1. Water Occurrence and its Function in Natural Systems. Systems of the natural environment. Energy input as a cause of the hydrologic cycle. Hydrologic cycle system. interrelation of surface and groundwater runoff. Groundwater level regulation, soil moisture and soil structure formation. Climatological functions of water. Biogeochemical cycle system. Hydrologic cycle as regulator of biological processes. Runoff process as regulator of the living environment. 2. Water and its Function in Social Systems. Categories of water utilization. Water requirements and water consumption. In-stream and on-site water use. Municipal and rural water requirements. Industrial water supply and re-use systems. Water in agricultural systems. 3. Water Balance and Water Systems. Characteristics of surface and groundwater resources. Safe yield. Balance of water resources and needs. Minimum water table and minimum discharges. Active and passive water balance. Probability of the satisfaction of water requirements. Flow control and operating schedules. Systems in water resources management. Analysis and modelling of water resources systems. Economic optimization and financial analysis. Planning model based on physical parameters. 4. Impact of Development Activities on the Hydrologic Cycle. Changes in the hydrological data. Changes in the hydrological balance. Influence of forestry and agriculture. Influence of urbanization and industrialization. Changes in water quality. Environmental impacts of water development projects. 5. Water Development and Management Policy. Water management activities and organizations. Paradoxes of water resources development. Strategy of water resources development. Tactics of water management. Non-conventional techniques of water supply. Conclusions. References. Author Index. Subject Index.
The size and number of water projects and other development activities which influence the hydrological cycle have reached such proportions that the majority of problems involved extend beyond the boundaries of the traditional disciplines of hydraulics, hydrochemistry, hydrology and hydrogeology.
New scientific methods for the solution of the contemporary problems in water management include analogy, operation research, system analysis and cybernetics. The distinctive features of these methods are their emphasis on measurement and on the use of conceptual models described in quantitative terms, the verification of their theoretical predictions, and their awareness that concepts are conditional and subject to growth and continuous change. This new approach should be defined within the framework of water resources management, i.e. within a complex of activities whose objective is the optimum utilization of water resources with regard to their quality and availability and the requirements of society. These water management activities should at the same time also ensure an optimum living environment, above all through protection of water resources against deterioration and exhaustion as well as through the protection of society against the harmful effects of water. In the course of these activities water resources management should avail itself of the entire spectrum of explicit sciences, gradually coming to form the sphere of its own theory.
This monograph deals with the fundamental interdisciplinary problems of this complex sphere, an understanding of which is indispensable for successful water resources management in the widest sense of its social functions and environmental consequences. Thus, a common basis is provided for the mutual understanding of specialists from different backgrounds.
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- © Elsevier Science 1987
- 1st January 1987
- Elsevier Science
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