Wear of Metals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080197371, 9781483140100

Wear of Metals

1st Edition

International Series in Materials Science and Technology

Authors: A. D. Sarkar
Editors: J. Halling
eBook ISBN: 9781483140100
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 180
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Wear of Metals deals with the mechanisms underlying the wear of metals such as brass, cast iron, and aluminum-silicon alloys. Topics covered include surface topography, contact of solids, and friction, along with the effect of sliding and rolling resistance. Fretting, wear under rolling contact, and the friction and wear of polymers are also discussed.

Comprised of 27 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of adhesion, types of wear, and friction and wear experiments. The following chapters explore surface topography and the contact (single and multiple) of solids; molecular theory of friction and wear; running-in wear and abrasive wear; and surface contaminants. An oxidational hypothesis of wear is then presented, and the phenomenology of metal transfer involving steel on brass and steel on steel is described. The remaining chapters consider sliding in surfaces and subsurfaces; the effect of temperature and speed on friction and wear; the role of solubility and crystal structure in friction and wear; and wear of brass. The two principal effects associated with rolling, namely, the slip or creep and energy loss, are also examined. Examples of tribological components are given.

This book should be of value to undergraduates and research workers in the fields of metallurgy and engineering.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

1.1. Adhesion

1.1.1. Contact Resistance

1.2. Contaminants

1.3. Types of Wear

1.3.1. Adhesive Wear

1.3.2. Abrasive Wear

1.3.3. Other Forms of Wear

1.4. Friction and Wear Experiments

1.5. Metallurgical Examination

1.6. Application of Wear Results

2. Surface Topography

2.1. Asperities

2.2. Measurement of Waviness

2.3. Asperity Angle

2.4. Measure of Roughness

2.5. Fullness or Emptiness

2.6. Abbot's Bearing Curve

3. Contact of Solids

3.1. Single Contact

3.1.1. General Case

3.2. Multiple Contact

3.3. An Idealized Rough Surface

3.4. A Realistic Rough Surface

3.4.1. Exponential Distribution

3.5. Plastic Contact

3.6. Effect of Work Hardening

4. Friction

4.1. Area of Contact

4.2. Adhesion of Junctions

4.3. Mechanism of Friction

4.4. Amontons' Laws

5. Effect of Sliding

5.1. Junction Growth

5.1.1. Equation for Junction Growth

5.2. Work of Adhesion

5.3. Kinetic Friction

5.4. Stick-Slip

5.5. Thermal Effect

5.6. Oxide Film

5.7. Sliding Between Brittle Surfaces

5.8. Effect of Contaminants on Friction

6. Molecular Theory of Friction and Wear

6.1. Dry Friction

6.2. Wear

7. Running-In Wear

7.1. Wear Curve

7.2. Mechanism

7.3. Law of Running-In Wear

8. Adhesive Wear

8.1. Rate of Wear

8.2. Junction Interaction

8.3. Law of Adhesive Wear

8.4. Asperity Angle

8.4.1. Hemispherical Asperity

8.5. Fatigue Mechanism

8.5.1. Contact of Sliding Surfaces

8.5.2. The Wear Law

9. Oxidational Hypothesis of Wear

9.1. Oxidational Hypothesis

9.1.1. The β Term

9.2. Comment on Equation 9.7

10. Surface Contaminants

10.1. Fractional Film Defect

10.1.1. The Term α

10.1.2. Modified Wear Equation

10.2. Heat of Adsorption Theory

10.2.1. Friction

10.2.2. Wear

10.3. Importance of E

10.4. A Simplified Law

10.4.1. Example

11. Abrasive Wear

11.1. Abrasive Wear Coefficient

11.2. Abrasive Wear Resistance

11.3. Abrasives at the Interface

11.4. Stored Energy

12. Wear Debris

12.1. Energy Consideration

12.2. Debris Size

12.3. Effect of Load

13. Metal Transfer

13.1. Steel on Brass

13.2. Steel on Steel

13.3. Amount of Transfer

14. Surface and Subsurface

14.1. Surface Layers and Sublayers

14.2. Friction

14.3. Surface Fatigue

14.4. Plasticity Index

15. Temperature and Speed

15.1. Temperature

15.2. Speed

16. Solubility

16.1. Solubility

16.1.1. Score Resistance

16.1.2. Work in Vacuum

16.1.3. Cutting the Sliding Surface

17. Crystal Structure

17.1. Adhesion Coefficient

17.2. Experiment with Cobalt

17.2.1. Effect of Temperature

17.3. Rare Earth Materials

17.4. Change of Texture

18. Rolling Resistance

18.1. Principles of Rolling Motion

18.2. Slip

18.2.1. Reynolds' Slip

18.2.2. Heathcote Slip

18.3. Rolling in the Plastic Range

18.3.1. Track Width

18.3.2. Rolling Friction

18.3.3. Equilibrium State

18.4. Rolling in the Elastic State

18.4.1. Hysteresis

18.5. Shake-Down-Limit

18.5.1. Forward Strain

19. Wear Under Rolling Contact

19.1. Slip Area

19.2. Wear

19.3. A Law of Rolling Wear

20. Polymers

20.1. Friction and Wear

20.2. A General Law of Friction

20.3. Rubber

21. Fretting

21.1. Four Stages of Fretting

21.1.1. Worm Tracks

21.2. Measurement of Pit Depth

21.3. Load and Temperature

21.4. Humidity

22. Examples of Tribological Components

22.1. Gears

22.1.1. Sliding Velocity

22.1.2. Rolling Velocity

22.1.3. Friction and Wear

22.1.4. Pitting

22.2. Bearings

22.2.1. Plain Bearings

22.2.2. Rolling Bearings

22.3. Piston Rings

22.4. Wear Under Impact Condition

23. Wear of Brass

23.1. Weight Loss with Sliding Distance

23.2. Wear Rate

23.3. Transition Load

24. Friction and Wear of Graphite and Carbide

24.1. Graphite

24.2. Carbides

25. Wear of Cast Iron

25.1. The Role of Graphite

25.2. Hardness

25.3. Lubricated Sliding Wear

25.4. Non-Lubricated Sliding Wear

25.5. Concluding Remarks

26. Wear of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys

26.1. Effect of Silicon on Wear

26.2. Deformation of a Bush

26.3. A Physical Model

26.4. Wear Rate

27. Design for Wear Resistance

27.1. Fatigue Wear

27.2. Erosive Wear

27.3. Cavitation Erosion

27.4. Design for Adhesive and Abrasive Wear Resistance

27.4.1. Protective Layer

27.4.2. Principle of Conversion

27.4.3. Principle of Diversion

27.5. Importance of Wear



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© Pergamon 1976
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About the Author

A. D. Sarkar

About the Editor

J. Halling

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