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Wearable Robotics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128146590, 9780128146606

Wearable Robotics

1st Edition

Systems and Applications

Editor: Jacob Rosen
Paperback ISBN: 9780128146590
eBook ISBN: 9780128146606
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th November 2019
Page Count: 550
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Description

Wearable Robotics: Systems and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field of wearable robotics, including active orthotics (exoskeleton) and active prosthetics for the upper and lower limb and full body. In its two major sections, wearable robotics systems are described from both engineering perspectives and their application in medicine and industry. Systems and applications at various levels of the development cycle are presented, including those that are still under active research and development, systems that are under preliminary or full clinical trials, and those in commercialized products.

This book is a great resource for anyone working in this field, including researchers, industry professionals and those who want to use it as a teaching mechanism.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the entire field, with both engineering and medical perspectives
  • Helps readers quickly and efficiently design and develop wearable robotics for healthcare applications

Readership

Biomedical Engineers, Rehabilitation Engineers, Robotics Engineers, Physiotherapists, Neurosurgeons, Orthopaedic Surgeons

Table of Contents

List of Contributors ............................................................................................................................ xix

CHAPTER 1 Upper Limb Exoskeleton Systems—Overview .....................................1

Yang Shen, Peter Walker Ferguson and Jacob Rosen

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 1

1.2 Overview of Upper Limb Exoskeleton Systems ....................................................... 2

1.2.1 Mechanism ....................................................................................................... 3

1.2.2 Actuation .......................................................................................................... 4

1.3 Assistive Upper Limb Exoskeletons.......................................................................... 8

1.3.1 AIST................................................................................................................. 9

1.3.2 SUEFUL-7 ....................................................................................................... 9

1.3.3 MULOS............................................................................................................ 9

1.3.4 HAL.................................................................................................................. 9

1.3.5 ABLE ............................................................................................................... 9

1.3.6 MyoPro............................................................................................................. 9

1.4 Rehabilitation Upper Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 10

1.4.1 MIT-MANUS............................................................................................... 10

1.4.2 NeReBot ....................................................................................................... 10

1.4.3 ARM Guide.................................................................................................. 10

1.4.4 ReoGo........................................................................................................... 11

1.4.5 GENTLE/s.................................................................................................... 11

1.4.6 ACT3D .......................................................................................................... 11

1.4.7 iPAM............................................................................................................ 11

1.4.8 Bi-Manu-Track............................................................................................. 11

1.4.9 MIME........................................................................................................... 11

1.4.10 KINARM...................................................................................................... 11

1.4.11 L-Exos .......................................................................................................... 12

1.4.12 BONES......................................................................................................... 12

1.4.13 ARMin III .................................................................................................... 12

1.4.14 MGA............................................................................................................. 12

1.4.15 IntelliArm ..................................................................................................... 12

1.4.16 MEDARM.................................................................................................... 13

1.4.17 Exorn ............................................................................................................ 13

1.4.18 SRE............................................................................................................... 13

1.4.19 RUPERT IV ................................................................................................. 13

1.4.20 RehaBot........................................................................................................ 13

1.4.21 ETS-MARSE................................................................................................ 13

1.4.22 Recupera-Reha ............................................................................................. 13

1.4.23 EXO-UL Series ............................................................................................ 14

1.5 Augmentation Upper Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 14

1.5.1 SARCOS Guardian XO ................................................................................. 15

1.5.2 SARCOS Guardian GT.................................................................................. 15

1.5.3 ShoulderX from SuitX ................................................................................... 15

1.5.4 EksoVest from Ekso Bionics ......................................................................... 15

1.6 Others ....................................................................................................................... 15

1.6.1 EXARM ......................................................................................................... 15

1.6.2 X-Arm-2 ......................................................................................................... 16

1.6.3 SARCOS Master Arm.................................................................................... 16

1.6.4 SAM ............................................................................................................... 16

1.6.5 CAPIO............................................................................................................ 16

1.6.6 SARCOS Dextrous Arm................................................................................ 16

1.6.7 EMY............................................................................................................... 16

1.7 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 16

References................................................................................................................. 17

CHAPTER 2 Development and Control of an Upper Extremity Exoskeleton

Robot for Rehabilitation...................................................................... 23

Brahim Brahmi, Maarouf Saad, M.H. Rahman, Cristobal Ochoa-Luna

and Islam Rasedul

2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 23

2.2 Characterization of System Rehabilitation .............................................................. 25

2.2.1 Exoskeleton Robot Development .................................................................. 25

2.2.2 Dynamics of Ecole de Technologie Suprieure

Robotic-exoskeleton for Superior Extremity Robot...................................... 25

2.2.3 Problem Statement ......................................................................................... 27

2.3 Control Design ......................................................................................................... 28

2.3.1 Uncertain Estimation ..................................................................................... 28

2.3.2 Estimation of the State of the System ........................................................... 28

2.3.3 Design of Integral Second-Order Terminal Sliding Mode Controller.......... 30

2.3.4 Active Assistive Motion ................................................................................ 34

2.4 Experiment and Comparative Study........................................................................ 35

2.4.1 Experiment Setup........................................................................................... 35

2.4.2 Results of Passive Assistive Motion.............................................................. 37

2.4.3 Comparative Study......................................................................................... 37

2.4.4 Results of Active Assistive Motion............................................................... 39

2.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 42

2.6 Ethics Statement....................................................................................................... 42

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 42

References................................................................................................................. 42

CHAPTER 3 Design of the Arm Exoskeleton ABLE Achieving Torque

Control Using Ball Screw and Cable Mechanism.............................. 45

Philippe Garrec

3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 45

3.2 The SCS Mechanism: A New Answer to the Challenge of Linear Torque

Amplification............................................................................................................ 45

3.2.1 Mechanical Reversibility/Irreversibility—Backdrivability—Torque

Transfer Linearity .......................................................................................... 46

3.2.2 Mechanical Torque Amplification on Servomanipulators ............................ 48

3.3 The First ABLE 4D.................................................................................................. 52

3.4 The Completion of ABLE 7D ................................................................................. 54

3.4.1 Forearm

3.4.2 A New Shoulder With Nonorthogonal Joints and Simple Bearing .............. 60

3.5 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 62

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................... 64

References................................................................................................................. 65

CHAPTER 4 Rigid Versus Soft Exoskeletons: Interaction Strategies

for Upper Limb Assistive Technology ................................................ 67

Domenico Chiaradia, Michele Xiloyannis, Massimiliano Solazzi,

Lorenzo Masia and Antonio Frisoli

4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 67

4.2 Exoskeletons Descriptions ....................................................................................... 69

4.2.1 A Rigid Exoskeleton: The Rehab-Exos......................................................... 70

4.2.2 Elbow Exosuit (Soft Exosuit) ........................................................................ 71

4.3 Exoskeleton Models ................................................................................................. 73

4.3.1 Rehab-Exos (Rigid Exoskeleton)................................................................... 73

4.3.2 Exosuit (Soft Exosuit).................................................................................... 75

4.4 Controls Design........................................................................................................ 76

4.4.1 Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton).................................................. 76

4.4.2 Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit)................................................................ 77

4.5 Experimental Setup .................................................................................................. 79

4.5.1 Evaluation of the Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton)..................... 79

4.5.2 Evaluation of the Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit) .................................. 80

4.6 Results ...................................................................................................................... 81

4.6.1 Evaluation of the Direct Torque Control (Rigid Exoskeleton)..................... 81

4.6.2 Evaluation of the Admittance Control (Soft Exosuit) .................................. 83

4.6.3 Assistive Performance: Rehab-Exos Versus Exosuit.................................... 84

4.7 Discussion................................................................................................................. 86

4.8 Conclusion................................................................................................................ 88

References................................................................................................................. 88

CHAPTER 5 EXO-UL Upper Limb Robotic Exoskeleton System Series:

From 1 DOF Single-Arm to (711) DOFs Dual-Arm............................ 91

Yang Shen and Jacob Rosen

5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 91

5.2 Exoskeleton Systems................................................................................................ 92

5.2.1 Prototype 1 (EXO-UL1) ................................................................................ 92

5.2.2 Prototype 2 (EXO-UL3) ................................................................................ 94

5.2.3 Prototype 3 (EXO-UL7) ................................................................................ 95

5.2.4 Prototype 4 (EXO-UL8) ................................................................................ 96

5.3 Related Research ...................................................................................................... 99

5.3.1 Control Algorithms ........................................................................................ 99

5.3.2 Redundancy Resolution ................................................................................. 99

5.3.3 Synergy Analysis ........................................................................................... 99

5.3.4 Dual-Arm Training ...................................................................................... 100

5.3.5 Virtual Reality.............................................................................................. 100

5.4 Summary................................................................................................................. 100

References............................................................................................................... 100

CHAPTER 6 PRISM: Development of a 2-DOF Dual-Four-Bar Exoskeleton

Shoulder Mechanism to Support Elevation, Depression,

Protraction, and Retraction .............................................................. 105

Joel C. Perry, Chris K. Bitikofer, Parker W. Hill, Shawn T. Trimble

and Eric T. Wolbrecht

6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 105

6.1.1 Rehabilitation Robotics: Exoskeleton Versus End-Effector ....................... 106

6.1.2 Exoskeleton Shoulder Background.............................................................. 106

6.1.3 Overview ...................................................................................................... 111

6.2 Methods: PRISM Development ............................................................................. 111

6.2.1 BLUE SABINO Concept............................................................................. 112

6.2.2 EXO-UL8 Design Approach........................................................................ 113

6.2.3 Shoulder Range of Motion Requirements Estimation ................................ 114

6.2.4 Conceptual Design of a Remote Biomimetic Shoulder Module ................ 116

6.2.5 Gravity Compensation Methods .................................................................. 120

6.3 Results .................................................................................................................... 120

6.3.1 Shoulder Range of Motion Requirements Estimation ................................ 122

6.3.2 Dual Four-Bar Mechanism Proof-of-Concept Mockup .............................. 122

6.3.3 Exoskeleton Clavicle Design and Assembly............................................... 124

6.3.4 Spring-Based Gravity Compensation .......................................................... 124

6.3.5 PRISM Final Design .................................................................................... 126

6.4 Conclusion and Discussion .................................................................................... 128

Acknowledgments .................................................................................................. 129

References............................................................................................................... 129

CHAPTER 7 Design and Modeling of Shoulder Exoskeleton Using Two

Revolute Joints .................................................................................. 133

Carlos Parga and Wen Yu

7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 133

7.2 Shoulder Exoskeleton With 2 Degrees of Freedom.............................................. 133

7.3 Shoulder Exoskeleton Design ................................................................................ 135

7.4 Modeling the Shoulder Exoskeleton...................................................................... 139

7.5 Control for the Exoskeleton................................................................................... 141

7.5.1 Lyapunov Stability....................................................................................... 141

7.5.2 Linear Control .............................................................................................. 142

7.5.3 Sliding Mode Controller .............................................................................. 142

7.5.4 Neural Control.............................................................................................. 143

7.6 Electronic and Control System.............................................................................. 143

7.7 Experimental Results.............................................................................................. 145

7.8 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 148

References............................................................................................................... 148

CHAPTER 8 Hand Exoskeleton Systems—Overview............................................ 149

Peter Walker Ferguson, Yang Shen and Jacob Rosen

8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 149

8.2 Overview of Hand Exoskeleton Systems .............................................................. 150

8.2.1 Mechanism ................................................................................................... 150

8.2.2 Actuation ...................................................................................................... 154

8.2.3 Transmission ................................................................................................ 155

8.2.4 Sensing Method............................................................................................ 156

8.2.5 Control.......................................................................................................... 157

8.3 Assistive Hand Exoskeletons ................................................................................. 158

8.3.1 Brown et al................................................................................................... 158

8.3.2 Lucas et al .................................................................................................... 159

8.3.3 In et al .......................................................................................................... 159

8.3.4 Kadowaki et al ............................................................................................. 159

8.3.5 OFX.............................................................................................................. 159

8.3.6 ExoGlove...................................................................................................... 159

8.3.7 Polygerinos et al........................................................................................... 160

8.3.8 HX................................................................................................................ 160

8.3.9 Secciani et al ................................................................................................ 160

8.4 Rehabilitation Hand Exoskeletons ......................................................................... 160

8.4.1 HWARD..................................................................................................... 161

8.4.2 Gentle/G..................................................................................................... 161

8.4.3 Wege et al .................................................................................................. 162

8.4.4 Kawasaki et al ............................................................................................ 162

8.4.5 HANDEXOS.............................................................................................. 162

8.4.6 Tong et al ................................................................................................... 162

8.4.7 HEXORR ................................................................................................... 163

8.4.8 ATX............................................................................................................ 163

8.4.9 iHandRehab................................................................................................ 163

8.4.10 Rahman et al .............................................................................................. 163

8.4.11 Arata et al................................................................................................... 163

8.4.12 IOTA .......................................................................................................... 163

8.4.13 HEXOSYS-I............................................................................................... 164

8.4.14 Zhang et al ................................................................................................. 164

8.4.15 BRAVO...................................................................................................... 164

8.4.16 Sinfonia ...................................................................................................... 164

8.4.17 Agarwal et al .............................................................................................. 164

8.4.18 Abdallah et al ............................................................................................. 165

8.4.19 Ferguson et al............................................................................................. 165

8.4.20 DexoHand................................................................................................... 165

8.5 Augmentation Hand Exoskeletons......................................................................... 165

8.5.1 Shields et al .................................................................................................. 166

8.5.2 Skil Mate ...................................................................................................... 166

8.5.3 Hasegawa et al ............................................................................................. 166

8.5.4 Tadano et al.................................................................................................. 167

8.5.5 Matheson et al .............................................................................................. 167

8.5.6 RoboGlove ................................................................................................... 167

8.6 Others ..................................................................................................................... 167

8.6.1 SKK Hand Master........................................................................................ 168

8.6.2 Rutgers Master II-ND .................................................................................. 168

8.6.3 Stergiopoulos et al ....................................................................................... 168

8.6.4 Fontana et al................................................................................................. 168

8.6.5 Jo et al .......................................................................................................... 168

8.7 Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 169

References............................................................................................................... 170

CHAPTER 9 A Portable Tailor-Made Exoskeleton for Hand Disabilities ............ 177

Benedetto Allotta, Matteo Bianchi, Enrico Meli, Alessandro Ridolfi

and Nicola Secciani

9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 177

9.2 Kinematic Analysis and Synthesis......................................................................... 177

9.3 Kinematic Chain Assessment: First Device .......................................................... 179

9.3.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 181

9.3.2 Electronics and Control Architecture .......................................................... 182

9.3.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 182

9.4 Ergonomics Improvements: Second Device.......................................................... 183

9.4.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 183

9.4.2 Electronics and Control Architecture .......................................................... 184

9.4.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 185

9.5 User-Based Actuation Strategy: Final Device....................................................... 185

9.5.1 Mechanical Design....................................................................................... 186

9.5.2 Electronic Components and Control Architecture ...................................... 186

9.5.3 Testing and Discussion ................................................................................ 190

9.6 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 190

References............................................................................................................... 191

Further Reading ...................................................................................................... 191

CHAPTER 10 Optimal Kinematic Design of the Link Lengths

of a Hand Exoskeleton...................................................................... 193

Peter Walker Ferguson, Brando Dimapasoc and Jacob Rosen

10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 193

10.2 Method.................................................................................................................... 194

10.2.1 Modeling the Human Digits ...................................................................... 194

10.2.2 Exoskeleton Topology ............................................................................... 195

10.2.3 Modeling the 3R Planar Mechanisms ....................................................... 197

10.2.4 The Optimization Algorithm ..................................................................... 197

10.3 Results .................................................................................................................... 200

10.3.1 Simulation Results ..................................................................................... 200

10.3.2 Physical Prototype Evaluation ................................................................... 201

10.4 Discussion............................................................................................................... 201

10.4.1 Link Length Evaluation ............................................................................. 201

10.4.2 Prototype Workspace Evaluation .............................................................. 203

10.5 Conclusion.............................................................................................................. 204

Acknowledgement .................................................................................................. 204

References............................................................................................................... 204

CHAPTER 11 Lower Limb Exoskeleton Systems—Overview ................................. 207

Hao Lee, Peter Walker Ferguson and Jacob Rosen

11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 207

11.2 Assistive Exoskeletons ........................................................................................... 208

11.3 Rehabilitation Exoskeletons................................................................................... 215

11.3.1 Rehabilitation With Weight Support ......................................................... 215

11.3.2 Rehabilitation Without Weight Support.................................................... 217

11.4 Augmentation Exoskeletons................................................................................... 217

11.4.1 Assistance Directly Applied to Tasks ....................................................... 218

11.4.2 Assistance Applied on Users ..................................................................... 219

11.5 Actuation of Lower Limb Exoskeletons................................................................ 221

11.6 Future for Lower Limb Exoskeletons.................................................................... 222

References............................................................................................................... 223

CHAPTER 12 WalkON Suit: A Medalist in the Powered Exoskeleton

Race of Cybathlon 2016................................................................... 231

Jungsu Choi and Kyoungchul Kong

12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 231

12.2 Design of WalkON Suit ......................................................................................... 232

12.2.1 Overall Configuration ................................................................................ 232

12.2.2 Actuation Systems...................................................................................... 232

12.2.3 Robotic Legs .............................................................................................. 234

12.2.4 Control Unit and Backpack ....................................................................... 235

12.2.5 Crutches...................................................................................................... 235

12.2.6 User Display............................................................................................... 235

12.3 Sensor System ........................................................................................................ 235

12.4 Human Factors ....................................................................................................... 236

12.4.1 Pilot ............................................................................................................ 236

12.4.2 Knee

12.5 Control System....................................................................................................... 238

12.5.1 Processes of Overall Control System ........................................................ 238

12.5.2 Main Functions of the Control System ..................................................... 240

12.6 Evaluation............................................................................................................... 244

12.6.1 Training ...................................................................................................... 244

12.6.2 Cybathlon 2016 .......................................................................................... 246

12.6.3 Analysis of Cybathlon 2016 ...................................................................... 246

12.7 After the Cybathlon................................................................................................ 247

Acknowledgment .................................................................................................... 248

References............................................................................................................... 248

CHAPTER 13 Design of Lower-Limb Exoskeletons and Emulator Systems........... 251

Kirby Ann Witte and Steven H. Collins

13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 251

13.2 Exoskeleton Emulator Testbeds............................................................................. 251

13.2.1 Emulator Pros and Cons ............................................................................ 252

13.2.2 Off-Board Components—Power, Actuation, and Control Hardware ....... 254

13.3 Untethered Systems................................................................................................ 254

13.4 Mechanical Design of Onboard Components........................................................ 255

13.4.1 Loading Analysis—Free Body Diagrams.................................................. 255

13.4.2 Safety Stops and Physical Interfaces......................................................... 256

13.4.3 Frame and Joint Design ............................................................................. 260

13.4.4 Sensing ....................................................................................................... 264

13.4.5 Series Elasticity for Improved Torque Tracking....................................... 266

13.4.6 Materials and Manufacturing..................................................................... 267

13.5 Control.................................................................................................................... 269

13.5.1 Case Study—Control of Any CMU Emulator .......................................... 271

13.6 Making Strides in the Future ................................................................................. 271

References............................................................................................................... 272

CHAPTER 14 Physical Assistant Robot Safety....................................................... 275

Yoji Yamada and Yasuhiro Akiyama

14.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 275

14.2 Contact Safety of the Physical Assistant Robot .................................................... 275

14.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 275

14.2.2 Verification and Validation Test Procedure.............................................. 276

14.2.3 Verification Experiments for Obtaining an Inherently

Safe Region Against Blister Generation ................................................... 276

14.2.4 Validation Test Method for Wound Risk.................................................. 280

14.2.5 Application of a Surrogate Skin for Safety Validation............................. 285

14.2.6 Summary .................................................................................................... 286

14.3 Fall Risk During Gait Using a Wearable Robot ................................................... 286

14.3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 286

14.3.2 Mismatch Between the Motion of the Wearable Robot

and the Wearer ........................................................................................... 288

14.3.3 Contact With an Environmental Object .................................................... 292

14.3.4 Curving Motion Under Limited Degree of Freedom................................ 295

14.3.5 Summary .................................................................................................... 297

14.4 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 297

References............................................................................................................... 298

CHAPTER 15 Current Evidence for Use of Robotic Exoskeletons in

Rehabilitation .................................................................................... 301

Arun Jayaraman, Borislav Marinov, Yashna Singh, Sheila Burt

and William Zev Rymer

15.1 Brief History of Exoskeletons................................................................................ 301

15.1.1 Early Designs ............................................................................................. 301

15.1.2 First Prototypes 1961

Details

No. of pages:
550
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2019
Published:
16th November 2019
Imprint:
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
9780128146590
eBook ISBN:
9780128146606

About the Editor

Jacob Rosen

Jacob Rosen is a professor of medical robotics at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering with joint appointments with the Department Surgery and the Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His research interests focus on medical robotics, biorobotics, human centered robotics, surgical robotics, wearable robotics, rehabilitation robotics, neural control, and human-machine interface. Dr. Rosen developed several key systems in the field of medical robotics such as the Blue and the Red Dragon for minimally invasive surgical skill evaluation that is commercialized by Simulab as the “Edge”, Raven – a surgical robotic system for telesurgery that is commercialized by Applied Dexterity as an open source research platform, several generations of upper and lower limb exoskeletons and most recently the Exo-UL7 – a dual arm wearable robotic system. He is a co-author of more than 100 manuscripts in the field of medical robotics and a co-author and co-editor of two books entitled “Surgical Robotics – Systems, Applications, and Visions” and "Redundancy in Robot Manipulators and Multi-robot systems".

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, USA

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