Weather and Life

Weather and Life

An Introduction to Biometeorology

1st Edition - January 1, 1969

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  • Author: William P. Lowry
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261775

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Weather and Life: An Introduction to Biometeorology provides information pertinent to the interactions between and among the various parts of an organism-environment system. This book discusses the ways of analyzing information to permit an understanding of the whole and to allow intelligent management of the system. Organized into four sections encompassing 17 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental environmental factors of radiation, moisture, wind, and temperature and heat. This text then analyzes the environmental factors with a philosophical excursion into matters of data collection and instrumentation. Other chapters consider some of the more widely accepted biological concepts. This book discusses as well the problems of urban climate and air pollution. The final chapter deals with the advances in biometeorology in terms of routine weather observations, of statistical methods, and of high-speed computers. This book is a valuable resource for biometeorologists, meteorologists, biologists, ecologists, scientists, and plant physiologists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    The Nature of Biometeorology

    The Structure of Biometeorology

    Biometeorology as a Science

    Section I The Physical Environment

    2. Energy and Ecology

    The Basic Link in an Ecosystem

    The Meteorologist's Role

    The Biologist's Goal

    Energy and Environment

    Heat Transfer Processes


    3. Radiation


    Black Body

    Radiation Terminology

    Planck's Law

    Wien's Law

    The Stephan-Boltzmann Law

    Kirchhoff's Law

    Spectra of Principal Atmospheric Gases

    Energy Balance of the Earth-Atmosphere System



    4. Environmental Temperature

    Temperature Versus Heat

    "True Air" Versus "Test Body" Temperature

    Air Temperature Near the Ground: Time Variations

    Air Temperature Near the Ground: Space Variations

    Temperatures Near the Ground Surface: Time and Space Variations

    Temperature Lapse Rates

    Lapse Rates Above the Surface

    Lapse Rates in the Surface Layers

    Some Other Aspects of Air Temperature Variation Near the Ground

    Heat Conduction in Soil: Basic Considerations

    Heat Conduction in Soil: The Soil Heat-Budget Equation

    The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 1

    The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 2

    The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 3

    The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 4

    The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 5

    The Soil-Heat Budget Equation: Case 6



    5. Environmental Moisture

    The Latent Heats of Water

    Vapor Pressure

    Measures of Atmospheric Moisture

    The Temperature-Relative Humidity-Vapor Pressure Diagram

    Vapor Pressure Deficit Versus Vapor Pressure Gradient

    Vapor Movement in the Environment

    Moisture Lapse Rates Above the Surface

    Soil Moisture: Basic Considerations

    Soil Moisture: Liquid or Film Flow

    Soil Moisture: Vapor Flow

    Soil Moisture: Field Conditions



    6. Wind, Advection, and Turbulent Transfer

    Macroscale and Mesoscale Winds


    Wind Near the Earth's Surface: Turbulence

    Wind Near the Earth's Surface: Wind Profiles

    Wind Near the Earth's Surface: Turbulent Transfer

    Vertical Flux



    Section II Energy Budgets

    7. The Energy-Budget Concept

    The Generalized Energy Budget

    Energy-Budget Systems: Type 1

    Energy-Budget Systems: Type 2

    Energy-Budget Systems: Type 3

    Energy-Budget Systems: Type 4

    Energy-Budget Systems: Concluding Remarks



    8. Energy Budgets of Particular Systems

    Importance of System Surfaces and Their Temperatures

    Energy-Budget Type 1: Estimation of Components

    Energy-Budget Type 1: Variability of Components

    Energy-Budget Type 1: Nature and Effects of the Soil Heat Component

    Energy-Budget Type 2: Estimation of Components

    Energy-Budget Type 2: Variability of Components

    Energy-Budget Type 3: Estimation of Components

    Energy-Budget Type 3: Variability of Components

    Energy-Budget Type 4: Estimation of Components

    Concluding Remarks



    9. Instrumentation and Data Collection

    Physical Environment: A Synopsis

    The Objective of It All

    Basic Requirements for Proper Data Collection

    Knowledge of the Nature of the Environment

    A Scheme for Characterizing the Environment

    Knowledge of Instruments and Their Interactions

    Plan for Obtaining Compatible Measurements

    Concluding Remarks



    Section III The Biological Environment

    10. Plants and the Atmosphere: Physiology




    Soil-Plant Relations



    11. Plants and the Atmosphere: Growth and Development



    Phenology and Tolerance

    The "Heat Units" Concept




    12. Artificial Control of Plant Environments


    Controlling the Heat Load: Heat Trapping

    Controlling the Heat Load: Shading

    Protection from Cold: Supplementary Heat

    Protection from Cold: Reduction in Sensible and Latent Heat Flux

    Controlling Soil Moisture: Mulching and Plowing

    Controlling Soil Moisture: Irrigation

    Controlling the Soil Heat Budget

    Controlling Convection and Advection: Shelter Belts

    Concluding Remarks



    13. Animals and the Atmosphere

    Direct and Indirect Atmospheric Effects on Animals

    Short-Term Effects: The Preferendum

    Short-Term Effects: Rate of Dispersal

    Long-Term Effects: Rate of Development

    Long-Term Effects: Reproduction

    Concluding Remarks



    14. Humans and the Atmosphere

    Biophysical Adaptation: Effects of Animal Size

    Biophysical Adaptation: Physiological Responses

    The Energy Budget: Operative Temperature

    The Energy Budget: Evaluation of Components

    The Role of Clothing

    The Role of Housing

    The Limits of Tolerance

    Concluding Remarks



    Section IV The Urban Environment

    15. The Climate of the City

    Basic Physical Urban-Rural Contrasts

    Urban-Rural Temperature Contrasts: Theory

    Urban-Rural Temperature Contrasts: Observations

    Urban-Rural Temperature Contrasts: The "Heat Island"

    Other Urban-Rural Contrasts



    16. Air Pollution Meteorology

    Diffusion of Contaminants: The Microscale

    Diffusion of Contaminants: The Mesoscale

    Concluding Remarks

    17. A Look Backward and A Look Forward



    Supplementary Reading List

    Solutions to Selected Problems

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 312
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1969
  • Published: January 1, 1969
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483261775

About the Author

William P. Lowry

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