasia

    Rice Bran Antioxidants Ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes Via Increased Adiponectin Secretion

    Rice Bran Antioxidants for Allergy Syndrome

    Rice Bran Antioxidants for Post-Menopausal Syndrome

    Rice Bran Antioxidants in Reducing Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    Rice Bran Antioxidants in Preservation of Food and Skin Color

    Miscellaneous Uses of Rice Bran Phytochemicals

    Chapter 35. Organic Rice Bran Oils in Health


    Conventional RBO Production

    Organic RBO Production

    Effects of Processing on RBO Components

    Health Benefits of RBO



    Chapter 36. Fermented Rice Bran Attenuates Oxidative Stress


    Fermented Cereal Foods and Prevention of Oxidative Disorders

    Fermented Rice Bran

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants

    Antioxidant Effects of Fermented Rice Bran on Oxidative Stress


    Chapter 37. Rice Bran Oil’s Role in Health and Cooking


    Recovering Rice Bran Oil

    Physicochemical Properties of Rice Bran Oil

    Nutritional Aspects of Rice Bran Oil


    Section B Novel Approaches to Bran and Whole Grains

    Chapter 38. Amino Acid Production from Rice Straw Hydrolyzates


    Lignocellulosic Biomass as Wastes from Agro-Industry

    Corynebacterium Glutamicum as a Workhorse for Biotechnology


    Chapter 39. Germinated Barley Foodstuff Dampens Inflammatory Bowel Disease


    Preparation of GBF and its Properties

    GBF as a Prebiotic in Healthy Human Subjects and Animals

    The Effects of GBF on Dysfunction of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Animal Models

    GBF as a Benefical Food for Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Further Prospects for GBF as a Neutraceutical


    Chapter 40. Development of Functional Foods (Enzyme-Treated Rice Fiber) from Rice By-products


    Preparation of Enzyme-Treated Rice Fiber (ERF) and its Characteristics

    The Effects of ERF on Dysfunction of Gastrointestinal Tract in Animal Models

    Modulation of Colonic Environment by Rice Bran and its Health Benefits


    Chapter 41. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Fortification of Cereal-Based Foods to Increase Fiber and Phytochemical Content


    Carbohydrate and Antioxidant Profile of Chickpea Seeds

    Technological Processes to Improve the Chickpea Nutritional Profile

    Chickpea Flour in Cereal-Based Products



    Color Plates

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: January 22, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124017160
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046047

About the Editors

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is Emeritus Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, at King’s College London and Professor of Clinical Biochemistry (Hon) at King’s College Hospital. He was the long-term Director of the Genomics Centre at King’s College London from 2006 to 2020. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof. Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long-standing interest in dietary and plant-based components. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 750 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, King’s College London; Professor, King’s College Hospital, London, UK

Sherma Zibadi

Dr. Sherma Zibadi received her Ph.D. in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Arizona. Her medical degree and training were done at the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. She then completed her post-doctoral research fellowship awarded by the American Heart Association where her research involved cardiology and complementary medicine studies. Her research has involved maladaptive cardiac remodeling process, which helps to identify new targets for treatment of heart failure. Dr. Zibadi’s research interest also extends into foods as medicines, exploring the preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary supplements on heart failure and its major risk factors in both basic animal and clinical studies, translating lab research findings into clinical practice. Dr. Zibadi is an author of more than 35 research papers in peer reviewed journals. She has been an editor on 8 scientific books like this one being proposed. She has edited on a variety of clinical topics: breast milk, bottle feeding, wheat and rice in health, polyphenols and health, omega 3 fatty acids, dietary supplements in immune modulation, and dietary fat and health. She and Dr. Watson have collaborated extensively on both laboratory research and editing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Research Associate of Public Health, Department of Pathology, University of South Florida Medical School, Tampa, USA

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