Wearable Robotics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128146590, 9780128146606

Wearable Robotics

1st Edition

Systems and Applications

Editors: Jacob Rosen Peter Ferguson
Paperback ISBN: 9780128146590
eBook ISBN: 9780128146606
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th November 2019
Page Count: 550
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Description

Wearable Robotics: Systems and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field of wearable robotics, including active orthotics (exoskeleton) and active prosthetics for the upper and lower limb and full body. In its two major sections, wearable robotics systems are described from both engineering perspectives and their application in medicine and industry. Systems and applications at various levels of the development cycle are presented, including those that are still under active research and development, systems that are under preliminary or full clinical trials, and those in commercialized products.

This book is a great resource for anyone working in this field, including researchers, industry professionals and those who want to use it as a teaching mechanism.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field, with both engineering and medical perspectives
  • Helps readers quickly and efficiently design and develop wearable robotics for healthcare applications

Readership

Biomedical Engineers, Rehabilitation Engineers, Robotics Engineers, Physiotherapists, Neurosurgeons, Orthopaedic Surgeons

Table of Contents

List of Contributors ............................................................................................................................ xix

CHAPTER 1 Upper Limb Exoskeleton Systems—Overview .....................................1

Yang Shen, Peter Walker Ferguson and Jacob Rosen

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1

1.2 Overview of Upper Limb Exoskeleton Systems ....................................................... 2

1.2.1 Mechanism ....................................................................................................... 3

1.2.2 Actuation .......................................................................................................... 4

1.3 Assistive Upper Limb Exoskeletons.......................................................................... 8

1.3.1 AIST................................................................................................................. 9

1.3.2 SUEFUL-7 ....................................................................................................... 9

1.3.3 MULOS............................................................................................................ 9

1.3.4 HAL.................................................................................................................. 9

1.3.5 ABLE ............................................................................................................... 9

1.3.6 MyoPro............................................................................................................. 9

1.4 Rehabilitation Upper Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 10

1.4.1 MIT-MANUS............................................................................................... 10

1.4.2 NeReBot ....................................................................................................... 10

1.4.3 ARM Guide.................................................................................................. 10

1.4.4 ReoGo........................................................................................................... 11

1.4.5 GENTLE/s.................................................................................................... 11

1.4.6 ACT3D .......................................................................................................... 11

1.4.7 iPAM............................................................................................................ 11

1.4.8 Bi-Manu-Track............................................................................................. 11

1.4.9 MIME........................................................................................................... 11

1.4.10 KINARM...................................................................................................... 11

1.4.11 L-Exos .......................................................................................................... 12

1.4.12 BONES......................................................................................................... 12

1.4.13 ARMin III .................................................................................................... 12

1.4.14 MGA............................................................................................................. 12

1.4.15 IntelliArm ..................................................................................................... 12

1.4.16 MEDARM.................................................................................................... 13

1.4.17 Exorn ............................................................................................................ 13

1.4.18 SRE............................................................................................................... 13

1.4.19 RUPERT IV ................................................................................................. 13

1.4.20 RehaBot........................................................................................................ 13

1.4.21 ETS-MARSE................................................................................................ 13

1.4.22 Recupera-Reha ............................................................................................. 13

1.4.23 EXO-UL Series ............................................................................................ 14

1.5 Augmentation Upper Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 14

1.5.1 SARCOS Guardian XO ................................................................................. 15

1.5.2 SARCOS Guardian GT.................................................................................. 15

1.5.3 ShoulderX from SuitX ................................................................................... 15

1.5.4 EksoVest from Ekso Bionics ......................................................................... 15

1.6 Others ....................................................................................................................... 15

1.6.1 EXARM ......................................................................................................... 15

1.6.2 X-Arm-2 ......................................................................................................... 16

1.6.3 SARCOS Master Arm.................................................................................... 16

1.6.4 SAM ............................................................................................................... 16

1.6.5 CAPIO............................................................................................................ 16

1.6.6 SARCOS Dextrous Arm................................................................................ 16

1.6.7 EMY............................................................................................................... 16

1.7 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 16

References................................................................................................................. 17

CHAPTER 2 Development and Control of an Upper Extremity Exoskeleton

Robot for Rehabilitation...................................................................... 23

Brahim Brahmi, Maarouf Saad, M.H. Rahman, Cristobal Ochoa-Luna

and Islam Rasedul

2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 23

2.2 Characterization of System Rehabilitation .............................................................. 25

2.2.1 Exoskeleton Robot Development .................................................................. 25

2.2.2 Dynamics of Ecole de Technologie Suprieure

Robotic-exoskeleton for Superior Extremity Robot...................................... 25

2.2.3 Problem Statement ......................................................................................... 27

2.3 Control Design ......................................................................................................... 28

2.3.1 Uncertain Estimation ..................................................................................... 28

2.3.2 Estimation of the State of the System ........................................................... 28

2.3.3 Design of Integral Second-Order Terminal Sliding Mode Controller.......... 30

2.3.4 Active Assistive Motion ................................................................................ 34

2.4 Experiment and Comparative Study........................................................................ 35

2.4.1 Experiment Setup........................................................................................... 35

2.4.2 Results of Passive Assistive Motion.............................................................. 37

2.4.3 Comparative Study......................................................................................... 37

2.4.4 Results of Active Assistive Motion............................................................... 39

2.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 42

2.6 Ethics Statement....................................................................................................... 42

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 42

References................................................................................................................. 42

CHAPTER 3 Design of the Arm Exoskeleton ABLE Achieving Torque

Control Using Ball Screw and Cable Mechanism.............................. 45

Philippe Garrec

3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 45

3.2 The SCS Mechanism: A New Answer to the Challenge of Linear Torque

Amplification............................................................................................................ 45

3.2.1 Mechanical Reversibility/Irreversibility—Backdrivability—Torque

Transfer Linearity .......................................................................................... 46

3.2.2 Mechanical Torque Amplification on Servomanipulators ............................ 48

3.3 The First ABLE 4D.................................................................................................. 52

3.4 The Completion of ABLE 7D ................................................................................. 54

3.4.1 Forearm

3.4.2 A New Shoulder With Nonorthogonal Joints and Simple Bearing .............. 60

3.5 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 62

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 64

References................................................................................................................. 65

CHAPTER 4 Rigid Versus Soft Exoskeletons: Interaction Strategies

for Upper Limb Assistive Technology ................................................ 67

Domenico Chiaradia, Michele Xiloyannis, Massimiliano Solazzi,

Lorenzo Masia and Antonio Frisoli

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 67

4.2 Exoskeletons Descriptions ....................................................................................... 69

4.2.1 A Rigid Exoskeleton: The Rehab-Exos......................................................... 70

4.2.2 Elbow Exosuit (Soft Exosuit) ........................................................................ 71

4.3 Exoskeleton Models ................................................................................................. 73

4.3.1 Rehab-Exos (Rigid Exoskeleton)................................................................... 73

4.3.2 Exosuit (Soft Exosuit).................................................................................... 75

4.4 Controls Design........................................................................................................ 76

4.4.1 Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton).................................................. 76

4.4.2 Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit)................................................................ 77

4.5 Experimental Setup .................................................................................................. 79

4.5.1 Evaluation of the Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton)..................... 79

4.5.2 Evaluation of the Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit) .................................. 80

4.6 Results ...................................................................................................................... 81

4.6.1 Evaluation of the Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton)..................... 81

4.6.2 Evaluation of the Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit) .................................. 83

4.6.3 Assistive Performance: Rehab-Exos Versus Exosuit.................................... 84

4.7 Discussion................................................................................................................. 86

4.8 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 88

References................................................................................................................. 88

CHAPTER 5 EXO-UL Upper Limb Robotic Exoskeleton System Series:

From 1 DOF Single-Arm to (711) DOFs Dual-Arm............................ 91

Yang Shen and Jacob Rosen

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 91

5.2 Exoskeleton Systems................................................................................................ 92

5.2.1 Prototype 1 (EXO-UL1) ................................................................................ 92

5.2.2 Prototype 2 (EXO-UL3) ................................................................................ 94

5.2.3 Prototype 3 (EXO-UL7) ................................................................................ 95

5.2.4 Prototype 4 (EXO-UL8) ................................................................................ 96

5.3 Related Research ...................................................................................................... 99

5.3.1 Control Algorithms ........................................................................................ 99

5.3.2 Redundancy Resolution ................................................................................. 99

5.3.3 Synergy Analysis ........................................................................................... 99

5.3.4 Dual-Arm Training ...................................................................................... 100

5.3.5 Virtual Reality.............................................................................................. 100

5.4 Summary................................................................................................................. 100

References............................................................................................................... 100

CHAPTER 6 PRISM: Development of a 2-DOF Dual-Four-Bar Exoskeleton

Shoulder Mechanism to Support Elevation, Depression,

Protraction, and Retraction .............................................................. 105

Joel C. Perry, Chris K. Bitikofer, Parker W. Hill, Shawn T. Trimble

and Eric T. Wolbrecht

6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 105

6.1.1 Rehabilitation Robotics: Exoskeleton Versus End-Effector ....................... 106

6.1.2 Exoskeleton Shoulder Background.............................................................. 106

6.1.3 Overview ...................................................................................................... 111

6.2 Methods: PRISM Development ............................................................................. 111

6.2.1 BLUE SABINO Concept............................................................................. 112

6.2.2 EXO-UL8 Design Approach........................................................................ 113

6.2.3 Shoulder Range of Motion Requirements Estimation ................................ 114

6.2.4 Conceptual Design of a Remote Biomimetic Shoulder Module ................ 116

6.2.5 Gravity Compensation Methods .................................................................. 120

6.3 Results .................................................................................................................... 120

6.3.1 Shoulder Range of Motion Requirements Estimation ................................ 122

6.3.2 Dual Four-Bar Mechanism Proof-of-Concept Mockup .............................. 122

6.3.3 Exoskeleton Clavicle Design and Assembly............................................... 124

6.3.4 Spring-Based Gravity Compensation .......................................................... 124

6.3.5 PRISM Final Design .................................................................................... 126

6.4 Conclusion and Discussion .................................................................................... 128

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 129

References............................................................................................................... 129

CHAPTER 7 Design and Modeling of Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Two

Revolute Joints .................................................................................. 133

Carlos Parga and Wen Yu

7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 133

7.2 Shoulder Exoskeleton With 2 Degrees of Freedom.............................................. 133

7.3 Shoulder Exoskeleton Design ................................................................................ 135

7.4 Modeling the Shoulder Exoskeleton...................................................................... 139

7.5 Control for the Exoskeleton................................................................................... 141

7.5.1 Lyapunov Stability....................................................................................... 141

7.5.2 Linear Control .............................................................................................. 142

7.5.3 Sliding Mode Controller .............................................................................. 142

7.5.4 Neural Control.............................................................................................. 143

7.6 Electronic and Control System.............................................................................. 143

7.7 Experimental Results.............................................................................................. 145

7.8 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 148

References............................................................................................................... 148

CHAPTER 8 Hand Exoskeleton Systems—Overview............................................ 149

Peter Walker Ferguson, Yang Shen and Jacob Rosen

8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 149

8.2 Overview of Hand Exoskeleton Systems .............................................................. 150

8.2.1 Mechanism ................................................................................................... 150

8.2.2 Actuation ...................................................................................................... 154

8.2.3 Transmission ................................................................................................ 155

8.2.4 Sensing Method............................................................................................ 156

8.2.5 Control.......................................................................................................... 157

8.3 Assistive Hand Exoskeletons ................................................................................. 158

8.3.1 Brown et al................................................................................................... 158

8.3.2 Lucas et al .................................................................................................... 159

8.3.3 In et al .......................................................................................................... 159

8.3.4 Kadowaki et al ............................................................................................. 159

8.3.5 OFX.............................................................................................................. 159

8.3.6 ExoGlove...................................................................................................... 159

8.3.7 Polygerinos et al........................................................................................... 160

8.3.8 HX................................................................................................................ 160

8.3.9 Secciani et al ................................................................................................ 160

8.4 Rehabilitation Hand Exoskeletons ......................................................................... 160

8.4.1 HWARD..................................................................................................... 161

8.4.2 Gentle/G..................................................................................................... 161

8.4.3 Wege et al .................................................................................................. 162

8.4.4 Kawasaki et al ............................................................................................ 162

8.4.5 HANDEXOS.............................................................................................. 162

8.4.6 Tong et al ................................................................................................... 162

8.4.7 HEXORR ................................................................................................... 163

8.4.8 ATX............................................................................................................ 163

8.4.9 iHandRehab................................................................................................ 163

8.4.10 Rahman et al .............................................................................................. 163

8.4.11 Arata et al................................................................................................... 163

8.4.12 IOTA .......................................................................................................... 163

8.4.13 HEXOSYS-I............................................................................................... 164

8.4.14 Zhang et al ................................................................................................. 164

8.4.15 BRAVO...................................................................................................... 164

8.4.16 Sinfonia ...................................................................................................... 164

8.4.17 Agarwal et al .............................................................................................. 164

8.4.18 Abdallah et al ............................................................................................. 165

8.4.19 Ferguson et al............................................................................................. 165

8.4.20 DexoHand................................................................................................... 165

8.5 Augmentation Hand Exoskeletons......................................................................... 165

8.5.1 Shields et al .................................................................................................. 166

8.5.2 Skil Mate ...................................................................................................... 166

8.5.3 Hasegawa et al ............................................................................................. 166

8.5.4 Tadano et al.................................................................................................. 167

8.5.5 Matheson et al .............................................................................................. 167

8.5.6 RoboGlove ................................................................................................... 167

8.6 Others ..................................................................................................................... 167

8.6.1 SKK Hand Master........................................................................................ 168

8.6.2 Rutgers Master II-ND .................................................................................. 168

8.6.3 Stergiopoulos et al ....................................................................................... 168

8.6.4 Fontana et al................................................................................................. 168

8.6.5 Jo et al .......................................................................................................... 168

8.7 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 169

References............................................................................................................... 170

CHAPTER 9 A Portable Tailor-Made Exoskeleton for Hand Disabilities ............ 177

Benedetto Allotta, Matteo Bianchi, Enrico Meli, Alessandro Ridolfi

and Nicola Secciani

9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 177

9.2 Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis......................................................................... 177

9.3 Kinematic Chain Assessment: First Device .......................................................... 179

9.3.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 181

9.3.2 Electronics and Control Architecture .......................................................... 182

9.3.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 182

9.4 Ergonomics Improvements: Second Device.......................................................... 183

9.4.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 183

9.4.2 Electronics and Control Architecture .......................................................... 184

9.4.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 185

9.5 User-Based Actuation Strategy: Final Device....................................................... 185

9.5.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 186

9.5.2 Electronic Components and Control Architecture ...................................... 186

9.5.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 190

9.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 190

References............................................................................................................... 191

Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 191

CHAPTER 10 Optimal Kinematic Design of the Link Lengths

of a Hand Exoskeleton...................................................................... 193

Peter Walker Ferguson, Brando Dimapasoc and Jacob Rosen

10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 193

10.2 Method.................................................................................................................... 194

10.2.1 Modeling the Human Digits ...................................................................... 194

10.2.2 Exoskeleton Topology ............................................................................... 195

10.2.3 Modeling the 3R Planar Mechanisms ....................................................... 197

10.2.4 The Optimization Algorithm ..................................................................... 197

10.3 Results .................................................................................................................... 200

10.3.1 Simulation Results ..................................................................................... 200

10.3.2 Physical Prototype Evaluation ................................................................... 201

10.4 Discussion............................................................................................................... 201

10.4.1 Link Length Evaluation ............................................................................. 201

10.4.2 Prototype Workspace Evaluation .............................................................. 203

10.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 204

Acknowledgement .................................................................................................. 204

References............................................................................................................... 204

CHAPTER 11 Lower Limb Exoskeleton Systems—Overview ................................. 207

Hao Lee, Peter Walker Ferguson and Jacob Rosen

11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 207

11.2 Assistive Exoskeletons ........................................................................................... 208

11.3 Rehabilitation Exoskeletons................................................................................... 215

11.3.1 Rehabilitation With Weight Support ......................................................... 215

11.3.2 Rehabilitation Without Weight Support.................................................... 217

11.4 Augmentation Exoskeletons................................................................................... 217

11.4.1 Assistance Directly Applied to Tasks ....................................................... 218

11.4.2 Assistance Applied on Users ..................................................................... 219

11.5 Actuation of Lower Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 221

11.6 Future for Lower Limb Exoskeletons.................................................................... 222

References............................................................................................................... 223

CHAPTER 12 WalkON Suit: A Medalist in the Powered Exoskeleton

Race of Cybathlon 2016................................................................... 231

Jungsu Choi and Kyoungchul Kong

12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 231

12.2 Design of WalkON Suit ......................................................................................... 232

12.2.1 Overall Configuration ................................................................................ 232

12.2.2 Actuation Systems...................................................................................... 232

12.2.3 Robotic Legs .............................................................................................. 234

12.2.4 Control Unit and Backpack ....................................................................... 235

12.2.5 Crutches...................................................................................................... 235

12.2.6 User Display............................................................................................... 235

12.3 Sensor System ........................................................................................................ 235

12.4 Human Factors ....................................................................................................... 236

12.4.1 Pilot ............................................................................................................ 236

12.4.2 Knee

12.5 Control System....................................................................................................... 238

12.5.1 Processes of Overall Control System ........................................................ 238

12.5.2 Main Functions of the Control System ..................................................... 240

12.6 Evaluation............................................................................................................... 244

12.6.1 Training ...................................................................................................... 244

12.6.2 Cybathlon 2016 .......................................................................................... 246

12.6.3 Analysis of Cybathlon 2016 ...................................................................... 246

12.7 After the Cybathlon................................................................................................ 247

Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 248

References............................................................................................................... 248

CHAPTER 13 Design of Lower-Limb Exoskeletons and Emulator Systems........... 251

Kirby Ann Witte and Steven H. Collins

13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 251

13.2 Exoskeleton Emulator Testbeds............................................................................. 251

13.2.1 Emulator Pros and Cons ............................................................................ 252

13.2.2 Off-Board Components—Power, Actuation, and Control Hardware ....... 254

13.3 Untethered Systems................................................................................................ 254

13.4 Mechanical Design of Onboard Components........................................................ 255

13.4.1 Loading Analysis—Free Body Diagrams.................................................. 255

13.4.2 Safety Stops and Physical Interfaces......................................................... 256

13.4.3 Frame and Joint Design ............................................................................. 260

13.4.4 Sensing ....................................................................................................... 264

13.4.5 Series Elasticity for Improved Torque Tracking....................................... 266

13.4.6 Materials and Manufacturing..................................................................... 267

13.5 Control.................................................................................................................... 269

13.5.1 Case Study—Control of Any CMU Emulator .......................................... 271

13.6 Making Strides in the Future ................................................................................. 271

References............................................................................................................... 272

CHAPTER 14 Physical Assistant Robot Safety....................................................... 275

Yoji Yamada and Yasuhiro Akiyama

14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 275

14.2 Contact Safety of the Physical Assistant Robot .................................................... 275

14.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 275

14.2.2 Verification and Validation Test Procedure.............................................. 276

14.2.3 Verification Experiments for Obtaining an Inherently

Safe Region Against Blister Generation ................................................... 276

14.2.4 Validation Test Method for Wound Risk.................................................. 280

14.2.5 Application of a Surrogate Skin for Safety Validation............................. 285

14.2.6 Summary .................................................................................................... 286

14.3 Fall Risk During Gait Using a Wearable Robot ................................................... 286

14.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 286

14.3.2 Mismatch Between the Motion of the Wearable Robot

and the Wearer ........................................................................................... 288

14.3.3 Contact With an Environmental Object .................................................... 292

14.3.4 Curving Motion Under Limited Degree of Freedom................................ 295

14.3.5 Summary .................................................................................................... 297

14.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 297

References............................................................................................................... 298

CHAPTER 15 Current Evidence for Use of Robotic Exoskeletons in

Rehabilitation .................................................................................... 301

Arun Jayaraman, Borislav Marinov, Yashna Singh, Sheila Burt

and William Zev Rymer

15.1 Brief History of Exoskeletons................................................................................ 301

15.1.1 Early Designs ............................................................................................. 301

15.1.2 First Prototypes 1961<73.......................................................................... 301

15.1.3 The Exoskeleton Awakening: 2001<08.................................................... 302

15.1.4 The New Exoskeleton Renaissance: 2015<18 and Onwards................... 302

15.1.5 Exoskeletons in Development ................................................................... 302

15.1.6 Current Food and Drug Administration

15.2 Overview of Clinical Evidence.............................................................................. 305

15.2.1 Early-Stage Feasibility and Case Studies.................................................. 307

15.2.2 Randomized Controlled Trials................................................................... 308

15.3 A Look to the Future.............................................................................................. 309

References............................................................................................................... 309

CHAPTER 16 Structural Exoskeletons and Soft Fabric Exosuits

for Assistive Walking........................................................................ 311

Lawrence J. Jasinski

16.1 Burden of Spinal Cord Injury ................................................................................ 312

16.1.1 Demographics............................................................................................. 312

16.1.2 Adverse Health Outcomes ......................................................................... 312

16.2 Current Treatment Options .................................................................................... 314

16.2.1 Wheelchairs................................................................................................ 314

16.2.2 Leg Braces.................................................................................................. 315

16.2.3 Functional Electric Stimulation ................................................................. 315

16.2.4 Standing Frames and Standing Mobility Devices..................................... 316

16.3 Rationale for Exoskeletons .................................................................................... 316

16.4 ReWalk Product Summary..................................................................................... 317

16.4.1 ReWalk Components and Specifications .................................................. 317

16.4.2 Communicator............................................................................................ 317

16.4.3 Exoskeleton ................................................................................................ 318

16.4.4 Waist Pack.................................................................................................. 318

16.4.5 System Configuration ................................................................................ 318

16.4.6 Video Links................................................................................................ 318

16.4.7 Levels of Patient Training ......................................................................... 320

16.5 Safety and Efficacy Profile .................................................................................... 320

16.5.1 Patient Selection......................................................................................... 320

16.5.2 Safe Ambulatory Function and Patient Tolerance .................................... 321

16.5.3 Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Simulates Normal

Physiological Effects ................................................................................. 322

16.5.4 Impact on Quality of Life.......................................................................... 325

16.6 Economic Impact.................................................................................................... 328

16.6.1 Challenges of Exoskeletons ....................................................................... 329

16.6.2 Exosuits ...................................................................................................... 329

16.6.3 Design of the ReStore Exosuit .................................................................. 330

16.7 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 331

References............................................................................................................... 331

CHAPTER 17 Hybrid Exoskeletons to Restore Gait in Individuals

With Paralysis From Spinal Cord Injury........................................... 335

Sarah R. Chang, Rudi Kobetic and Ronald J. Triolo

17.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 335

17.2 Technologies to Restore Walking.......................................................................... 335

17.2.1 Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Systems ...................................... 335

17.2.2 Lower Limb Orthoses ................................................................................ 336

17.2.3 Powered Exoskeletons ............................................................................... 336

17.3 Current State-of-the-Art Systems for Restoration of Walking ............................. 337

17.3.1 Hybrid Neuroprosthesis ............................................................................. 337

17.3.2 Powered Exoskeletons and Functional Neuromuscular

Stimulation ................................................................................................. 339

17.3.3 Powered Exoskeletons and Implanted Functional Neuromuscular

Stimulation ................................................................................................. 340

17.3.4 The Need for Speed ................................................................................... 340

17.3.5 Ease of Use and Cosmesis ......................................................................... 341

17.3.6 Other Applications of Hybrid Systems ..................................................... 342

17.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 342

References............................................................................................................... 343

CHAPTER 18 Hybrid Wearable Robotic Exoskeletons

for Human Walking ........................................................................... 347

Juan C. Moreno, Samer Mohammed, Nitin Sharma

and Antonio J. del-Ama

18.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 347

18.2 Advances in Hybrid Wearable Technologies ........................................................ 348

18.2.1 Modeling Approaches for Control............................................................. 349

18.3 Potential Future Technologies ............................................................................... 350

18.4 Clinical and Usability Factors................................................................................ 351

18.5 Case Study.............................................................................................................. 352

18.5.1 Results ........................................................................................................ 356

18.5.2 Discussion .................................................................................................. 358

18.5.3 Case Study Conclusion .............................................................................. 360

18.6 Challenges and Future Directions.......................................................................... 360

18.7 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 361

References............................................................................................................... 361

Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 364

CHAPTER 19 Upper Limb Active Prosthetic Systems—Overview......................... 365

Claudio Castellini

19.1 Introduction/Motivation ......................................................................................... 365

19.2 The Past .................................................................................................................. 367

19.3 The Present ............................................................................................................. 368

19.3.1 Design of Prosthetic Devices..................................................................... 368

19.3.2 Control........................................................................................................ 370

19.3.3 Amputations and Patients .......................................................................... 372

19.4 The Future: A Short Note ...................................................................................... 373

References............................................................................................................... 374

CHAPTER 20 Design Principles of a Light, Wearable Upper Limb Interface

for Prosthetics and Teleoperation.................................................... 377

Claudio Castellini

20.1 Wearable Interfaces for Wearable Robots............................................................. 377

20.2 Current Problems.................................................................................................... 378

20.2.1 Sensors and Bodily Signals ....................................................................... 379

20.2.2 The Physical Interface: Properly Housing the Sensors............................. 381

20.2.3 Signal Processing, Machine Learning, Adaptation ................................... 382

20.3 Design Guidelines for a Wearable Upper Limb Interface .................................... 383

20.3.1 Current Pitfalls ........................................................................................... 383

20.3.2 Implementation and Testing ...................................................................... 384

20.3.3 Final Remark: Not Just Prosthetics ........................................................... 385

Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 387

References............................................................................................................... 387

CHAPTER 21 The Modular Prosthetic Limb ........................................................... 393

Matthew S. Johannes, Eric L. Faulring, Kapil D. Katyal,

Matthew P. Para, John B. Helder, Alexander Makhlin, Tom Moyer,

Daniel Wahl, James Solberg, Steve Clark, Robert S. Armiger,

Travis Lontz, Kathryn Geberth, Courtney W. Moran, Brock A. Wester,

Thomas Van Doren and Julio J. Santos-Munne

21.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................... 393

21.1.1 Background ................................................................................................ 393

21.1.2 Early Development: Prototypes and Phases.............................................. 394

21.1.3 MPL Architecture Overview, Capabilities, and Features ......................... 399

21.2 MPL Detailed Description ..................................................................................... 400

21.2.1 Upper Arm and Wrist Design.................................................................... 401

21.2.2 Hand Design............................................................................................... 413

21.2.3 Fingers ........................................................................................................ 413

21.2.4 Auxiliary Subsystems ................................................................................ 430

21.3 High-Level Controls and System Interfacing........................................................ 433

21.3.1 High-Level Controls .................................................................................. 433

21.3.2 VulcanX and the OCU............................................................................... 434

21.3.3 The VIE and the vMPL ............................................................................. 435

21.3.4 Web Interface............................................................................................. 435

21.4 Select MPL Applications and Uses ....................................................................... 438

21.4.1 Cortical Control and Feedback.................................................................. 438

21.4.2 Amputees.................................................................................................... 439

21.4.3 Robo Sally.................................................................................................. 440

21.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 441

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 441

References............................................................................................................... 441

CHAPTER 22 Sensing and Control for Prosthetic Hands in Clinical

and Research Applications............................................................... 445

Luke E. Osborn, Mark M. Iskarous and Nitish V. Thakor

22.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 445

22.2 Prosthesis Control................................................................................................... 446

22.2.1 Movement Signals...................................................................................... 447

22.2.2 Movement Decoding.................................................................................. 448

22.2.3 Targeted Muscle Reinnervation and Osseointegration ............................. 449

22.2.4 State of the Art........................................................................................... 450

22.3 Sensors for Prosthetic Hands ................................................................................. 450

22.3.1 Sensing in Biology..................................................................................... 450

22.3.2 Sensing Devices ......................................................................................... 451

22.3.3 State of the Art........................................................................................... 453

22.4 Sensory Feedback................................................................................................... 454

22.4.1 Tactile......................................................................................................... 454

22.4.2 Pain............................................................................................................. 457

22.4.3 Proprioception ............................................................................................ 457

22.4.4 State of the Art........................................................................................... 458

22.5 Future Directions.................................................................................................... 459

22.5.1 Prosthetic Sockets ...................................................................................... 460

22.5.2 Prosthesis Control ...................................................................................... 460

22.5.3 Augmented Reality Training ..................................................................... 460

22.5.4 Sensors and e-Skins ................................................................................... 460

22.5.5 Sensory Feedback ...................................................................................... 461

22.6 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 461

Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 461

Abbreviations.......................................................................................................... 461

References............................................................................................................... 462

CHAPTER 23 Lower Limb Active Prosthetic Systems—Overview......................... 469

Alexandra S. Voloshina and Steven H. Collins

23.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 469

23.2 Background............................................................................................................. 470

23.3 Systems................................................................................................................... 472

23.3.1 Mechanical Configuration and Actuation Approaches ............................. 472

23.3.2 Control Approaches ................................................................................... 476

23.4 Conclusions and Future Directions........................................................................ 479

References............................................................................................................... 480

CHAPTER 24 Controlling a Powered Transfemoral Prosthetic Leg

Using a Unified Phase Variable ....................................................... 487

Dario J. Villarreal and Robert D. Gregg

24.1 Background............................................................................................................. 488

24.2 Phase Variable Algorithm...................................................................................... 490

24.2.1 Real-Time Phase Variable Algorithm for Control Applications .............. 490

24.3 Controlling a Transfemoral Powered Prosthetic Leg Using a Phase Variable..... 493

24.3.1 Control Law ............................................................................................... 493

24.3.2 Hardware Setup.......................................................................................... 494

24.3.3 Experimental Protocol ............................................................................... 495

24.3.4 Results From Amputee Experiments......................................................... 496

24.3.5 Discussion of Amputee Experiments ........................................................ 500

References............................................................................................................... 505

Index .................................................................................................................................................. 507

Details

No. of pages:
550
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2020
Published:
18th November 2019
Imprint:
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
9780128146590
eBook ISBN:
9780128146606

About the Editor

Jacob Rosen

Jacob Rosen is a professor of medical robotics at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering with joint appointments with the Department Surgery and the Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His research interests focus on medical robotics, biorobotics, human centered robotics, surgical robotics, wearable robotics, rehabilitation robotics, neural control, and human-machine interface. Dr. Rosen developed several key systems in the field of medical robotics such as the Blue and the Red Dragon for minimally invasive surgical skill evaluation that is commercialized by Simulab as the “Edge”, Raven – a surgical robotic system for telesurgery that is commercialized by Applied Dexterity as an open source research platform, several generations of upper and lower limb exoskeletons and most recently the Exo-UL7 – a dual arm wearable robotic system. He is a co-author of more than 100 manuscripts in the field of medical robotics and a co-author and co-editor of two books entitled “Surgical Robotics – Systems, Applications, and Visions” and "Redundancy in Robot Manipulators and Multi-robot systems".

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Peter Ferguson

Peter Walker Ferguson is a doctoral student in mechanical engineering with an emphasis on design, robotics, and manufacturing at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He holds a lecturer position in the electrical engineering department of Loyola Marymount University (LMU). He graduated from the LMU honors program in 2012 with a B.S. in electrical engineering and obtained a M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from UCLA in 2017. His research interests lie in the areas of wearable robotics, rehabilitation robotics, medical robotics, dynamics, and mechanical/electrical design. His thesis work focuses on the development and application of a robotic hand exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)

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