Wearable Robotics

Wearable Robotics

Systems and Applications

1st Edition - November 16, 2019
  • Editor: Jacob Rosen
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128146590
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128146606

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Description

Wearable Robotics: Systems and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field of wearable robotics, including active orthotics (exoskeleton) and active prosthetics for the upper and lower limb and full body. In its two major sections, wearable robotics systems are described from both engineering perspectives and their application in medicine and industry. Systems and applications at various levels of the development cycle are presented, including those that are still under active research and development, systems that are under preliminary or full clinical trials, and those in commercialized products. This book is a great resource for anyone working in this field, including researchers, industry professionals and those who want to use it as a teaching mechanism.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field, with both engineering and medical perspectives
  • Helps readers quickly and efficiently design and develop wearable robotics for healthcare applications

Readership

Biomedical Engineers, Rehabilitation Engineers, Robotics Engineers, Physiotherapists, Neurosurgeons, Orthopaedic Surgeons

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors ............................................................................................................................ xix

    CHAPTER 1 Upper Limb Exoskeleton Systems—Overview .....................................1

    Yang Shen, Peter Walker Ferguson and Jacob Rosen

    1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1

    1.2 Overview of Upper Limb Exoskeleton Systems ....................................................... 2

    1.2.1 Mechanism ....................................................................................................... 3

    1.2.2 Actuation .......................................................................................................... 4

    1.3 Assistive Upper Limb Exoskeletons.......................................................................... 8

    1.3.1 AIST................................................................................................................. 9

    1.3.2 SUEFUL-7 ....................................................................................................... 9

    1.3.3 MULOS............................................................................................................ 9

    1.3.4 HAL.................................................................................................................. 9

    1.3.5 ABLE ............................................................................................................... 9

    1.3.6 MyoPro............................................................................................................. 9

    1.4 Rehabilitation Upper Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 10

    1.4.1 MIT-MANUS............................................................................................... 10

    1.4.2 NeReBot ....................................................................................................... 10

    1.4.3 ARM Guide.................................................................................................. 10

    1.4.4 ReoGo........................................................................................................... 11

    1.4.5 GENTLE/s.................................................................................................... 11

    1.4.6 ACT3D .......................................................................................................... 11

    1.4.7 iPAM............................................................................................................ 11

    1.4.8 Bi-Manu-Track............................................................................................. 11

    1.4.9 MIME........................................................................................................... 11

    1.4.10 KINARM...................................................................................................... 11

    1.4.11 L-Exos .......................................................................................................... 12

    1.4.12 BONES......................................................................................................... 12

    1.4.13 ARMin III .................................................................................................... 12

    1.4.14 MGA............................................................................................................. 12

    1.4.15 IntelliArm ..................................................................................................... 12

    1.4.16 MEDARM.................................................................................................... 13

    1.4.17 Exorn ............................................................................................................ 13

    1.4.18 SRE............................................................................................................... 13

    1.4.19 RUPERT IV ................................................................................................. 13

    1.4.20 RehaBot........................................................................................................ 13

    1.4.21 ETS-MARSE................................................................................................ 13

    1.4.22 Recupera-Reha ............................................................................................. 13

    1.4.23 EXO-UL Series ............................................................................................ 14

    1.5 Augmentation Upper Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 14

    1.5.1 SARCOS Guardian XO ................................................................................. 15

    1.5.2 SARCOS Guardian GT.................................................................................. 15

    1.5.3 ShoulderX from SuitX ................................................................................... 15

    1.5.4 EksoVest from Ekso Bionics ......................................................................... 15

    1.6 Others ....................................................................................................................... 15

    1.6.1 EXARM ......................................................................................................... 15

    1.6.2 X-Arm-2 ......................................................................................................... 16

    1.6.3 SARCOS Master Arm.................................................................................... 16

    1.6.4 SAM ............................................................................................................... 16

    1.6.5 CAPIO............................................................................................................ 16

    1.6.6 SARCOS Dextrous Arm................................................................................ 16

    1.6.7 EMY............................................................................................................... 16

    1.7 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 16

    References................................................................................................................. 17

    CHAPTER 2 Development and Control of an Upper Extremity Exoskeleton

    Robot for Rehabilitation...................................................................... 23

    Brahim Brahmi, Maarouf Saad, M.H. Rahman, Cristobal Ochoa-Luna

    and Islam Rasedul

    2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 23

    2.2 Characterization of System Rehabilitation .............................................................. 25

    2.2.1 Exoskeleton Robot Development .................................................................. 25

    2.2.2 Dynamics of Ecole de Technologie Suprieure

    Robotic-exoskeleton for Superior Extremity Robot...................................... 25

    2.2.3 Problem Statement ......................................................................................... 27

    2.3 Control Design ......................................................................................................... 28

    2.3.1 Uncertain Estimation ..................................................................................... 28

    2.3.2 Estimation of the State of the System ........................................................... 28

    2.3.3 Design of Integral Second-Order Terminal Sliding Mode Controller.......... 30

    2.3.4 Active Assistive Motion ................................................................................ 34

    2.4 Experiment and Comparative Study........................................................................ 35

    2.4.1 Experiment Setup........................................................................................... 35

    2.4.2 Results of Passive Assistive Motion.............................................................. 37

    2.4.3 Comparative Study......................................................................................... 37

    2.4.4 Results of Active Assistive Motion............................................................... 39

    2.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 42

    2.6 Ethics Statement....................................................................................................... 42

    Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 42

    References................................................................................................................. 42

    CHAPTER 3 Design of the Arm Exoskeleton ABLE Achieving Torque

    Control Using Ball Screw and Cable Mechanism.............................. 45

    Philippe Garrec

    3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 45

    3.2 The SCS Mechanism: A New Answer to the Challenge of Linear Torque

    Amplification............................................................................................................ 45

    3.2.1 Mechanical Reversibility/Irreversibility—Backdrivability—Torque

    Transfer Linearity .......................................................................................... 46

    3.2.2 Mechanical Torque Amplification on Servomanipulators ............................ 48

    3.3 The First ABLE 4D.................................................................................................. 52

    3.4 The Completion of ABLE 7D ................................................................................. 54

    3.4.1 Forearm

    3.4.2 A New Shoulder With Nonorthogonal Joints and Simple Bearing .............. 60

    3.5 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 62

    Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 64

    References................................................................................................................. 65

    CHAPTER 4 Rigid Versus Soft Exoskeletons: Interaction Strategies

    for Upper Limb Assistive Technology ................................................ 67

    Domenico Chiaradia, Michele Xiloyannis, Massimiliano Solazzi,

    Lorenzo Masia and Antonio Frisoli

    4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 67

    4.2 Exoskeletons Descriptions ....................................................................................... 69

    4.2.1 A Rigid Exoskeleton: The Rehab-Exos......................................................... 70

    4.2.2 Elbow Exosuit (Soft Exosuit) ........................................................................ 71

    4.3 Exoskeleton Models ................................................................................................. 73

    4.3.1 Rehab-Exos (Rigid Exoskeleton)................................................................... 73

    4.3.2 Exosuit (Soft Exosuit).................................................................................... 75

    4.4 Controls Design........................................................................................................ 76

    4.4.1 Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton).................................................. 76

    4.4.2 Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit)................................................................ 77

    4.5 Experimental Setup .................................................................................................. 79

    4.5.1 Evaluation of the Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton)..................... 79

    4.5.2 Evaluation of the Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit) .................................. 80

    4.6 Results ...................................................................................................................... 81

    4.6.1 Evaluation of the Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton)..................... 81

    4.6.2 Evaluation of the Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit) .................................. 83

    4.6.3 Assistive Performance: Rehab-Exos Versus Exosuit.................................... 84

    4.7 Discussion................................................................................................................. 86

    4.8 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 88

    References................................................................................................................. 88

    CHAPTER 5 EXO-UL Upper Limb Robotic Exoskeleton System Series:

    From 1 DOF Single-Arm to (711) DOFs Dual-Arm............................ 91

    Yang Shen and Jacob Rosen

    5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 91

    5.2 Exoskeleton Systems................................................................................................ 92

    5.2.1 Prototype 1 (EXO-UL1) ................................................................................ 92

    5.2.2 Prototype 2 (EXO-UL3) ................................................................................ 94

    5.2.3 Prototype 3 (EXO-UL7) ................................................................................ 95

    5.2.4 Prototype 4 (EXO-UL8) ................................................................................ 96

    5.3 Related Research ...................................................................................................... 99

    5.3.1 Control Algorithms ........................................................................................ 99

    5.3.2 Redundancy Resolution ................................................................................. 99

    5.3.3 Synergy Analysis ........................................................................................... 99

    5.3.4 Dual-Arm Training ...................................................................................... 100

    5.3.5 Virtual Reality.............................................................................................. 100

    5.4 Summary................................................................................................................. 100

    References............................................................................................................... 100

    CHAPTER 6 PRISM: Development of a 2-DOF Dual-Four-Bar Exoskeleton

    Shoulder Mechanism to Support Elevation, Depression,

    Protraction, and Retraction .............................................................. 105

    Joel C. Perry, Chris K. Bitikofer, Parker W. Hill, Shawn T. Trimble

    and Eric T. Wolbrecht

    6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 105

    6.1.1 Rehabilitation Robotics: Exoskeleton Versus End-Effector ....................... 106

    6.1.2 Exoskeleton Shoulder Background.............................................................. 106

    6.1.3 Overview ...................................................................................................... 111

    6.2 Methods: PRISM Development ............................................................................. 111

    6.2.1 BLUE SABINO Concept............................................................................. 112

    6.2.2 EXO-UL8 Design Approach........................................................................ 113

    6.2.3 Shoulder Range of Motion Requirements Estimation ................................ 114

    6.2.4 Conceptual Design of a Remote Biomimetic Shoulder Module ................ 116

    6.2.5 Gravity Compensation Methods .................................................................. 120

    6.3 Results .................................................................................................................... 120

    6.3.1 Shoulder Range of Motion Requirements Estimation ................................ 122

    6.3.2 Dual Four-Bar Mechanism Proof-of-Concept Mockup .............................. 122

    6.3.3 Exoskeleton Clavicle Design and Assembly............................................... 124

    6.3.4 Spring-Based Gravity Compensation .......................................................... 124

    6.3.5 PRISM Final Design .................................................................................... 126

    6.4 Conclusion and Discussion .................................................................................... 128

    Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 129

    References............................................................................................................... 129

    CHAPTER 7 Design and Modeling of Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Two

    Revolute Joints .................................................................................. 133

    Carlos Parga and Wen Yu

    7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 133

    7.2 Shoulder Exoskeleton With 2 Degrees of Freedom.............................................. 133

    7.3 Shoulder Exoskeleton Design ................................................................................ 135

    7.4 Modeling the Shoulder Exoskeleton...................................................................... 139

    7.5 Control for the Exoskeleton................................................................................... 141

    7.5.1 Lyapunov Stability....................................................................................... 141

    7.5.2 Linear Control .............................................................................................. 142

    7.5.3 Sliding Mode Controller .............................................................................. 142

    7.5.4 Neural Control.............................................................................................. 143

    7.6 Electronic and Control System.............................................................................. 143

    7.7 Experimental Results.............................................................................................. 145

    7.8 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 148

    References............................................................................................................... 148

    CHAPTER 8 Hand Exoskeleton Systems—Overview............................................ 149

    Peter Walker Ferguson, Yang Shen and Jacob Rosen

    8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 149

    8.2 Overview of Hand Exoskeleton Systems .............................................................. 150

    8.2.1 Mechanism ................................................................................................... 150

    8.2.2 Actuation ...................................................................................................... 154

    8.2.3 Transmission ................................................................................................ 155

    8.2.4 Sensing Method............................................................................................ 156

    8.2.5 Control.......................................................................................................... 157

    8.3 Assistive Hand Exoskeletons ................................................................................. 158

    8.3.1 Brown et al................................................................................................... 158

    8.3.2 Lucas et al .................................................................................................... 159

    8.3.3 In et al .......................................................................................................... 159

    8.3.4 Kadowaki et al ............................................................................................. 159

    8.3.5 OFX.............................................................................................................. 159

    8.3.6 ExoGlove...................................................................................................... 159

    8.3.7 Polygerinos et al........................................................................................... 160

    8.3.8 HX................................................................................................................ 160

    8.3.9 Secciani et al ................................................................................................ 160

    8.4 Rehabilitation Hand Exoskeletons ......................................................................... 160

    8.4.1 HWARD..................................................................................................... 161

    8.4.2 Gentle/G..................................................................................................... 161

    8.4.3 Wege et al .................................................................................................. 162

    8.4.4 Kawasaki et al ............................................................................................ 162

    8.4.5 HANDEXOS.............................................................................................. 162

    8.4.6 Tong et al ................................................................................................... 162

    8.4.7 HEXORR ................................................................................................... 163

    8.4.8 ATX............................................................................................................ 163

    8.4.9 iHandRehab................................................................................................ 163

    8.4.10 Rahman et al .............................................................................................. 163

    8.4.11 Arata et al................................................................................................... 163

    8.4.12 IOTA .......................................................................................................... 163

    8.4.13 HEXOSYS-I............................................................................................... 164

    8.4.14 Zhang et al ................................................................................................. 164

    8.4.15 BRAVO...................................................................................................... 164

    8.4.16 Sinfonia ...................................................................................................... 164

    8.4.17 Agarwal et al .............................................................................................. 164

    8.4.18 Abdallah et al ............................................................................................. 165

    8.4.19 Ferguson et al............................................................................................. 165

    8.4.20 DexoHand................................................................................................... 165

    8.5 Augmentation Hand Exoskeletons......................................................................... 165

    8.5.1 Shields et al .................................................................................................. 166

    8.5.2 Skil Mate ...................................................................................................... 166

    8.5.3 Hasegawa et al ............................................................................................. 166

    8.5.4 Tadano et al.................................................................................................. 167

    8.5.5 Matheson et al .............................................................................................. 167

    8.5.6 RoboGlove ................................................................................................... 167

    8.6 Others ..................................................................................................................... 167

    8.6.1 SKK Hand Master........................................................................................ 168

    8.6.2 Rutgers Master II-ND .................................................................................. 168

    8.6.3 Stergiopoulos et al ....................................................................................... 168

    8.6.4 Fontana et al................................................................................................. 168

    8.6.5 Jo et al .......................................................................................................... 168

    8.7 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 169

    References............................................................................................................... 170

    CHAPTER 9 A Portable Tailor-Made Exoskeleton for Hand Disabilities ............ 177

    Benedetto Allotta, Matteo Bianchi, Enrico Meli, Alessandro Ridolfi

    and Nicola Secciani

    9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 177

    9.2 Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis......................................................................... 177

    9.3 Kinematic Chain Assessment: First Device .......................................................... 179

    9.3.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 181

    9.3.2 Electronics and Control Architecture .......................................................... 182

    9.3.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 182

    9.4 Ergonomics Improvements: Second Device.......................................................... 183

    9.4.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 183

    9.4.2 Electronics and Control Architecture .......................................................... 184

    9.4.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 185

    9.5 User-Based Actuation Strategy: Final Device....................................................... 185

    9.5.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 186

    9.5.2 Electronic Components and Control Architecture ...................................... 186

    9.5.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 190

    9.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 190

    References............................................................................................................... 191

    Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 191

    CHAPTER 10 Optimal Kinematic Design of the Link Lengths

    of a Hand Exoskeleton...................................................................... 193

    Peter Walker Ferguson, Brando Dimapasoc and Jacob Rosen

    10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 193

    10.2 Method.................................................................................................................... 194

    10.2.1 Modeling the Human Digits ...................................................................... 194

    10.2.2 Exoskeleton Topology ............................................................................... 195

    10.2.3 Modeling the 3R Planar Mechanisms ....................................................... 197

    10.2.4 The Optimization Algorithm ..................................................................... 197

    10.3 Results .................................................................................................................... 200

    10.3.1 Simulation Results ..................................................................................... 200

    10.3.2 Physical Prototype Evaluation ................................................................... 201

    10.4 Discussion............................................................................................................... 201

    10.4.1 Link Length Evaluation ............................................................................. 201

    10.4.2 Prototype Workspace Evaluation .............................................................. 203

    10.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 204

    Acknowledgement .................................................................................................. 204

    References............................................................................................................... 204

    CHAPTER 11 Lower Limb Exoskeleton Systems—Overview ................................. 207

    Hao Lee, Peter Walker Ferguson and Jacob Rosen

    11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 207

    11.2 Assistive Exoskeletons ........................................................................................... 208

    11.3 Rehabilitation Exoskeletons................................................................................... 215

    11.3.1 Rehabilitation With Weight Support ......................................................... 215

    11.3.2 Rehabilitation Without Weight Support.................................................... 217

    11.4 Augmentation Exoskeletons................................................................................... 217

    11.4.1 Assistance Directly Applied to Tasks ....................................................... 218

    11.4.2 Assistance Applied on Users ..................................................................... 219

    11.5 Actuation of Lower Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 221

    11.6 Future for Lower Limb Exoskeletons.................................................................... 222

    References............................................................................................................... 223

    CHAPTER 12 WalkON Suit: A Medalist in the Powered Exoskeleton

    Race of Cybathlon 2016................................................................... 231

    Jungsu Choi and Kyoungchul Kong

    12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 231

    12.2 Design of WalkON Suit ......................................................................................... 232

    12.2.1 Overall Configuration ................................................................................ 232

    12.2.2 Actuation Systems...................................................................................... 232

    12.2.3 Robotic Legs .............................................................................................. 234

    12.2.4 Control Unit and Backpack ....................................................................... 235

    12.2.5 Crutches...................................................................................................... 235

    12.2.6 User Display............................................................................................... 235

    12.3 Sensor System ........................................................................................................ 235

    12.4 Human Factors ....................................................................................................... 236

    12.4.1 Pilot ............................................................................................................ 236

    12.4.2 Knee

    12.5 Control System....................................................................................................... 238

    12.5.1 Processes of Overall Control System ........................................................ 238

    12.5.2 Main Functions of the Control System ..................................................... 240

    12.6 Evaluation............................................................................................................... 244

    12.6.1 Training ...................................................................................................... 244

    12.6.2 Cybathlon 2016 .......................................................................................... 246

    12.6.3 Analysis of Cybathlon 2016 ...................................................................... 246

    12.7 After the Cybathlon................................................................................................ 247

    Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 248

    References............................................................................................................... 248

    CHAPTER 13 Design of Lower-Limb Exoskeletons and Emulator Systems........... 251

    Kirby Ann Witte and Steven H. Collins

    13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 251

    13.2 Exoskeleton Emulator Testbeds............................................................................. 251

    13.2.1 Emulator Pros and Cons ............................................................................ 252

    13.2.2 Off-Board Components—Power, Actuation, and Control Hardware ....... 254

    13.3 Untethered Systems................................................................................................ 254

    13.4 Mechanical Design of Onboard Components........................................................ 255

    13.4.1 Loading Analysis—Free Body Diagrams.................................................. 255

    13.4.2 Safety Stops and Physical Interfaces......................................................... 256

    13.4.3 Frame and Joint Design ............................................................................. 260

    13.4.4 Sensing ....................................................................................................... 264

    13.4.5 Series Elasticity for Improved Torque Tracking....................................... 266

    13.4.6 Materials and Manufacturing..................................................................... 267

    13.5 Control.................................................................................................................... 269

    13.5.1 Case Study—Control of Any CMU Emulator .......................................... 271

    13.6 Making Strides in the Future ................................................................................. 271

    References............................................................................................................... 272

    CHAPTER 14 Physical Assistant Robot Safety....................................................... 275

    Yoji Yamada and Yasuhiro Akiyama

    14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 275

    14.2 Contact Safety of the Physical Assistant Robot .................................................... 275

    14.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 275

    14.2.2 Verification and Validation Test Procedure.............................................. 276

    14.2.3 Verification Experiments for Obtaining an Inherently

    Safe Region Against Blister Generation ................................................... 276

    14.2.4 Validation Test Method for Wound Risk.................................................. 280

    14.2.5 Application of a Surrogate Skin for Safety Validation............................. 285

    14.2.6 Summary .................................................................................................... 286

    14.3 Fall Risk During Gait Using a Wearable Robot ................................................... 286

    14.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 286

    14.3.2 Mismatch Between the Motion of the Wearable Robot

    and the Wearer ........................................................................................... 288

    14.3.3 Contact With an Environmental Object .................................................... 292

    14.3.4 Curving Motion Under Limited Degree of Freedom................................ 295

    14.3.5 Summary .................................................................................................... 297

    14.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 297

    References............................................................................................................... 298

    CHAPTER 15 Current Evidence for Use of Robotic Exoskeletons in

    Rehabilitation .................................................................................... 301

    Arun Jayaraman, Borislav Marinov, Yashna Singh, Sheila Burt

    and William Zev Rymer

    15.1 Brief History of Exoskeletons................................................................................ 301

    15.1.1 Early Designs ............................................................................................. 301

    15.1.2 First Prototypes 1961<73.......................................................................... 301

    15.1.3 The Exoskeleton Awakening: 2001<08.................................................... 302

    15.1.4 The New Exoskeleton Renaissance: 2015<18 and Onwards................... 302

    15.1.5 Exoskeletons in Development ................................................................... 302

    15.1.6 Current Food and Drug Administration

    15.2 Overview of Clinical Evidence.............................................................................. 305

    15.2.1 Early-Stage Feasibility and Case Studies.................................................. 307

    15.2.2 Randomized Controlled Trials................................................................... 308

    15.3 A Look to the Future.............................................................................................. 309

    References............................................................................................................... 309

    CHAPTER 16 Structural Exoskeletons and Soft Fabric Exosuits

    for Assistive Walking........................................................................ 311

    Lawrence J. Jasinski

    16.1 Burden of Spinal Cord Injury ................................................................................ 312

    16.1.1 Demographics............................................................................................. 312

    16.1.2 Adverse Health Outcomes ......................................................................... 312

    16.2 Current Treatment Options .................................................................................... 314

    16.2.1 Wheelchairs................................................................................................ 314

    16.2.2 Leg Braces.................................................................................................. 315

    16.2.3 Functional Electric Stimulation ................................................................. 315

    16.2.4 Standing Frames and Standing Mobility Devices..................................... 316

    16.3 Rationale for Exoskeletons .................................................................................... 316

    16.4 ReWalk Product Summary..................................................................................... 317

    16.4.1 ReWalk Components and Specifications .................................................. 317

    16.4.2 Communicator............................................................................................ 317

    16.4.3 Exoskeleton ................................................................................................ 318

    16.4.4 Waist Pack.................................................................................................. 318

    16.4.5 System Configuration ................................................................................ 318

    16.4.6 Video Links................................................................................................ 318

    16.4.7 Levels of Patient Training ......................................................................... 320

    16.5 Safety and Efficacy Profile .................................................................................... 320

    16.5.1 Patient Selection......................................................................................... 320

    16.5.2 Safe Ambulatory Function and Patient Tolerance .................................... 321

    16.5.3 Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Simulates Normal

    Physiological Effects ................................................................................. 322

    16.5.4 Impact on Quality of Life.......................................................................... 325

    16.6 Economic Impact.................................................................................................... 328

    16.6.1 Challenges of Exoskeletons ....................................................................... 329

    16.6.2 Exosuits ...................................................................................................... 329

    16.6.3 Design of the ReStore Exosuit .................................................................. 330

    16.7 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 331

    References............................................................................................................... 331

    CHAPTER 17 Hybrid Exoskeletons to Restore Gait in Individuals

    With Paralysis From Spinal Cord Injury........................................... 335

    Sarah R. Chang, Rudi Kobetic and Ronald J. Triolo

    17.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 335

    17.2 Technologies to Restore Walking.......................................................................... 335

    17.2.1 Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Systems ...................................... 335

    17.2.2 Lower Limb Orthoses ................................................................................ 336

    17.2.3 Powered Exoskeletons ............................................................................... 336

    17.3 Current State-of-the-Art Systems for Restoration of Walking ............................. 337

    17.3.1 Hybrid Neuroprosthesis ............................................................................. 337

    17.3.2 Powered Exoskeletons and Functional Neuromuscular

    Stimulation ................................................................................................. 339

    17.3.3 Powered Exoskeletons and Implanted Functional Neuromuscular

    Stimulation ................................................................................................. 340

    17.3.4 The Need for Speed ................................................................................... 340

    17.3.5 Ease of Use and Cosmesis ......................................................................... 341

    17.3.6 Other Applications of Hybrid Systems ..................................................... 342

    17.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 342

    References............................................................................................................... 343

    CHAPTER 18 Hybrid Wearable Robotic Exoskeletons

    for Human Walking ........................................................................... 347

    Juan C. Moreno, Samer Mohammed, Nitin Sharma

    and Antonio J. del-Ama

    18.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 347

    18.2 Advances in Hybrid Wearable Technologies ........................................................ 348

    18.2.1 Modeling Approaches for Control............................................................. 349

    18.3 Potential Future Technologies ............................................................................... 350

    18.4 Clinical and Usability Factors................................................................................ 351

    18.5 Case Study.............................................................................................................. 352

    18.5.1 Results ........................................................................................................ 356

    18.5.2 Discussion .................................................................................................. 358

    18.5.3 Case Study Conclusion .............................................................................. 360

    18.6 Challenges and Future Directions.......................................................................... 360

    18.7 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 361

    References............................................................................................................... 361

    Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 364

    CHAPTER 19 Upper Limb Active Prosthetic Systems—Overview......................... 365

    Claudio Castellini

    19.1 Introduction/Motivation ......................................................................................... 365

    19.2 The Past .................................................................................................................. 367

    19.3 The Present ............................................................................................................. 368

    19.3.1 Design of Prosthetic Devices..................................................................... 368

    19.3.2 Control........................................................................................................ 370

    19.3.3 Amputations and Patients .......................................................................... 372

    19.4 The Future: A Short Note ...................................................................................... 373

    References............................................................................................................... 374

    CHAPTER 20 Design Principles of a Light, Wearable Upper Limb Interface

    for Prosthetics and Teleoperation.................................................... 377

    Claudio Castellini

    20.1 Wearable Interfaces for Wearable Robots............................................................. 377

    20.2 Current Problems.................................................................................................... 378

    20.2.1 Sensors and Bodily Signals ....................................................................... 379

    20.2.2 The Physical Interface: Properly Housing the Sensors............................. 381

    20.2.3 Signal Processing, Machine Learning, Adaptation ................................... 382

    20.3 Design Guidelines for a Wearable Upper Limb Interface .................................... 383

    20.3.1 Current Pitfalls ........................................................................................... 383

    20.3.2 Implementation and Testing ...................................................................... 384

    20.3.3 Final Remark: Not Just Prosthetics ........................................................... 385

    Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 387

    References............................................................................................................... 387

    CHAPTER 21 The Modular Prosthetic Limb ........................................................... 393

    Matthew S. Johannes, Eric L. Faulring, Kapil D. Katyal,

    Matthew P. Para, John B. Helder, Alexander Makhlin, Tom Moyer,

    Daniel Wahl, James Solberg, Steve Clark, Robert S. Armiger,

    Travis Lontz, Kathryn Geberth, Courtney W. Moran, Brock A. Wester,

    Thomas Van Doren and Julio J. Santos-Munne

    21.1 Introduction and Overview .................................................................................... 393

    21.1.1 Background ................................................................................................ 393

    21.1.2 Early Development: Prototypes and Phases.............................................. 394

    21.1.3 MPL Architecture Overview, Capabilities, and Features ......................... 399

    21.2 MPL Detailed Description ..................................................................................... 400

    21.2.1 Upper Arm and Wrist Design.................................................................... 401

    21.2.2 Hand Design............................................................................................... 413

    21.2.3 Fingers ........................................................................................................ 413

    21.2.4 Auxiliary Subsystems ................................................................................ 430

    21.3 High-Level Controls and System Interfacing........................................................ 433

    21.3.1 High-Level Controls .................................................................................. 433

    21.3.2 VulcanX and the OCU............................................................................... 434

    21.3.3 The VIE and the vMPL ............................................................................. 435

    21.3.4 Web Interface............................................................................................. 435

    21.4 Select MPL Applications and Uses ....................................................................... 438

    21.4.1 Cortical Control and Feedback.................................................................. 438

    21.4.2 Amputees.................................................................................................... 439

    21.4.3 Robo Sally.................................................................................................. 440

    21.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 441

    Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 441

    References............................................................................................................... 441

    CHAPTER 22 Sensing and Control for Prosthetic Hands in Clinical

    and Research Applications............................................................... 445

    Luke E. Osborn, Mark M. Iskarous and Nitish V. Thakor

    22.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 445

    22.2 Prosthesis Control................................................................................................... 446

    22.2.1 Movement Signals...................................................................................... 447

    22.2.2 Movement Decoding.................................................................................. 448

    22.2.3 Targeted Muscle Reinnervation and Osseointegration ............................. 449

    22.2.4 State of the Art........................................................................................... 450

    22.3 Sensors for Prosthetic Hands ................................................................................. 450

    22.3.1 Sensing in Biology..................................................................................... 450

    22.3.2 Sensing Devices ......................................................................................... 451

    22.3.3 State of the Art........................................................................................... 453

    22.4 Sensory Feedback................................................................................................... 454

    22.4.1 Tactile......................................................................................................... 454

    22.4.2 Pain............................................................................................................. 457

    22.4.3 Proprioception ............................................................................................ 457

    22.4.4 State of the Art........................................................................................... 458

    22.5 Future Directions.................................................................................................... 459

    22.5.1 Prosthetic Sockets ...................................................................................... 460

    22.5.2 Prosthesis Control ...................................................................................... 460

    22.5.3 Augmented Reality Training ..................................................................... 460

    22.5.4 Sensors and e-Skins ................................................................................... 460

    22.5.5 Sensory Feedback ...................................................................................... 461

    22.6 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 461

    Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 461

    Abbreviations.......................................................................................................... 461

    References............................................................................................................... 462

    CHAPTER 23 Lower Limb Active Prosthetic Systems—Overview......................... 469

    Alexandra S. Voloshina and Steven H. Collins

    23.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 469

    23.2 Background............................................................................................................. 470

    23.3 Systems................................................................................................................... 472

    23.3.1 Mechanical Configuration and Actuation Approaches ............................. 472

    23.3.2 Control Approaches ................................................................................... 476

    23.4 Conclusions and Future Directions........................................................................ 479

    References............................................................................................................... 480

    CHAPTER 24 Controlling a Powered Transfemoral Prosthetic Leg

    Using a Unified Phase Variable ....................................................... 487

    Dario J. Villarreal and Robert D. Gregg

    24.1 Background............................................................................................................. 488

    24.2 Phase Variable Algorithm...................................................................................... 490

    24.2.1 Real-Time Phase Variable Algorithm for Control Applications .............. 490

    24.3 Controlling a Transfemoral Powered Prosthetic Leg Using a Phase Variable..... 493

    24.3.1 Control Law ............................................................................................... 493

    24.3.2 Hardware Setup.......................................................................................... 494

    24.3.3 Experimental Protocol ............................................................................... 495

    24.3.4 Results From Amputee Experiments......................................................... 496

    24.3.5 Discussion of Amputee Experiments ........................................................ 500

    References............................................................................................................... 505

    Index .................................................................................................................................................. 507

Product details

  • No. of pages: 550
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2019
  • Published: November 16, 2019
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128146590
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128146606

About the Editor

Jacob Rosen

Jacob Rosen is a professor of medical robotics at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering with joint appointments with the Department Surgery and the Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His research interests focus on medical robotics, biorobotics, human centered robotics, surgical robotics, wearable robotics, rehabilitation robotics, neural control, and human-machine interface. Dr. Rosen developed several key systems in the field of medical robotics such as the Blue and the Red Dragon for minimally invasive surgical skill evaluation that is commercialized by Simulab as the “Edge”, Raven – a surgical robotic system for telesurgery that is commercialized by Applied Dexterity as an open source research platform, several generations of upper and lower limb exoskeletons and most recently the Exo-UL7 – a dual arm wearable robotic system. He is a co-author of more than 100 manuscripts in the field of medical robotics and a co-author and co-editor of two books entitled “Surgical Robotics – Systems, Applications, and Visions” and "Redundancy in Robot Manipulators and Multi-robot systems".

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA