Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff

Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff

1st Edition - August 18, 2006

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  • Author: M. Scholz
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080464022

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Description

Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff integrates natural and constructed wetlands, and sustainable drainage techniques into traditional water and wastewater systems used to treat surface runoff and associated diffuse pollution. The first part of the text introduces the fundamentals of water quality management, and water and wastewater treatment. The remaining focus of the text is on reviewing treatment technologies, disinfection issues, sludge treatment and disposal options, and current case studies related to constructed wetlands applied for runoff and diffuse pollution treatment. Professionals and students will be interested in the detailed design, operation, management, process control and water quality monitoring and applied modeling issues.

Key Features

* Contains a comprehensive collection of timely, novel and innovative research case studies in the area of wetland systems applied for the treatment of urban runoff
* Demonstrates to practitioners how natural and constructed wetland systems can be integrated into traditional wastewater systems, which are predominantly applied for the treatment of surface runoff and diffuse pollution
* Assesses the design, operation, management and water treatment performance of sustainable urban drainage systems including constructed wetlands

Readership

Professionals, researchers, and upper division undergraduate and graduate level students in the water and environmental engineering, science and management areas, as well as in the wastewater industry.

Table of Contents

  • About the Author
    Preface
    Acknowledgements
    Acronyms and Abbreviations
    Dedications
    Contents
    1 Water Quality Standards
    1.1 Introduction and Historical Aspects
    1.2 Water Quality Standards and Treatment Objectives
    1.3 Some Thoughts on the Standards
    2 Water Treatment
    2.1 Sources of Water
    2.2 Standard Water Treatment
    2.3 Basic Water Chemistry
    3 Sewage Treatment
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Design Flow Rates
    3.3 Treatment Principles
    3.4 Engineering Classification of Sewage Treatment Stages
    4 Organic Effluent
    4.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
    4.2 BOD Test
    4.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand
    4.4 Other Variables Used for the Characterization of Wastewater
    5 Stream Pollution and Effluent Standards
    5.1 Organic Stream Pollution
    5.2 Prediction of Organic Stream Pollution
    5.3 Effluent Discharge Standard Principles
    6 Preliminary Treatment
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Design of Screening Units
    6.3 Design Details for Screening Units
    6.4 Comminutors
    6.5 Grit Removal
    7 Primary Treatment
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Loading Rate Methods
    7.3 Tank Design
    7.4 Design Parameters
    7.4.1 Design Settling Velocity
    7.4.2 Horizontal Velocity
    7.4.3 Time Ratio
    7.5 Economics of Construction
    7.5.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks
    7.5.2 Circular Settling Tanks
    7.6 Design Details
    7.6.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks
    7.6.2 Circular Settling Tanks
    7.7 Hydraulic Losses
    7.8 General Design Details
    7.9 Details of Various Types of Sedimentation Tanks
    7.9.1 Storm Tanks
    7.9.2 Primary Sedimentation Tanks
    7.9.2.1 Quiescent Tanks
    7.9.2.2 Rectangular Horizontal-flow Tanks
    7.9.2.3 Imhoff Flow Tanks
    7.9.2.4 Radial-flow Tanks
    7.9.3 Secondary Sedimentation
    7.10 Sedimentation Aids
    8 Theory of Settling
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Classification of Settling Behaviour
    8.2.1 Class I Settling
    8.2.2 Class II Settling
    8.2.3 Class III and Class IV Settling
    8.3 Ideal Settling
    9 Coagulation and Flocculation
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Colloidal Suspensions
    9.3 Coagulation Processes
    9.4 Coagulation Chemicals
    9.4.1 Aluminium Compounds
    9.4.2 Sodium Aluminate
    9.4.3 Iron Salts
    9.4.4 Coagulation Aids
    9.5 Operation of the Coagulation and Flocculation Process
    9.6 Rapid Mixing
    9.7 Flocculation
    10 Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
    10.1 Introduction to the Sludge Blanket Clarification System
    10.1.1 Rapid Mixing and Delay Time
    10.1.2 Inlet System to the Clarifier
    10.1.3 Sludge Blanket and Flocculation Zone
    10.1.4 Supernatant Clear Water Zone
    10.1.5 Excess Sludge Removal System
    10.1.6 Clarified Water Collection System
    10.2 Types of Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
    10.2.1 Hopper-bottomed Tank
    10.2.2 Flat-bottomed Tank
    10.2.3 Pulsator
    10.2.4 Plate Type Pulsator
    10.2.5 Super Pulsator
    10.3 Plate Settling in Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
    11 Flotation System
    11.1 Flotation Using Blown Air
    11.2 Flotation Using Dissolved Air
    11.3 Flotation Units
    11.3.1 Technology
    11.3.2 Water Feed
    11.3.3 Formation of Bubbles
    11.3.4 Collection and Removal of Sludge
    12 Slow Filtration
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Slow Sand Filtration
    12.2.1 Elements of a Slow Sand Filter
    12.2.2 Mechanisms in a Slow Sand Filter
    12.3 Algal Actions
    12.4 Summary of Slow Sand Filtration
    13 Rapid Filtration
    13.1 Elements of a Rapid Sand Filter
    13.2 Sand Bed
    13.3 Underdrain System
    13.4 Hydraulics of Filtration
    13.5 Summary of Rapid Sand Filtration
    14 Biological Treatment
    14.1 Aerobic Self-purification
    14.2 Waste Stabilization Ponds
    14.2.1 Aerobic Ponds
    14.2.2 Facultative Ponds
    15 Biological Filtration
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Trickling Filter
    15.3 Basic Ecology
    15.4 Process Variants
    15.5 Design of Biological Filters
    16 Constructed Wetlands
    16.1 Background
    16.2 Definitions
    16.3 Hydrology of Wetlands
    16.3.1 Hydroperiod and Water Budget
    16.3.2 Precipitation, Interception, Through-fall and Stem-flow
    16.4 Wetland Chemistry
    16.4.1 Oxygen
    16.4.2 Carbon
    16.4.3 Nitrogen
    16.4.4 Phosphorus
    16.4.5 Sulphur
    16.5 Wetland Ecosystem Mass Balance
    16.6 Macrophytes in Wetlands
    16.6.1 Primary Productivity
    16.6.2 Phragmites australis
    16.6.3 Typha latifolia
    16.7 Physical and Biochemical Parameters
    16.8 Natural and Constructed Wetlands
    16.8.1 Riparian Wetlands
    16.8.2 Constructed Treatment Wetlands
    16.8.3 Constructed Wetlands for Storm Water Treatment
    17 Rotating Biological Contactors
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Principle of Operation
    17.3 Design and Loading Criteria
    17.4 Principle Elements
    17.5 Operational Problems
    18 Activated Sludge Processes
    18.1 Background
    18.2 Activated Sludge Process
    18.3 Activated Sludge Process Versus Percolating Filtration
    18.4 Activated Sludge Processes Types
    18.4.1 Conventional Complete Mix Activated Sludge Process
    18.4.2 Series or Plug Flow System
    18.4.3 Tapered Aeration
    18.4.4 Step Feed Activated Sludge
    18.4.5 High Rate Activated Sludge Process
    18.4.6 Extended Aeration
    18.4.7 Contact Stabilization
    18.4.8 Oxidation Ditches
    18.4.9 Deep Shaft Process
    18.5 Activated Sludge Process Design and Kinetics
    18.5.1 Diffused Air Aeration
    18.5.2 Mechanical Aerators
    18.5.3 Process Design
    18.5.3.1 Kinetics of Biological Growth
    18.5.3.2 Application of Kinetics
    18.5.3.3 Complete Mix Reactor (No Recycle)
    18.5.3.4 Complete Mix Cellular Reactor (Recycle)
    18.5.3.5 Plug Flow (Cellular Recycle)
    18.6 Summary of Activated Sludge Processes
    18.6.1 Loading Criteria
    18.6.2 Reactor Types
    18.6.3 Oxygen Demand
    18.6.4 Nutrient Requirements
    19 Iron and Manganese Removal
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Problems with Iron and Manganese
    19.3 Basic Removal Processes
    19.4 Advanced Removal Processes
    20 Water Softening
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Chemistry of Water Softening
    20.3 Lime-Soda Softening
    20.4 Lime Softening
    20.5 Excess Lime Softening
    20.6 Lime Recovery
    21 Water Microbiology
    21.1 Statistics for Applied Microbiology
    21.2 Protozoa
    21.2.1 Trophic Structure
    21.2.2 Kingdom Protista
    21.3 Biological Effects of Organic Pollutants
    21.3.1 Sewage Fungus
    21.3.2 Saprobic System
    21.4 Eutrophication and Water Treatment
    21.5 Protozoology of Treatment Processes
    21.6 Odour and Toxins of Natural Origin
    21.7 Public Health Aspects
    21.7.1 Typical Diseases Related to Waters
    21.7.2 Invertebrates Found in Main Supplies
    21.7.3 Monitoring and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases
    22 Disinfection
    22.1 Destroying Pathogens and Requirements of a Disinfectant
    22.2 Traditional Methods of Disinfection
    22.3 Ozone
    22.4 Chlorine Dioxide
    22.5 Chlorine as a Disinfectant
    22.6 Kinetics of Chlorination
    22.7 Applications of Chlorine
    22.8 Technology of Chlorine Addition
    22.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Chlorine
    23 Sludge Treatment and Disposal
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 Characteristics of Wastewater Sludges
    23.3 Characterization of Wastewater Sludges
    23.4 Volume of Sludge
    23.5 Tests for Dewatering of Sludges
    23.6 Sludge Treatment and Disposal Objectives and Methods
    23.7 Treatment Processes
    23.7.1 Lagoons
    23.7.2 Aerobic Digestion
    23.7.3 Other Treatment Methods
    23.8 Thickening and Dewatering of Sludges
    23.8.1 Chemical Conditioning
    23.8.2 Air Drying
    23.8.3 Gravity Thickening
    23.8.4 Other Methods
    23.9 Partial Disposal
    23.9.1 Incineration
    23.9.2 Pyrolysis
    23.9.3 Composting
    23.10 Land Dumping and Passive Treatment
    24 Wetlands Treating Contaminated Stream Water
    24.1 Summary
    24.2 Introduction
    24.3 Materials and Methods
    24.3.1 Experimental Plan and Limitations
    24.3.2 Filter Media Composition
    24.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation
    24.3.4 Analytical Procedures Including Metal Determination
    24.3.5 Micro-biological Examinations
    24.3.6 Statistics
    24.4 Results and Discussion
    24.4.1 Comparison of Treatment Efficiency
    24.4.2 Water Quality and Macrophytes
    24.4.3 Water Quality and Microbiology
    24.4.4 Regression and Correlation Analysis as Predictive Tools
    24.5 Conclusions
    25 Wetland Systems to Control Roof Runoff
    25.1 Summary
    25.2 Introduction
    25.2.1 Sustainable Roof Runoff Drainage
    25.2.2 Case study: Site description
    25.2.3 Purpose
    25.3 Methods
    25.3.1 Design of the Study Site
    25.3.2 Engineering Methods
    25.3.3 Water Quality Analysis
    25.3.4 Control of Algal Growth
    25.3.5 System Capacity
    25.4 Results and Discussion
    25.4.1 Standard Design Considerations
    25.4.2 System Design Comparisons
    25.4.3 Water Quality Management
    25.4.4 Twenty-four Hour Water Quality Monitoring
    25.4.5 Aquatic Plant Management
    25.5 Conclusions
    26 Wetlands Treating Road Runoff
    26.1 Case Study Summary
    26.2 Introduction
    26.2.1 Constructed Wetlands Treating Metal-contaminated Runoff
    26.2.2 Purpose
    26.3 Site, Materials and Methodology
    26.3.1 Case Study Site
    26.3.2 Filter Design, Media Composition and Limitations
    26.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation
    26.3.4 Metal Nitrates
    26.3.5 Metal Determinations
    26.3.6 BOD, Nutrient and Other Determinations
    26.4 Experimental Results and Discussion
    26.4.1 Inflow Water Quality Analysis
    26.4.2 Comparison of Annual Outflow Water Qualities
    26.4.3 Heavy Metal Removal
    26.4.4 Link Between pH and Treatment of Metals
    26.4.5 Analysis of Variance and Modelling
    26.5 Conclusions and Further Work
    27 Combined Wetland and Below Ground Detention Systems
    27.1 Experimental Case Study Summary
    27.2 Introduction
    27.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
    27.2.2 Project Purpose
    27.3 Materials and Methods
    27.3.1 System Design and Operation
    27.3.2 Analytical Methods
    27.4 Results and Discussion
    27.4.1 Comparison of Costs
    27.4.2 Inflow Water Quality
    27.4.3 Comparison of Outflow Water Quality
    27.4.4 Ecosoil and Turf
    27.5 Conclusions and Further Research
    28 Modelling of Constructed Wetland Performance
    28.1 Summary
    28.2 Introduction
    28.2.1 Project Purpose
    28.2.2 Machine Learning Applied to Wastewater Treatment Processes
    28.3 Methodology and Software
    28.3.1 Experimental Data and Variables
    28.3.2 K-nearest Neighbours
    28.3.3 Support Vector Machine
    28.3.4 Self-organizing Map
    28.4 Results and Discussion
    28.4.1 Performance Evaluation
    28.4.2 Correlation Analysis
    28.4.3 Optimization of Input Variables
    28.4.4 Comparison of Applications
    28.5 Conclusions
    29 Infiltration Wetland Systems
    29.1 Summary
    29.2 Introduction
    29.2.1 Need for SUDS and Critical Issues
    29.2.2 Aim and Objectives
    29.3 Methods
    29.3.1 Design of Study Site
    29.3.2 Hydrological Methods and Water Quality Analysis
    29.3.3 Fish Experiment Methodologies
    29.4 Results and Discussion
    29.4.1 Design and Operation of Infiltration Ponds
    29.4.2 Rainfall, Runoff and Infiltration Relationships
    29.4.3 Water Quality Assessment and Management
    29.4.4 Active Control of Algae with Goldfish
    29.4.5 Integration of SUDS into Urban Planning and Development
    29.5 Conclusions
    30 Sustainable Urban Drainage System Model
    30.1 Summary
    30.2 Introduction
    30.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
    30.2.2 SUDS Impact on Water Quantity and Quality
    30.2.3 Development and Regeneration in Glasgow
    30.2.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems in Edinburgh
    30.2.5 Aims and Objectives
    30.3 Sites and Methodology
    30.3.1 Overview of Sites in Glasgow and Edinburgh
    30.3.2 SUDS Decision Support Matrix and Weighting System
    30.3.3 SUDS Decision Support Model
    30.3.4 Prevalence Rating Approach for SUDS Techniques
    30.3.5 Case-based Reasoning Model
    30.4 Results and Discussion
    30.4.1 SUDS Decision Support Model Output
    30.4.2 PRAST Analysis
    30.4.3 Case-based Reasoning Model Output
    30.5 Conclusions
    31 Natural Wetlands Treating Diffuse Pollution
    31.1 Case Study Overview
    31.1.1 Summary
    31.1.2 Overview of the Content
    31.2 Introduction
    31.2.1 Background of the Case Study
    31.2.2 Nutrient Transformations and Removal Processes
    31.2.3 Aim and Objectives
    31.3 Materials and Methods
    31.3.1 Case Study and Sampling
    31.3.2 Ditches and the Channel of the River Eider
    31.3.3 Discharge Determination for Open Channels
    31.3.4 Water Quality Analyses
    31.3.5 Vegetation Characterization
    31.3.6 Data Analysis
    31.4 Results
    31.4.1 Characteristics of Watercourses in the River Eider Valley
    31.4.2 Water Quality During Spring and Summer
    31.4.3 Ditch Vegetation
    31.5 Discussion
    31.5.1 Disappearance of Ditches Due to Vegetation Growth
    31.5.2 Water Quality Variations Within the Study Area
    31.5.3 Vegetation Characterization
    31.5.4 Hydraulic Changes Due to Summer Flooding
    31.6 Conclusions
    References
    Index
    Back Cover

Product details

  • No. of pages: 360
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2006
  • Published: August 18, 2006
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080464022

About the Author

M. Scholz

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Edingburgh, U.K.

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