Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780408108492, 9781483163116

Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish

2nd Edition

Authors: J S Alabaster R. Lloyd
eBook ISBN: 9781483163116
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 9th June 1982
Page Count: 382
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Description

Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish, Second Edition, is a collection of 12 technical papers on water quality criteria for European freshwater fish, together with a report on fish toxicity testing procedures that have been produced for the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC)—an intergovernmental organization with a current membership of 24 countries. Each chapter reviews a particular water quality characteristic for European inland fisheries, although the effects of mixtures with other harmful substances have been described for some of them. These characteristics include water quality criteria for finely suspended solids and pH values; water temperature; the effect of ammonia; phenolic wastes; dissolved oxygen; chemistry and toxicology of chlorine; and toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium. The reports in this volume will be useful not only to the member countries of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, but also to those concerned with the management of inland waters and their fishery resources in other continents.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Editors' Note

1 Finely Divided Solids

Foreword

1.1 Summary

1.2 Introduction

1.3 Literature Survey

1.3.1 Direct Effects of Solids in Suspension

1.3.2 Suspended Solids and Reproduction

1.3.3 Effects on Behavior

1.3.4 Effect on Food Supply

1.3.5 The Total Effect of Suspended Solids on Freshwater Fisheries

1.4 Tentative Water Quality Criteria for Finely Divided Solid Matter

1.5 References

2 Extreme pH Value

Foreword

2.1 Summary

2.2 Introduction

2.3 Literature Survey on Effects of Acid pH Values

2.3.1 Laboratory Data on Direct Lethal Action

2.3.2 Field Observations

2.3.3 Mode of Toxic Action

2.3.4 Avoidance Reactions

2.3.5 Effect on Growth

2.3.6 Effect on Food Supply

2.3.7 Toxicity of Other Poisons

2.4 Literature Survey on Effects of Alkaline pH Values

2.4.1 Laboratory Data on Direct Lethal Action

2.4.2 Field Observations

2.4.3 Mode of Toxic Action

2.4.4 Avoidance Reactions

2.4.5 Effect on Growth

2.4.6 Effect on Food Supply

2.4.7 Toxicity of Other Poisons

2.5 Conclusions

2.5.1 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

2.5.2 Scope for Further Research

2.6 References

3 Water Temperature

Foreword

3.1 Summary

3.2 Introduction

3.3 General Considerations

3.3.1 Temperature and Metabolism

3.3.2 Thermal Acclimation

3.4 Fish Embryos

3.4.1 Development Time

3.4.2 Acclimation

3.4.3 Range of Preferred Temperatures

3.5 Fish Fry and Adults

3.5.1 Lethal and 'Disturbing' Temperature

3.5.2 Reduction of Feeding and Growth

3.5.3 'Preferred' Temperatures

3.5.4 Gonad Development

3.6 Temperature and Pollution

3.7 Temperature and other Aquatic Organisms

3.7.1 Phytoplankton

3.7.2 Invertebrate Food Organisms

3.7.3 Parasites and Diseases

3.8 Heated Effluents and Fisheries

3.9 Tentative Temperature Criteria

3.9.1 Autumn and Winter

3.9.2 Spring

3.9.3 Summer

3.10 References

3.11 Appendix. Additional References on the Effect of Water Temperature on Fish

4 Ammonia

Foreword

4.1 Summary

4.2 Introduction

4.3 Literature Survey on Effects of Ammonia

4.3.1 Laboratory Data on Direct Lethal Action

4.3.2 Field Observations

4.3.3 Mode of Toxic Action

4.3.4 Avoidance Reactions

4.3.5 Effect on Growth

4.3.6 Effect on Aquatic Food Organisms

4.4 Conclusions

4.5 References

5 Monohydric Phenols

Foreword

5.1 Summary

5.2 Introduction

5.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

5.3.1 Symptoms of Poisoning and Mode of Action

5.3.2 Factors Affecting Lethal Levels

5.3.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

5.4 Sublethal Action on Fish

5.4.1 Growth

5.4.2 Resistance to Disease

5.4.3 Avoidance Reactions

5.4.4 Behavior

5.4.5 Uptake and Loss of Phenol

5.4.6 Taste and Odor

5.5 Summary of Data on Invertebrates and Algae

5.5.1 Phenols

5.5.2 Cresols

5.5.3 Xylenols

5.6 Conclusions

5.7 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

5.8 References

6 Dissolved Oxygen

Foreword

6.1 Summary

6.2 Introduction

6.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

6.3.1 Age of Fish

6.3.2 Temperature

6.3.3 Acclimation

6.3.4 Supersaturation

6.3.5 Interaction with Poisons and Carbon Dioxide

6.4 Sublethal Action on Fish

6.4.1 Fertilization and Fecundity

6.4.2 Embryonic Development

6.4.3 Respiration and Metabolism

6.4.4 Larval Growth

6.4.5 Juvenile Growth

6.4.6 Swimming Performance

6.4.7 Behavior and Avoidance

6.5 Direct Effect on Fish Food Organisms

6.6 Field Observations

6.6.1 Rivers

6.6.2 Lakes

6.6.3 Estuaries

6.7 Summary of Data

6.8 Tentative Dissolved Oxygen Criteria

6.9 References

7 Chlorine

Foreword

7.1 Summary

7.2 Introduction

7.3 Chemistry of Chlorine in Water

7.3.1 Terminology

7.4 Toxicology of Chlorine in Water

7.4.1 Mode of Action and Symptoms of Acute Poisoning

7.4.2 Lethal Effects on Fish

7.4.3 Effects of Environmental Factors

7.4.4 Sublethal Effects on Fish

7.4.5 Effects of Mixtures of Chlorine with other Poisons

7.4.6 Effects on Aquatic Invertebrates and Plants

7.5 Field Observations

7.6 Summary of Data

7.7 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

7.8 References

8 Zinc

Foreword

8.1 Summary

8.2 Introduction

8.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

8.3.1 Symptoms of Poisoning and Mode of Action

8.3.2 Factors Affecting Acutely Lethal Levels

8.3.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

8.4 Sublethal Effects on Fish

8.4.1 Uptake and Loss of Zinc

8.4.2 Reproduction

8.4.3 Growth

8.4.4 Behavior

8.4.5 Resistance to Disease

8.5 Field Observations on Fish

8.5.1 Caged Fish Experiments

8.5.2 Fish Farms

8.5.3 Fish Population Surveys

8.6 Summary of Data on Aquatic Vegetation and Invertebrates

8.6.1 Aquatic Vegetation

8.6.2 Invertebrates

8.7 Summary and Conclusions

8.8 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

8.9 References

9 Copper

Foreword

9.1 Summary

9.2 Introduction

9.2.1 Chemistry of Copper in Fresh Water

9.3 Direct Lethal Action on Fish

9.3.1 Mode of Action

9.3.2 Factors Affecting Acutely Lethal Levels

9.3.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

9.4 Sublethal Effects on Fish

9.4.1 Enzymes

9.4.2 Tissue Residue Analyses

9.4.3 Blood Analyses

9.4.4 Life Cycle Studies

9.4.5 Behavior

9.4.6 Mixtures of Poisons

9.4.7 Summary

9.5 Field Observations on Fish

9.5.1 Toxicity in Natural Waters and Sewage Effluents

9.5.2 Comparison of Field Observations with Laboratory Data

9.6 Summary of Data on Algae and Invertebrates

9.6.1 Algae

9.6.2 Invertebrates

9.7 Summary and Conclusions

9.8 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

9.9 References

10 Cadmium

Foreword

10.1 Summary

10.2 Introduction

10.2.1 Source of Cadmium

10.2.2 Chemistry of Cadmium in Freshwater

10.2.3 Analytical Methods

10.3 Accumulation of Cadmium in Fish Tissues

10.3.1 Laboratory Experiments

10.3.2 Field Observations

10.4 Lethal Effects on Fish

10.4.1 Mode of Action

10.4.2 Factors Affecting Lethal Levels

10.4.3 Summary of Toxicity Data

10.5 Sublethal Effects on Fish

10.6 Field Observations on Fish

10.7 Aquatic Invertebrates

10.7.1 Laboratory Tests

10.7.2 Field Studies

10.8 Aquatic Algae and Macrophytes

10.9 Summary and Conclusions

10.10 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

10.11 References

11 Mixtures of Toxicants

Foreword

11.1 Summary

11.2 Introduction

11.2.1 Fundamental Concepts and Approaches Adopted

11.2.2 Models and Terminology

11.2.3 Experimental Design and Data Analysis

11.2.4 Conclusion

11.3 Applications of Additive Index to Laboratory Studies

11.3.1 Fish: The Toxicity of Mixtures Containing Constituents Commonly Present in Sewage and Industrial Wastes

11.3.2 Fish: The Toxicity of Industrial Wastes, Effluents and River Waters

11.3.3 Fish: The Toxicity of Pesticides

11.3.4 Fish: The Toxicity of other Substances

11.3.5 Fish: Conclusion on the Additive Effects of Toxicants

11.3.6 Invertebrates

11.3.7 Aquatic Plants

11.4 Field Studies

11.4.1 Stream Receiving Gas Liquor

11.4.2 Rivers Receiving Sewage Effluents Containing Industrial Wastes

11.4.3 Lake and River Systems Receiving Heavy Metals

11.4.4 Current Studies

11.4.5 Summary

11.5 Uptake of Toxicants

11.5.1 Heavy Metals and other Substances

11.5.2 Pesticides

11.5.3 Summary

11.6 Summary and Conclusions

11.6.1 Summary of Data

11.6.2 Scope for Further Research

11.7 Tentative Water Quality Criteria

11.8 Definitions

11.9 References

12 Fish Toxicity Testing Procedures

Foreword

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Screening Test

12.2.1 Introduction

12.2.2 Test Procedure

12.2.3 Summary

12.3 Tests to Establish Water Quality Criteria

12.3.1 Introduction

12.3.2 Lethal Toxicity Tests

12.3.3 Sublethal Tests

12.3.4 Field Observations

12.4 Effluent Monitoring Tests

12.4.1 Introduction

12.4.2 Test Procedures

12.4.3 Fish Species

12.4.4 Effluent Investigational Test

12.5 Legal Tests

12.5.1 Introduction

12.5.2 Test Procedure

12.5.3 Use of Test

12.6 River Monitoring Tests

12.6.1 Introduction

12.6.2 The Measured Response

12.6.3 Care of Fish

12.6.4 Summary

12.7 References

12.8 Appendix 1. Standard Test Techniques

12.9 Appendix 2. Terminology Used in Fish Toxicity Testing Procedures

Index


Details

No. of pages:
382
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483163116

About the Author

J S Alabaster

R. Lloyd

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, U.S.A.