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Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444527349, 9780080464022

Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff

1st Edition

Author: M. Scholz
eBook ISBN: 9780080464022
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444527349
Paperback ISBN: 9780444550767
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 18th August 2006
Page Count: 360
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Wetland Systems to Control Urban Runoff integrates natural and constructed wetlands, and sustainable drainage techniques into traditional water and wastewater systems used to treat surface runoff and associated diffuse pollution. The first part of the text introduces the fundamentals of water quality management, and water and wastewater treatment. The remaining focus of the text is on reviewing treatment technologies, disinfection issues, sludge treatment and disposal options, and current case studies related to constructed wetlands applied for runoff and diffuse pollution treatment. Professionals and students will be interested in the detailed design, operation, management, process control and water quality monitoring and applied modeling issues.

Key Features

  • Contains a comprehensive collection of timely, novel and innovative research case studies in the area of wetland systems applied for the treatment of urban runoff
    * Demonstrates to practitioners how natural and constructed wetland systems can be integrated into traditional wastewater systems, which are predominantly applied for the treatment of surface runoff and diffuse pollution
    * Assesses the design, operation, management and water treatment performance of sustainable urban drainage systems including constructed wetlands


Professionals, researchers, and upper division undergraduate and graduate level students in the water and environmental engineering, science and management areas, as well as in the wastewater industry.

Table of Contents

About the Author
Acronyms and Abbreviations
1 Water Quality Standards
1.1 Introduction and Historical Aspects
1.2 Water Quality Standards and Treatment Objectives
1.3 Some Thoughts on the Standards
2 Water Treatment
2.1 Sources of Water
2.2 Standard Water Treatment
2.3 Basic Water Chemistry
3 Sewage Treatment
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design Flow Rates
3.3 Treatment Principles
3.4 Engineering Classification of Sewage Treatment Stages
4 Organic Effluent
4.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
4.2 BOD Test
4.3 Chemical Oxygen Demand
4.4 Other Variables Used for the Characterization of Wastewater
5 Stream Pollution and Effluent Standards
5.1 Organic Stream Pollution
5.2 Prediction of Organic Stream Pollution
5.3 Effluent Discharge Standard Principles
6 Preliminary Treatment
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Design of Screening Units
6.3 Design Details for Screening Units
6.4 Comminutors
6.5 Grit Removal
7 Primary Treatment
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Loading Rate Methods
7.3 Tank Design
7.4 Design Parameters
7.4.1 Design Settling Velocity
7.4.2 Horizontal Velocity
7.4.3 Time Ratio
7.5 Economics of Construction
7.5.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks
7.5.2 Circular Settling Tanks
7.6 Design Details
7.6.1 Rectangular Settling Tanks
7.6.2 Circular Settling Tanks
7.7 Hydraulic Losses
7.8 General Design Details
7.9 Details of Various Types of Sedimentation Tanks
7.9.1 Storm Tanks
7.9.2 Primary Sedimentation Tanks Quiescent Tanks Rectangular Horizontal-flow Tanks Imhoff Flow Tanks Radial-flow Tanks
7.9.3 Secondary Sedimentation
7.10 Sedimentation Aids
8 Theory of Settling
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Classification of Settling Behaviour
8.2.1 Class I Settling
8.2.2 Class II Settling
8.2.3 Class III and Class IV Settling
8.3 Ideal Settling
9 Coagulation and Flocculation
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Colloidal Suspensions
9.3 Coagulation Processes
9.4 Coagulation Chemicals
9.4.1 Aluminium Compounds
9.4.2 Sodium Aluminate
9.4.3 Iron Salts
9.4.4 Coagulation Aids
9.5 Operation of the Coagulation and Flocculation Process
9.6 Rapid Mixing
9.7 Flocculation
10 Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
10.1 Introduction to the Sludge Blanket Clarification System
10.1.1 Rapid Mixing and Delay Time
10.1.2 Inlet System to the Clarifier
10.1.3 Sludge Blanket and Flocculation Zone
10.1.4 Supernatant Clear Water Zone
10.1.5 Excess Sludge Removal System
10.1.6 Clarified Water Collection System
10.2 Types of Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
10.2.1 Hopper-bottomed Tank
10.2.2 Flat-bottomed Tank
10.2.3 Pulsator
10.2.4 Plate Type Pulsator
10.2.5 Super Pulsator
10.3 Plate Settling in Sludge Blanket Clarifiers
11 Flotation System
11.1 Flotation Using Blown Air
11.2 Flotation Using Dissolved Air
11.3 Flotation Units
11.3.1 Technology
11.3.2 Water Feed
11.3.3 Formation of Bubbles
11.3.4 Collection and Removal of Sludge
12 Slow Filtration
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Slow Sand Filtration
12.2.1 Elements of a Slow Sand Filter
12.2.2 Mechanisms in a Slow Sand Filter
12.3 Algal Actions
12.4 Summary of Slow Sand Filtration
13 Rapid Filtration
13.1 Elements of a Rapid Sand Filter
13.2 Sand Bed
13.3 Underdrain System
13.4 Hydraulics of Filtration
13.5 Summary of Rapid Sand Filtration
14 Biological Treatment
14.1 Aerobic Self-purification
14.2 Waste Stabilization Ponds
14.2.1 Aerobic Ponds
14.2.2 Facultative Ponds
15 Biological Filtration
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Trickling Filter
15.3 Basic Ecology
15.4 Process Variants
15.5 Design of Biological Filters
16 Constructed Wetlands
16.1 Background
16.2 Definitions
16.3 Hydrology of Wetlands
16.3.1 Hydroperiod and Water Budget
16.3.2 Precipitation, Interception, Through-fall and Stem-flow
16.4 Wetland Chemistry
16.4.1 Oxygen
16.4.2 Carbon
16.4.3 Nitrogen
16.4.4 Phosphorus
16.4.5 Sulphur
16.5 Wetland Ecosystem Mass Balance
16.6 Macrophytes in Wetlands
16.6.1 Primary Productivity
16.6.2 Phragmites australis
16.6.3 Typha latifolia
16.7 Physical and Biochemical Parameters
16.8 Natural and Constructed Wetlands
16.8.1 Riparian Wetlands
16.8.2 Constructed Treatment Wetlands
16.8.3 Constructed Wetlands for Storm Water Treatment
17 Rotating Biological Contactors
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Principle of Operation
17.3 Design and Loading Criteria
17.4 Principle Elements
17.5 Operational Problems
18 Activated Sludge Processes
18.1 Background
18.2 Activated Sludge Process
18.3 Activated Sludge Process Versus Percolating Filtration
18.4 Activated Sludge Processes Types
18.4.1 Conventional Complete Mix Activated Sludge Process
18.4.2 Series or Plug Flow System
18.4.3 Tapered Aeration
18.4.4 Step Feed Activated Sludge
18.4.5 High Rate Activated Sludge Process
18.4.6 Extended Aeration
18.4.7 Contact Stabilization
18.4.8 Oxidation Ditches
18.4.9 Deep Shaft Process
18.5 Activated Sludge Process Design and Kinetics
18.5.1 Diffused Air Aeration
18.5.2 Mechanical Aerators
18.5.3 Process Design Kinetics of Biological Growth Application of Kinetics Complete Mix Reactor (No Recycle) Complete Mix Cellular Reactor (Recycle) Plug Flow (Cellular Recycle)
18.6 Summary of Activated Sludge Processes
18.6.1 Loading Criteria
18.6.2 Reactor Types
18.6.3 Oxygen Demand
18.6.4 Nutrient Requirements
19 Iron and Manganese Removal
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Problems with Iron and Manganese
19.3 Basic Removal Processes
19.4 Advanced Removal Processes
20 Water Softening
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Chemistry of Water Softening
20.3 Lime-Soda Softening
20.4 Lime Softening
20.5 Excess Lime Softening
20.6 Lime Recovery
21 Water Microbiology
21.1 Statistics for Applied Microbiology
21.2 Protozoa
21.2.1 Trophic Structure
21.2.2 Kingdom Protista
21.3 Biological Effects of Organic Pollutants
21.3.1 Sewage Fungus
21.3.2 Saprobic System
21.4 Eutrophication and Water Treatment
21.5 Protozoology of Treatment Processes
21.6 Odour and Toxins of Natural Origin
21.7 Public Health Aspects
21.7.1 Typical Diseases Related to Waters
21.7.2 Invertebrates Found in Main Supplies
21.7.3 Monitoring and Prevention of Waterborne Diseases
22 Disinfection
22.1 Destroying Pathogens and Requirements of a Disinfectant
22.2 Traditional Methods of Disinfection
22.3 Ozone
22.4 Chlorine Dioxide
22.5 Chlorine as a Disinfectant
22.6 Kinetics of Chlorination
22.7 Applications of Chlorine
22.8 Technology of Chlorine Addition
22.9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Chlorine
23 Sludge Treatment and Disposal
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Characteristics of Wastewater Sludges
23.3 Characterization of Wastewater Sludges
23.4 Volume of Sludge
23.5 Tests for Dewatering of Sludges
23.6 Sludge Treatment and Disposal Objectives and Methods
23.7 Treatment Processes
23.7.1 Lagoons
23.7.2 Aerobic Digestion
23.7.3 Other Treatment Methods
23.8 Thickening and Dewatering of Sludges
23.8.1 Chemical Conditioning
23.8.2 Air Drying
23.8.3 Gravity Thickening
23.8.4 Other Methods
23.9 Partial Disposal
23.9.1 Incineration
23.9.2 Pyrolysis
23.9.3 Composting
23.10 Land Dumping and Passive Treatment
24 Wetlands Treating Contaminated Stream Water
24.1 Summary
24.2 Introduction
24.3 Materials and Methods
24.3.1 Experimental Plan and Limitations
24.3.2 Filter Media Composition
24.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation
24.3.4 Analytical Procedures Including Metal Determination
24.3.5 Micro-biological Examinations
24.3.6 Statistics
24.4 Results and Discussion
24.4.1 Comparison of Treatment Efficiency
24.4.2 Water Quality and Macrophytes
24.4.3 Water Quality and Microbiology
24.4.4 Regression and Correlation Analysis as Predictive Tools
24.5 Conclusions
25 Wetland Systems to Control Roof Runoff
25.1 Summary
25.2 Introduction
25.2.1 Sustainable Roof Runoff Drainage
25.2.2 Case study: Site description
25.2.3 Purpose
25.3 Methods
25.3.1 Design of the Study Site
25.3.2 Engineering Methods
25.3.3 Water Quality Analysis
25.3.4 Control of Algal Growth
25.3.5 System Capacity
25.4 Results and Discussion
25.4.1 Standard Design Considerations
25.4.2 System Design Comparisons
25.4.3 Water Quality Management
25.4.4 Twenty-four Hour Water Quality Monitoring
25.4.5 Aquatic Plant Management
25.5 Conclusions
26 Wetlands Treating Road Runoff
26.1 Case Study Summary
26.2 Introduction
26.2.1 Constructed Wetlands Treating Metal-contaminated Runoff
26.2.2 Purpose
26.3 Site, Materials and Methodology
26.3.1 Case Study Site
26.3.2 Filter Design, Media Composition and Limitations
26.3.3 Environmental Conditions and Operation
26.3.4 Metal Nitrates
26.3.5 Metal Determinations
26.3.6 BOD, Nutrient and Other Determinations
26.4 Experimental Results and Discussion
26.4.1 Inflow Water Quality Analysis
26.4.2 Comparison of Annual Outflow Water Qualities
26.4.3 Heavy Metal Removal
26.4.4 Link Between pH and Treatment of Metals
26.4.5 Analysis of Variance and Modelling
26.5 Conclusions and Further Work
27 Combined Wetland and Below Ground Detention Systems
27.1 Experimental Case Study Summary
27.2 Introduction
27.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
27.2.2 Project Purpose
27.3 Materials and Methods
27.3.1 System Design and Operation
27.3.2 Analytical Methods
27.4 Results and Discussion
27.4.1 Comparison of Costs
27.4.2 Inflow Water Quality
27.4.3 Comparison of Outflow Water Quality
27.4.4 Ecosoil and Turf
27.5 Conclusions and Further Research
28 Modelling of Constructed Wetland Performance
28.1 Summary
28.2 Introduction
28.2.1 Project Purpose
28.2.2 Machine Learning Applied to Wastewater Treatment Processes
28.3 Methodology and Software
28.3.1 Experimental Data and Variables
28.3.2 K-nearest Neighbours
28.3.3 Support Vector Machine
28.3.4 Self-organizing Map
28.4 Results and Discussion
28.4.1 Performance Evaluation
28.4.2 Correlation Analysis
28.4.3 Optimization of Input Variables
28.4.4 Comparison of Applications
28.5 Conclusions
29 Infiltration Wetland Systems
29.1 Summary
29.2 Introduction
29.2.1 Need for SUDS and Critical Issues
29.2.2 Aim and Objectives
29.3 Methods
29.3.1 Design of Study Site
29.3.2 Hydrological Methods and Water Quality Analysis
29.3.3 Fish Experiment Methodologies
29.4 Results and Discussion
29.4.1 Design and Operation of Infiltration Ponds
29.4.2 Rainfall, Runoff and Infiltration Relationships
29.4.3 Water Quality Assessment and Management
29.4.4 Active Control of Algae with Goldfish
29.4.5 Integration of SUDS into Urban Planning and Development
29.5 Conclusions
30 Sustainable Urban Drainage System Model
30.1 Summary
30.2 Introduction
30.2.1 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
30.2.2 SUDS Impact on Water Quantity and Quality
30.2.3 Development and Regeneration in Glasgow
30.2.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems in Edinburgh
30.2.5 Aims and Objectives
30.3 Sites and Methodology
30.3.1 Overview of Sites in Glasgow and Edinburgh
30.3.2 SUDS Decision Support Matrix and Weighting System
30.3.3 SUDS Decision Support Model
30.3.4 Prevalence Rating Approach for SUDS Techniques
30.3.5 Case-based Reasoning Model
30.4 Results and Discussion
30.4.1 SUDS Decision Support Model Output
30.4.2 PRAST Analysis
30.4.3 Case-based Reasoning Model Output
30.5 Conclusions
31 Natural Wetlands Treating Diffuse Pollution
31.1 Case Study Overview
31.1.1 Summary
31.1.2 Overview of the Content
31.2 Introduction
31.2.1 Background of the Case Study
31.2.2 Nutrient Transformations and Removal Processes
31.2.3 Aim and Objectives
31.3 Materials and Methods
31.3.1 Case Study and Sampling
31.3.2 Ditches and the Channel of the River Eider
31.3.3 Discharge Determination for Open Channels
31.3.4 Water Quality Analyses
31.3.5 Vegetation Characterization
31.3.6 Data Analysis
31.4 Results
31.4.1 Characteristics of Watercourses in the River Eider Valley
31.4.2 Water Quality During Spring and Summer
31.4.3 Ditch Vegetation
31.5 Discussion
31.5.1 Disappearance of Ditches Due to Vegetation Growth
31.5.2 Water Quality Variations Within the Study Area
31.5.3 Vegetation Characterization
31.5.4 Hydraulic Changes Due to Summer Flooding
31.6 Conclusions
Back Cover


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© Elsevier Science 2006
18th August 2006
Elsevier Science
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About the Author

M. Scholz

Affiliations and Expertise

The University of Edingburgh, U.K.


"This new book, written by IEMA member Miklas Scholz (featured in ‘the environmentalist’ March 2006), covers the water and environmental engineering essentials relevant to the drainage and treatment of stormwater, wastewater and contaminated water from predominantly urban areas. Based on this 10 years’ experience in urban water research, Dr. Scholz successfully presents a book appealing to readers with different levels of experience and knowledge, including those less familiar with water quality management, to professions and students interested in design, process and management details. It is recommended as a most useful reference and textbook, combining case studies with the latest research finding in urban water management technology."

--Magazine of the IEMA, December 2006

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