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Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff integrates natural and constructed wetlands, and sustainable drainage techniques into traditional water and wastewater systems used to treat surface runoff and associated diffuse pollution. The first part of the text introduces the fundamentals of water quality management, and water and wastewater treatment. The remaining focus of the text is on reviewing treatment technologies, disinfection issues, sludge treatment and disposal options, and current case studies related to constructed wetlands applied for runoff and diffuse pollution treatment. Professionals and students will be interested in the detailed design, operation, management, process control and water quality monitoring and applied modeling issues.
- Contains a comprehensive collection of timely, novel and innovative research case studies in the area of wetland systems applied for the treatment of urban runoff
- Demonstrates to practitioners how natural and constructed wetland systems can be integrated into traditional wastewater systems, which are predominantly applied for the treatment of surface runoff and diffuse pollution
- Assesses the design, operation, management and water treatment performance of sustainable urban drainage systems including constructed wetlands
Professionals, researchers, and upper division undergraduate and graduate level students in the water and environmental engineering, science and management areas, as well as in the wastewater industry.
About the Author Preface Acknowledgements Acronyms and Abbreviations Dedications Contents 1 Water Quality Standards 1.1 Introduction and Historical Aspects 1.2 Water Quality Standards and Treatment Objectives 1.3 Some Thoughts on the Standards 2 Water Treatment 2.1 Sources of Water 2.2 Standard Water Treatment 2.3 Basic Water Chemistry 3 Sewage Treatment 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Design Flow Rates 3.3 Treatment Principles 3.4 Engineering Classification of Sewage Treatment Stages 4 Organic Effluent 4.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 4.2 BOD Test 4.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand 4.4 Other Variables Used for the Characterization of Wastewater 5 Stream Pollution and Effluent Standards 5.1 Organic Stream Pollution 5.2 Prediction of Organic Stream Pollution 5.3 Effluent Discharge Standard Principles 6 Preliminary Treatment 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Design of Screening Units 6.3 Design Details for Screening Units 6.4 Comminutors 6.5 Grit Removal 7 Primary Treatment 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Loading Rate Methods 7.3 Tank Design 7.4 Design Parameters 7.4.1 Design Settling Velocity 7.4.2 Horizontal Velocity 7.4.3 Time Ratio 7.5 Economics of Construction 7.5.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks 7.5.2 Circular Settling Tanks 7.6 Design Details 7.6.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks 7.6.2 Circular Settling Tanks 7.7 Hydraulic Losses 7.8 General Design Details 7.9 Details of Various Types of Sedimentation Tanks 7.9.1 Storm Tanks 7.9.2 Primary Sedimentation Tanks 18.104.22.168 Quiescent Tanks 22.214.171.124 Rectangular Horizontal-flow Tanks 126.96.36.199 Imhoff Flow Tanks 188.8.131.52 Radial-flow Tanks 7.9.3 Secondary Sedimentation 7.10 Sedimentation Aids 8 Theory of Settling 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Classification of Settling Behaviour 8.2.1 Class I Settling 8.2.2 Class II Settling 8.2.3 Class III and Class IV Settling 8.3 Ideal Settling 9 Coagulation and Flocculation 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Colloidal Suspensions 9.3 Coagulation Processes 9.4 Coagulation Chemicals 9.4.1 Aluminium Compounds 9.4.2 Sodium Aluminate 9.4.3 Iron Salts 9.4.4 Coagulation Aids 9.5 Operation of the Coagulation and Flocculation Process 9.6 Rapid Mixing 9.7 Flocculation 10 Sludge Blanket Clarifiers 10.1 Introduction to the Sludge Blanket Clarification System 10.1.1 Rapid Mixing and Delay Time 10.1.2 Inlet System to the Clarifier 10.1.3 Sludge Blanket and Flocculation Zone 10.1.4 Supernatant Clear Water Zone 10.1.5 Excess Sludge Removal System 10.1.6 Clarified Water Collection System 10.2 Types of Sludge Blanket Clarifiers 10.2.1 Hopper-bottomed Tank 10.2.2 Flat-bottomed Tank 10.2.3 Pulsator 10.2.4 Plate Type Pulsator 10.2.5 Super Pulsator 10.3 Plate Settling in Sludge Blanket Clarifiers 11 Flotation System 11.1 Flotation Using Blown Air 11.2 Flotation Using Dissolved Air 11.3 Flotation Units 11.3.1 Technology 11.3.2 Water Feed 11.3.3 Formation of Bubbles 11.3.4 Collection and Removal of Sludge 12 Slow Filtration 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Slow Sand Filtration 12.2.1 Elements of a Slow Sand Filter 12.2.2 Mechanisms in a Slow Sand Filter 12.3 Algal Actions 12.4 Summary of Slow Sand Filtration 13 Rapid Filtration 13.1 Elements of a Rapid Sand Filter 13.2 Sand Bed 13.3 Underdrain System 13.4 Hydraulics of Filtration 13.5 Summary of Rapid Sand Filtration 14 Biological Treatment 14.1 Aerobic Self-purification 14.2 Waste Stabilization Ponds 14.2.1 Aerobic Ponds 14.2.2 Facultative Ponds 15 Biological Filtration 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Trickling Filter 15.3 Basic Ecology 15.4 Process Variants 15.5 Design of Biological Filters 16 Constructed Wetlands 16.1 Background 16.2 Definitions 16.3 Hydrology of Wetlands 16.3.1 Hydroperiod and Water Budget 16.3.2 Precipitation, Interception, Through-fall and Stem-flow 16.4 Wetland Chemistry 16.4.1 Oxygen 16.4.2 Carbon 16.4.3 Nitrogen 16.4.4 Phosphorus 16.4.5 Sulphur 16.5 Wetland Ecosystem Mass Balance 16.6 Macrophytes in Wetlands 16.6.1 Primary Productivity 16.6.2 Phragmites australis 16.6.3 Typha latifolia 16.7 Physical and Biochemical Parameters 16.8 Natural and Constructed Wetlands 16.8.1 Riparian Wetlands 16.8.2 Constructed Treatment Wetlands 16.8.3 Constructed Wetlands for Storm Water Treatment 17 Rotating Biological Contactors 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Principle of Operation 17.3 Design and Loading Criteria 17.4 Principle Elements 17.5 Operational Problems 18 Activated Sludge Processes 18.1 Background 18.2 Activated Sludge Process 18.3 Activated Sludge Process Versus Percolating Filtration 18.4 Activated Sludge Processes Types 18.4.1 Conventional Complete Mix Activated Sludge Process 18.4.2 Series or Plug Flow System 18.4.3 Tapered Aeration 18.4.4 Step Feed Activated Sludge 18.4.5 High Rate Activated Sludge Process 18.4.6 Extended Aeration 18.4.7 Contact Stabilization 18.4.8 Oxidation Ditches 18.4.9 Deep Shaft Process 18.5 Activated Sludge Process Design and Kinetics 18.5.1 Diffused Air Aeration 18.5.2 Mechanical Aerators 18.5.3 Process Design 184.108.40.206 Kinetics of Biological Growth 220.127.116.11 Application of Kinetics 18.104.22.168 Complete Mix Reactor (No Recycle) 22.214.171.124 Complete Mix Cellular Reactor (Recycle) 126.96.36.199 Plug Flow (Cellular Recycle) 18.6 Summary of Activated Sludge Processes 18.6.1 Loading Criteria 18.6.2 Reactor Types 18.6.3 Oxygen Demand 18.6.4 Nutrient Requirements 19 Iron and Manganese Removal 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Problems with Iron and Manganese 19.3 Basic Removal Processes 19.4 Advanced Removal Processes 20 Water Softening 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Chemistry of Water Softening 20.3 Lime-Soda Softening 20.4 Lime Softening 20.5 Excess Lime Softening 20.6 Lime Recovery 21 Water Microbiology 21.1 Statistics for Applied Microbiology 21.2 Protozoa 21.2.1 Trophic Structure 21.2.2 Kingdom Protista 21.3 Biological Effects of Organic Pollutants 21.3.1 Sewage Fungus 21.3.2 Saprobic System 21.4 Eutrophication and Water Treatment 21.5 Protozoology of Treatment Processes 21.6 Odour and Toxins of Natural Origin 21.7 Public Health Aspects 21.7.1 Typical Diseases Related to Waters 21.7.2 Invertebrates Found in Main Supplies 21.7.3 Monitoring and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases 22 Disinfection 22.1 Destroying Pathogens and Requirements of a Disinfectant 22.2 Traditional Methods of Disinfection 22.3 Ozone 22.4 Chlorine Dioxide 22.5 Chlorine as a Disinfectant 22.6 Kinetics of Chlorination 22.7 Applications of Chlorine 22.8 Technology of Chlorine Addition 22.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Chlorine 23 Sludge Treatment and Disposal 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Characteristics of Wastewater Sludges 23.3 Characterization of Wastewater Sludges 23.4 Volume of Sludge 23.5 Tests for Dewatering of Sludges 23.6 Sludge Treatment and Disposal Objectives and Methods 23.7 Treatment Processes 23.7.1 Lagoons 23.7.2 Aerobic Digestion 23.7.3 Other Treatment Methods 23.8 Thickening and Dewatering of Sludges 23.8.1 Chemical Conditioning 23.8.2 Air Drying 23.8.3 Gravity Thickening 23.8.4 Other Methods 23.9 Partial Disposal 23.9.1 Incineration 23.9.2 Pyrolysis 23.9.3 Composting 23.10 Land Dumping and Passive Treatment 24 Wetlands Treating Contaminated Stream Water 24.1 Summary 24.2 Introduction 24.3 Materials and Methods 24.3.1 Experimental Plan and Limitations 24.3.2 Filter Media Composition 24.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation 24.3.4 Analytical Procedures Including Metal Determination 24.3.5 Micro-biological Examinations 24.3.6 Statistics 24.4 Results and Discussion 24.4.1 Comparison of Treatment Efficiency 24.4.2 Water Quality and Macrophytes 24.4.3 Water Quality and Microbiology 24.4.4 Regression and Correlation Analysis as Predictive Tools 24.5 Conclusions 25 Wetland Systems to Control Roof Runoff 25.1 Summary 25.2 Introduction 25.2.1 Sustainable Roof Runoff Drainage 25.2.2 Case study: Site description 25.2.3 Purpose 25.3 Methods 25.3.1 Design of the Study Site 25.3.2 Engineering Methods 25.3.3 Water Quality Analysis 25.3.4 Control of Algal Growth 25.3.5 System Capacity 25.4 Results and Discussion 25.4.1 Standard Design Considerations 25.4.2 System Design Comparisons 25.4.3 Water Quality Management 25.4.4 Twenty-four Hour Water Quality Monitoring 25.4.5 Aquatic Plant Management 25.5 Conclusions 26 Wetlands Treating Road Runoff 26.1 Case Study Summary 26.2 Introduction 26.2.1 Constructed Wetlands Treating Metal-contaminated Runoff 26.2.2 Purpose 26.3 Site, Materials and Methodology 26.3.1 Case Study Site 26.3.2 Filter Design, Media Composition and Limitations 26.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation 26.3.4 Metal Nitrates 26.3.5 Metal Determinations 26.3.6 BOD, Nutrient and Other Determinations 26.4 Experimental Results and Discussion 26.4.1 Inflow Water Quality Analysis 26.4.2 Comparison of Annual Outflow Water Qualities 26.4.3 Heavy Metal Removal 26.4.4 Link Between pH and Treatment of Metals 26.4.5 Analysis of Variance and Modelling 26.5 Conclusions and Further Work 27 Combined Wetland and Below Ground Detention Systems 27.1 Experimental Case Study Summary 27.2 Introduction 27.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems 27.2.2 Project Purpose 27.3 Materials and Methods 27.3.1 System Design and Operation 27.3.2 Analytical Methods 27.4 Results and Discussion 27.4.1 Comparison of Costs 27.4.2 Inflow Water Quality 27.4.3 Comparison of Outflow Water Quality 27.4.4 Ecosoil and Turf 27.5 Conclusions and Further Research 28 Modelling of Constructed Wetland Performance 28.1 Summary 28.2 Introduction 28.2.1 Project Purpose 28.2.2 Machine Learning Applied to Wastewater Treatment Processes 28.3 Methodology and Software 28.3.1 Experimental Data and Variables 28.3.2 K-nearest Neighbours 28.3.3 Support Vector Machine 28.3.4 Self-organizing Map 28.4 Results and Discussion 28.4.1 Performance Evaluation 28.4.2 Correlation Analysis 28.4.3 Optimization of Input Variables 28.4.4 Comparison of Applications 28.5 Conclusions 29 Infiltration Wetland Systems 29.1 Summary 29.2 Introduction 29.2.1 Need for SUDS and Critical Issues 29.2.2 Aim and Objectives 29.3 Methods 29.3.1 Design of Study Site 29.3.2 Hydrological Methods and Water Quality Analysis 29.3.3 Fish Experiment Methodologies 29.4 Results and Discussion 29.4.1 Design and Operation of Infiltration Ponds 29.4.2 Rainfall, Runoff and Infiltration Relationships 29.4.3 Water Quality Assessment and Management 29.4.4 Active Control of Algae with Goldfish 29.4.5 Integration of SUDS into Urban Planning and Development 29.5 Conclusions 30 Sustainable Urban Drainage System Model 30.1 Summary 30.2 Introduction 30.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems 30.2.2 SUDS Impact on Water Quantity and Quality 30.2.3 Development and Regeneration in Glasgow 30.2.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems in Edinburgh 30.2.5 Aims and Objectives 30.3 Sites and Methodology 30.3.1 Overview of Sites in Glasgow and Edinburgh 30.3.2 SUDS Decision Support Matrix and Weighting System 30.3.3 SUDS Decision Support Model 30.3.4 Prevalence Rating Approach for SUDS Techniques 30.3.5 Case-based Reasoning Model 30.4 Results and Discussion 30.4.1 SUDS Decision Support Model Output 30.4.2 PRAST Analysis 30.4.3 Case-based Reasoning Model Output 30.5 Conclusions 31 Natural Wetlands Treating Diffuse Pollution 31.1 Case Study Overview 31.1.1 Summary 31.1.2 Overview of the Content 31.2 Introduction 31.2.1 Background of the Case Study 31.2.2 Nutrient Transformations and Removal Processes 31.2.3 Aim and Objectives 31.3 Materials and Methods 31.3.1 Case Study and Sampling 31.3.2 Ditches and the Channel of the River Eider 31.3.3 Discharge Determination for Open Channels 31.3.4 Water Quality Analyses 31.3.5 Vegetation Characterization 31.3.6 Data Analysis 31.4 Results 31.4.1 Characteristics of Watercourses in the River Eider Valley 31.4.2 Water Quality During Spring and Summer 31.4.3 Ditch Vegetation 31.5 Discussion 31.5.1 Disappearance of Ditches Due to Vegetation Growth 31.5.2 Water Quality Variations Within the Study Area 31.5.3 Vegetation Characterization 31.5.4 Hydraulic Changes Due to Summer Flooding 31.6 Conclusions References Index Back Cover
- No. of pages:
- © Elsevier Science 2006
- 18th August 2006
- Elsevier Science
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
The University of Edingburgh, U.K.
"This new book, written by IEMA member Miklas Scholz (featured in ‘the environmentalist’ March 2006), covers the water and environmental engineering essentials relevant to the drainage and treatment of stormwater, wastewater and contaminated water from predominantly urban areas. Based on this 10 years’ experience in urban water research, Dr. Scholz successfully presents a book appealing to readers with different levels of experience and knowledge, including those less familiar with water quality management, to professions and students interested in design, process and management details. It is recommended as a most useful reference and textbook, combining case studies with the latest research finding in urban water management technology." --Magazine of the IEMA, December 2006
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