Wear of Metals

Wear of Metals

International Series in Materials Science and Technology

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: A. D. Sarkar
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140100

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Description

Wear of Metals deals with the mechanisms underlying the wear of metals such as brass, cast iron, and aluminum-silicon alloys. Topics covered include surface topography, contact of solids, and friction, along with the effect of sliding and rolling resistance. Fretting, wear under rolling contact, and the friction and wear of polymers are also discussed. Comprised of 27 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of adhesion, types of wear, and friction and wear experiments. The following chapters explore surface topography and the contact (single and multiple) of solids; molecular theory of friction and wear; running-in wear and abrasive wear; and surface contaminants. An oxidational hypothesis of wear is then presented, and the phenomenology of metal transfer involving steel on brass and steel on steel is described. The remaining chapters consider sliding in surfaces and subsurfaces; the effect of temperature and speed on friction and wear; the role of solubility and crystal structure in friction and wear; and wear of brass. The two principal effects associated with rolling, namely, the slip or creep and energy loss, are also examined. Examples of tribological components are given. This book should be of value to undergraduates and research workers in the fields of metallurgy and engineering.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    1.1. Adhesion

    1.1.1. Contact Resistance

    1.2. Contaminants

    1.3. Types of Wear

    1.3.1. Adhesive Wear

    1.3.2. Abrasive Wear

    1.3.3. Other Forms of Wear

    1.4. Friction and Wear Experiments

    1.5. Metallurgical Examination

    1.6. Application of Wear Results

    2. Surface Topography

    2.1. Asperities

    2.2. Measurement of Waviness

    2.3. Asperity Angle

    2.4. Measure of Roughness

    2.5. Fullness or Emptiness

    2.6. Abbot's Bearing Curve

    3. Contact of Solids

    3.1. Single Contact

    3.1.1. General Case

    3.2. Multiple Contact

    3.3. An Idealized Rough Surface

    3.4. A Realistic Rough Surface

    3.4.1. Exponential Distribution

    3.5. Plastic Contact

    3.6. Effect of Work Hardening

    4. Friction

    4.1. Area of Contact

    4.2. Adhesion of Junctions

    4.3. Mechanism of Friction

    4.4. Amontons' Laws

    5. Effect of Sliding

    5.1. Junction Growth

    5.1.1. Equation for Junction Growth

    5.2. Work of Adhesion

    5.3. Kinetic Friction

    5.4. Stick-Slip

    5.5. Thermal Effect

    5.6. Oxide Film

    5.7. Sliding Between Brittle Surfaces

    5.8. Effect of Contaminants on Friction

    6. Molecular Theory of Friction and Wear

    6.1. Dry Friction

    6.2. Wear

    7. Running-In Wear

    7.1. Wear Curve

    7.2. Mechanism

    7.3. Law of Running-In Wear

    8. Adhesive Wear

    8.1. Rate of Wear

    8.2. Junction Interaction

    8.3. Law of Adhesive Wear

    8.4. Asperity Angle

    8.4.1. Hemispherical Asperity

    8.5. Fatigue Mechanism

    8.5.1. Contact of Sliding Surfaces

    8.5.2. The Wear Law

    9. Oxidational Hypothesis of Wear

    9.1. Oxidational Hypothesis

    9.1.1. The β Term

    9.2. Comment on Equation 9.7

    10. Surface Contaminants

    10.1. Fractional Film Defect

    10.1.1. The Term α

    10.1.2. Modified Wear Equation

    10.2. Heat of Adsorption Theory

    10.2.1. Friction

    10.2.2. Wear

    10.3. Importance of E

    10.4. A Simplified Law

    10.4.1. Example

    11. Abrasive Wear

    11.1. Abrasive Wear Coefficient

    11.2. Abrasive Wear Resistance

    11.3. Abrasives at the Interface

    11.4. Stored Energy

    12. Wear Debris

    12.1. Energy Consideration

    12.2. Debris Size

    12.3. Effect of Load

    13. Metal Transfer

    13.1. Steel on Brass

    13.2. Steel on Steel

    13.3. Amount of Transfer

    14. Surface and Subsurface

    14.1. Surface Layers and Sublayers

    14.2. Friction

    14.3. Surface Fatigue

    14.4. Plasticity Index

    15. Temperature and Speed

    15.1. Temperature

    15.2. Speed

    16. Solubility

    16.1. Solubility

    16.1.1. Score Resistance

    16.1.2. Work in Vacuum

    16.1.3. Cutting the Sliding Surface

    17. Crystal Structure

    17.1. Adhesion Coefficient

    17.2. Experiment with Cobalt

    17.2.1. Effect of Temperature

    17.3. Rare Earth Materials

    17.4. Change of Texture

    18. Rolling Resistance

    18.1. Principles of Rolling Motion

    18.2. Slip

    18.2.1. Reynolds' Slip

    18.2.2. Heathcote Slip

    18.3. Rolling in the Plastic Range

    18.3.1. Track Width

    18.3.2. Rolling Friction

    18.3.3. Equilibrium State

    18.4. Rolling in the Elastic State

    18.4.1. Hysteresis

    18.5. Shake-Down-Limit

    18.5.1. Forward Strain

    19. Wear Under Rolling Contact

    19.1. Slip Area

    19.2. Wear

    19.3. A Law of Rolling Wear

    20. Polymers

    20.1. Friction and Wear

    20.2. A General Law of Friction

    20.3. Rubber

    21. Fretting

    21.1. Four Stages of Fretting

    21.1.1. Worm Tracks

    21.2. Measurement of Pit Depth

    21.3. Load and Temperature

    21.4. Humidity

    22. Examples of Tribological Components

    22.1. Gears

    22.1.1. Sliding Velocity

    22.1.2. Rolling Velocity

    22.1.3. Friction and Wear

    22.1.4. Pitting

    22.2. Bearings

    22.2.1. Plain Bearings

    22.2.2. Rolling Bearings

    22.3. Piston Rings

    22.4. Wear Under Impact Condition

    23. Wear of Brass

    23.1. Weight Loss with Sliding Distance

    23.2. Wear Rate

    23.3. Transition Load

    24. Friction and Wear of Graphite and Carbide

    24.1. Graphite

    24.2. Carbides

    25. Wear of Cast Iron

    25.1. The Role of Graphite

    25.2. Hardness

    25.3. Lubricated Sliding Wear

    25.4. Non-Lubricated Sliding Wear

    25.5. Concluding Remarks

    26. Wear of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

    26.1. Effect of Silicon on Wear

    26.2. Deformation of a Bush

    26.3. A Physical Model

    26.4. Wear Rate

    27. Design for Wear Resistance

    27.1. Fatigue Wear

    27.2. Erosive Wear

    27.3. Cavitation Erosion

    27.4. Design for Adhesive and Abrasive Wear Resistance

    27.4.1. Protective Layer

    27.4.2. Principle of Conversion

    27.4.3. Principle of Diversion

    27.5. Importance of Wear

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 180
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483140100

About the Author

A. D. Sarkar

About the Editor

J. Halling

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