Water Activity and Food - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127006505, 9780323159012

Water Activity and Food

1st Edition

Authors: John Troller
eBook ISBN: 9780323159012
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1978
Page Count: 252
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Description

Water Activity and Food explores the role of water activity in the water relations of microorganisms and in food processing, packaging, and storage. It reviews the literature and provides numerous examples demonstrating the use of water activity to predict the reactions of microorganisms or the stability of food components. It also highlights cases where water activity is not a reliable predictor of events and considers some interesting interactions with other environmental parameters. Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of water in foods and solutions, water activity values for foods, and water relations of enzyme activity. It then discusses lipid oxidation, enzyme reactions and non-enzymatic browning, and several other food-related factors. The reader is also introduced to water relations of microbial growth; the effects of water on microbial survival; the spoilage and preservation of foods at various levels of water activity; the water relations of food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella and toxigenic molds; the importance of water activity in non-microbiological aspects of food processing and storage; and the influence of atmospheric relative humidity on sanitation and the protection of food products. This book is an important source of information for researchers in food microbiology and microbial water relations.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

1 Water Activity—Basic Concepts

Water in Foods

Properties of Solutions

Water Binding

Water Sorption Isotherms

Temperature Effects

Hysteresis

Frozen Foods

Nonequilibrium Conditions

Applications

Water Activity Values for Foods

References

2 Methods

Desired Characteristics

Water Activity Methods

Relative Humidity Methods

Total Moisture Methods

Calibration

Control of aw

References

3 Enzyme Reactions and Nonenzymatic Browning

Effect of Water Activity on Enzymatic Reactions

Effect of Water Activity on Nonenzymatic Browning Reactions

References

4 Lipid Oxidation, Changes in Texture, Color, and Nutritional Quality

Effect of aw on Lipid Oxidation

Effect of aw on Food Texture

Effect of aw on Food Pigments

Effect of aw on Nutrients

References

5 Microbial Growth

Bacteria

Fungi

Interactions with Water Activity

Sporulation, Germination, and Outgrowth

Solute Effects

Hysteresis Effects

Physiological Basis of Tolerance of Reduced Water Activity

References

6 Food Preservation and Spoilage

Cereals and Legumes

Fish

Meat

Milk Products

Vegetables

Fruit

Confectionery

References

7 Microbial Survival

Survivor Curves

Survival at Freezing Temperatures

Survival at Moderate Temperatures

Survival at Elevated Temperatures

Sublethal Impairment

References

8 Food-Borne Pathogens

Staphylococcus aureus

Toxigenic Molds

Salmonella

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium botulinum

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Bacillus cereus

Parasites

References

9 Control of aw and Moisture

Dehydration

Concentration by Water Removal

Intermediate Moisture Foods

References

10 Packaging, Storage, and Transport

Bulk Storage of Commodities

Transport

Refrigerated Storage of Bulk Products

Packaged Foods

Measurement of Water Vapor Permeability

Permeability of Packaging Materials

Unrefrigerated Packaged Foods

Refrigerated Packaged Foods

References

11 Food Plant Sanitation

Process Equipment Cleaning

Food Storage Sanitation

Effect of Relative Humidity on Insects and Insect Control

Effect of Relative Humidity on Fumigants and Antimicrobial Agents

Effect of Relative Humidity and aw on Bacterial Survival on Surfaces

Effect of Relative Humidity on Airborne Microorganisms

References

Appendix A

Appendix B

Index




Details

No. of pages:
252
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323159012

About the Author

John Troller