Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish

Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish

2nd Edition - June 9, 1982
  • Authors: J S Alabaster, R. Lloyd
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163116

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Description

Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish, Second Edition, is a collection of 12 technical papers on water quality criteria for European freshwater fish, together with a report on fish toxicity testing procedures that have been produced for the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC)—an intergovernmental organization with a current membership of 24 countries. Each chapter reviews a particular water quality characteristic for European inland fisheries, although the effects of mixtures with other harmful substances have been described for some of them. These characteristics include water quality criteria for finely suspended solids and pH values; water temperature; the effect of ammonia; phenolic wastes; dissolved oxygen; chemistry and toxicology of chlorine; and toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium. The reports in this volume will be useful not only to the member countries of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, but also to those concerned with the management of inland waters and their fishery resources in other continents.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Editors' Note

    1 Finely Divided Solids

    Foreword

    1.1 Summary

    1.2 Introduction

    1.3 Literature Survey

    1.3.1 Direct Effects of Solids in Suspension

    1.3.2 Suspended Solids and Reproduction

    1.3.3 Effects on Behavior

    1.3.4 Effect on Food Supply

    1.3.5 The Total Effect of Suspended Solids on Freshwater Fisheries

    1.4 Tentative Water Quality Criteria for Finely Divided Solid Matter

    1.5 References

    2 Extreme pH Value

    Foreword

    2.1 Summary

    2.2 Introduction

    2.3 Literature Survey on Effects of Acid pH Values

    2.3.1 Laboratory Data on Direct Lethal Action

    2.3.2 Field Observations

    2.3.3 Mode of Toxic Action

    2.3.4 Avoidance Reactions

    2.3.5 Effect on Growth

    2.3.6 Effect on Food Supply

    2.3.7 Toxicity of Other Poisons

    2.4 Literature Survey on Effects of Alkaline pH Values

    2.4.1 Laboratory Data on Direct Lethal Action

    2.4.2 Field Observations

    2.4.3 Mode of Toxic Action

    2.4.4 Avoidance Reactions

    2.4.5 Effect on Growth

    2.4.6 Effect on Food Supply

    2.4.7 Toxicity of Other Poisons

    2.5 Conclusions

    2.5.1 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    2.5.2 Scope for Further Research

    2.6 References

    3 Water Temperature

    Foreword

    3.1 Summary

    3.2 Introduction

    3.3 General Considerations

    3.3.1 Temperature and Metabolism

    3.3.2 Thermal Acclimation

    3.4 Fish Embryos

    3.4.1 Development Time

    3.4.2 Acclimation

    3.4.3 Range of Preferred Temperatures

    3.5 Fish Fry and Adults

    3.5.1 Lethal and 'Disturbing' Temperature

    3.5.2 Reduction of Feeding and Growth

    3.5.3 'Preferred' Temperatures

    3.5.4 Gonad Development

    3.6 Temperature and Pollution

    3.7 Temperature and other Aquatic Organisms

    3.7.1 Phytoplankton

    3.7.2 Invertebrate Food Organisms

    3.7.3 Parasites and Diseases

    3.8 Heated Effluents and Fisheries

    3.9 Tentative Temperature Criteria

    3.9.1 Autumn and Winter

    3.9.2 Spring

    3.9.3 Summer

    3.10 References

    3.11 Appendix. Additional References on the Effect of Water Temperature on Fish

    4 Ammonia

    Foreword

    4.1 Summary

    4.2 Introduction

    4.3 Literature Survey on Effects of Ammonia

    4.3.1 Laboratory Data on Direct Lethal Action

    4.3.2 Field Observations

    4.3.3 Mode of Toxic Action

    4.3.4 Avoidance Reactions

    4.3.5 Effect on Growth

    4.3.6 Effect on Aquatic Food Organisms

    4.4 Conclusions

    4.5 References

    5 Monohydric Phenols

    Foreword

    5.1 Summary

    5.2 Introduction

    5.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

    5.3.1 Symptoms of Poisoning and Mode of Action

    5.3.2 Factors Affecting Lethal Levels

    5.3.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

    5.4 Sublethal Action on Fish

    5.4.1 Growth

    5.4.2 Resistance to Disease

    5.4.3 Avoidance Reactions

    5.4.4 Behavior

    5.4.5 Uptake and Loss of Phenol

    5.4.6 Taste and Odor

    5.5 Summary of Data on Invertebrates and Algae

    5.5.1 Phenols

    5.5.2 Cresols

    5.5.3 Xylenols

    5.6 Conclusions

    5.7 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    5.8 References

    6 Dissolved Oxygen

    Foreword

    6.1 Summary

    6.2 Introduction

    6.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

    6.3.1 Age of Fish

    6.3.2 Temperature

    6.3.3 Acclimation

    6.3.4 Supersaturation

    6.3.5 Interaction with Poisons and Carbon Dioxide

    6.4 Sublethal Action on Fish

    6.4.1 Fertilization and Fecundity

    6.4.2 Embryonic Development

    6.4.3 Respiration and Metabolism

    6.4.4 Larval Growth

    6.4.5 Juvenile Growth

    6.4.6 Swimming Performance

    6.4.7 Behavior and Avoidance

    6.5 Direct Effect on Fish Food Organisms

    6.6 Field Observations

    6.6.1 Rivers

    6.6.2 Lakes

    6.6.3 Estuaries

    6.7 Summary of Data

    6.8 Tentative Dissolved Oxygen Criteria

    6.9 References

    7 Chlorine

    Foreword

    7.1 Summary

    7.2 Introduction

    7.3 Chemistry of Chlorine in Water

    7.3.1 Terminology

    7.4 Toxicology of Chlorine in Water

    7.4.1 Mode of Action and Symptoms of Acute Poisoning

    7.4.2 Lethal Effects on Fish

    7.4.3 Effects of Environmental Factors

    7.4.4 Sublethal Effects on Fish

    7.4.5 Effects of Mixtures of Chlorine with other Poisons

    7.4.6 Effects on Aquatic Invertebrates and Plants

    7.5 Field Observations

    7.6 Summary of Data

    7.7 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    7.8 References

    8 Zinc

    Foreword

    8.1 Summary

    8.2 Introduction

    8.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

    8.3.1 Symptoms of Poisoning and Mode of Action

    8.3.2 Factors Affecting Acutely Lethal Levels

    8.3.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

    8.4 Sublethal Effects on Fish

    8.4.1 Uptake and Loss of Zinc

    8.4.2 Reproduction

    8.4.3 Growth

    8.4.4 Behavior

    8.4.5 Resistance to Disease

    8.5 Field Observations on Fish

    8.5.1 Caged Fish Experiments

    8.5.2 Fish Farms

    8.5.3 Fish Population Surveys

    8.6 Summary of Data on Aquatic Vegetation and Invertebrates

    8.6.1 Aquatic Vegetation

    8.6.2 Invertebrates

    8.7 Summary and Conclusions

    8.8 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    8.9 References

    9 Copper

    Foreword

    9.1 Summary

    9.2 Introduction

    9.2.1 Chemistry of Copper in Fresh Water

    9.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

    9.3.1 Mode of Action

    9.3.2 Factors Affecting Acutely Lethal Levels

    9.3.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

    9.4 Sublethal Effects on Fish

    9.4.1 Enzymes

    9.4.2 Tissue Residue Analyses

    9.4.3 Blood Analyses

    9.4.4 Life Cycle Studies

    9.4.5 Behavior

    9.4.6 Mixtures of Poisons

    9.4.7 Summary

    9.5 Field Observations on Fish

    9.5.1 Toxicity in Natural Waters and Sewage Effluents

    9.5.2 Comparison of Field Observations with Laboratory Data

    9.6 Summary of Data on Algae and Invertebrates

    9.6.1 Algae

    9.6.2 Invertebrates

    9.7 Summary and Conclusions

    9.8 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    9.9 References

    10 Cadmium

    Foreword

    10.1 Summary

    10.2 Introduction

    10.2.1 Source of Cadmium

    10.2.2 Chemistry of Cadmium in Freshwater

    10.2.3 Analytical Methods

    10.3 Accumulation of Cadmium in Fish Tissues

    10.3.1 Laboratory Experiments

    10.3.2 Field Observations

    10.4 Lethal Effects on Fish

    10.4.1 Mode of Action

    10.4.2 Factors Affecting Lethal Levels

    10.4.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

    10.5 Sublethal Effects on Fish

    10.6 Field Observations on Fish

    10.7 Aquatic Invertebrates

    10.7.1 Laboratory Tests

    10.7.2 Field Studies

    10.8 Aquatic Algae and Macrophytes

    10.9 Summary and Conclusions

    10.10 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    10.11 References

    11 Mixtures of Toxicants

    Foreword

    11.1 Summary

    11.2 Introduction

    11.2.1 Fundamental Concepts and Approaches Adopted

    11.2.2 Models and Terminology

    11.2.3 Experimental Design and Data Analysis

    11.2.4 Conclusion

    11.3 Applications of Additive Index to Laboratory Studies

    11.3.1 Fish: The Toxicity of Mixtures Containing Constituents Commonly Present in Sewage and Industrial Wastes

    11.3.2 Fish: The Toxicity of Industrial Wastes, Effluents and River Waters

    11.3.3 Fish: The Toxicity of Pesticides

    11.3.4 Fish: The Toxicity of other Substances

    11.3.5 Fish: Conclusion on the Additive Effects of Toxicants

    11.3.6 Invertebrates

    11.3.7 Aquatic Plants

    11.4 Field Studies

    11.4.1 Stream Receiving Gas Liquor

    11.4.2 Rivers Receiving Sewage Effluents Containing Industrial Wastes

    11.4.3 Lake and River Systems Receiving Heavy Metals

    11.4.4 Current Studies

    11.4.5 Summary

    11.5 Uptake of Toxicants

    11.5.1 Heavy Metals and other Substances

    11.5.2 Pesticides

    11.5.3 Summary

    11.6 Summary and Conclusions

    11.6.1 Summary of Data

    11.6.2 Scope for Further Research

    11.7 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

    11.8 Definitions

    11.9 References

    12 Fish Toxicity Testing Procedures

    Foreword

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Screening Test

    12.2.1 Introduction

    12.2.2 Test Procedure

    12.2.3 Summary

    12.3 Tests to Establish Water Quality Criteria

    12.3.1 Introduction

    12.3.2 Lethal Toxicity Tests

    12.3.3 Sublethal Tests

    12.3.4 Field Observations

    12.4 Effluent Monitoring Tests

    12.4.1 Introduction

    12.4.2 Test Procedures

    12.4.3 Fish Species

    12.4.4 Effluent Investigational Test

    12.5 Legal Tests

    12.5.1 Introduction

    12.5.2 Test Procedure

    12.5.3 Use of Test

    12.6 River Monitoring Tests

    12.6.1 Introduction

    12.6.2 The Measured Response

    12.6.3 Care of Fish

    12.6.4 Summary

    12.7 References

    12.8 Appendix 1. Standard Test Techniques

    12.9 Appendix 2. Terminology Used in Fish Toxicity Testing Procedures

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 382
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1982
  • Published: June 9, 1982
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163116

About the Authors

J S Alabaster

R. Lloyd

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, U.S.A.