Weather and Life - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483227474, 9781483261775

Weather and Life

1st Edition

An Introduction to Biometeorology

Authors: William P. Lowry
eBook ISBN: 9781483261775
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 312
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Description

Weather and Life: An Introduction to Biometeorology provides information pertinent to the interactions between and among the various parts of an organism-environment system. This book discusses the ways of analyzing information to permit an understanding of the whole and to allow intelligent management of the system.

Organized into four sections encompassing 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental environmental factors of radiation, moisture, wind, and temperature and heat. This text then analyzes the environmental factors with a philosophical excursion into matters of data collection and instrumentation. Other chapters consider some of the more widely accepted biological concepts. This book discusses as well the problems of urban climate and air pollution. The final chapter deals with the advances in biometeorology in terms of routine weather observations, of statistical methods, and of high-speed computers.

This book is a valuable resource for biometeorologists, meteorologists, biologists, ecologists, scientists, and plant physiologists.

Table of Contents


Preface

1. Introduction

The Nature of Biometeorology

The Structure of Biometeorology

Biometeorology as a Science

Section I The Physical Environment

2. Energy and Ecology

The Basic Link in an Ecosystem

The Meteorologist's Role

The Biologist's Goal

Energy and Environment

Heat Transfer Processes

Conclusion

3. Radiation

Spectra

Black Body

Radiation Terminology

Planck's Law

Wien's Law

The Stephan-Boltzmann Law

Kirchhoff's Law

Spectra of Principal Atmospheric Gases

Energy Balance of the Earth-Atmosphere System

References

Problems

4. Environmental Temperature

Temperature Versus Heat

"True Air" Versus "Test Body" Temperature

Air Temperature Near the Ground: Time Variations

Air Temperature Near the Ground: Space Variations

Temperatures Near the Ground Surface: Time and Space Variations

Temperature Lapse Rates

Lapse Rates Above the Surface

Lapse Rates in the Surface Layers

Some Other Aspects of Air Temperature Variation Near the Ground

Heat Conduction in Soil: Basic Considerations

Heat Conduction in Soil: The Soil Heat-Budget Equation

The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 1

The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 2

The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 3

The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 4

The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 5

The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 6

References

Problems

5. Environmental Moisture

The Latent Heats of Water

Vapor Pressure

Measures of Atmospheric Moisture

The Temperature-Relative Humidity-Vapor Pressure Diagram

Vapor Pressure Deficit Versus Vapor Pressure Gradient

Vapor Movement in the Environment

Moisture Lapse Rates Above the Surface

Soil Moisture: Basic Considerations

Soil Moisture: Liquid or Film Flow

Soil Moisture: Vapor Flow

Soil Moisture: Field Conditions

References

Problems

6. Wind, Advection, and Turbulent Transfer

Macroscale and Mesoscale Winds

Advection

Wind Near the Earth's Surface: Turbulence

Wind Near the Earth's Surface: Wind Profiles

Wind Near the Earth's Surface: Turbulent Transfer

Vertical Flux

References

Problems

Section II Energy Budgets

7. The Energy-Budget Concept

The Generalized Energy Budget

Energy-Budget Systems: Type 1

Energy-Budget Systems: Type 2

Energy-Budget Systems: Type 3

Energy-Budget Systems: Type 4

Energy-Budget Systems: Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

8. Energy Budgets of Particular Systems

Importance of System Surfaces and Their Temperatures

Energy-Budget Type 1: Estimation of Components

Energy-Budget Type 1: Variability of Components

Energy-Budget Type 1: Nature and Effects of the Soil Heat Component

Energy-Budget Type 2: Estimation of Components

Energy-Budget Type 2: Variability of Components

Energy-Budget Type 3: Estimation of Components

Energy-Budget Type 3: Variability of Components

Energy-Budget Type 4: Estimation of Components

Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

9. Instrumentation and Data Collection

Physical Environment: A Synopsis

The Objective of It All

Basic Requirements for Proper Data Collection

Knowledge of the Nature of the Environment

A Scheme for Characterizing the Environment

Knowledge of Instruments and Their Interactions

Plan for Obtaining Compatible Measurements

Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

Section III The Biological Environment

10. Plants and the Atmosphere: Physiology

Introduction

Photosynthesis

Transpiration

Soil-Plant Relations

References

Problems

11. Plants and the Atmosphere: Growth and Development

Introduction

Thermoperiodism

Phenology and Tolerance

The "Heat Units" Concept

Applications

References

Problems

12. Artificial Control of Plant Environments

Introduction

Controlling the Heat Load: Heat Trapping

Controlling the Heat Load: Shading

Protection from Cold: Supplementary Heat

Protection from Cold: Reduction in Sensible and Latent Heat Flux

Controlling Soil Moisture: Mulching and Plowing

Controlling Soil Moisture: Irrigation

Controlling the Soil Heat Budget

Controlling Convection and Advection: Shelter Belts

Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

13. Animals and the Atmosphere

Direct and Indirect Atmospheric Effects on Animals

Short-Term Effects: The Preferendum

Short-Term Effects: Rate of Dispersal

Long-Term Effects: Rate of Development

Long-Term Effects: Reproduction

Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

14. Humans and the Atmosphere

Biophysical Adaptation: Effects of Animal Size

Biophysical Adaptation: Physiological Responses

The Energy Budget: Operative Temperature

The Energy Budget: Evaluation of Components

The Role of Clothing

The Role of Housing

The Limits of Tolerance

Concluding Remarks

References

Problems

Section IV The Urban Environment

15. The Climate of the City

Basic Physical Urban-Rural Contrasts

Urban-Rural Temperature Contrasts: Theory

Urban-Rural Temperature Contrasts: Observations

Urban-Rural Temperature Contrasts: The "Heat Island"

Other Urban-Rural Contrasts

References

Problems

16. Air Pollution Meteorology

Diffusion of Contaminants: The Microscale

Diffusion of Contaminants: The Mesoscale

Concluding Remarks

17. A Look Backward and A Look Forward

Text

References

Supplementary Reading List

Solutions to Selected Problems

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
312
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1969
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483261775

About the Author

William P. Lowry