Waste - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123814753, 9780123814760


1st Edition

A Handbook for Management

Editors: Trevor Letcher Daniel Vallero
eBook ISBN: 9780123814760
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123814753
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 8th February 2011
Page Count: 604
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Waste: A Handbook for Management gives the broadest, most complete coverage of waste in our society. The book examines a wide range of waste streams, including:

  • Household waste (compostable material, paper, glass, textiles, household chemicals, plastic, water, and e-waste)
  • Industrial waste (metals, building materials, tires, medical, batteries, hazardous mining, and nuclear)
  • Societal waste  (ocean, military, and space)
  • The future of landfills and incinerators

Covering all the issues related to waste in one volume helps lead to comparisons, synergistic solutions, and a more informed society. In addition, the book offers the best ways of managing waste problems through recycling, incineration, landfill and other processes.

Key Features

  • Co-author Daniel Vallero interviewed on NBC's Today show for a segment on recycling
  • Scientific and non-biased overviews will assist scientists, technicians, engineers, and government leaders
  • Covers all main types of waste, including household, industrial, and societal
  • Strong focus on management and recycling provides solutions


Environmental scientists and engineers as well as government officials, waste managers, technicians, and maintenance personnel working in the waste industry.

Table of Contents





Chapter 1. Trends in Waste Management

1. Introduction

2. The Catalyst for Change

3. Sustainable Development: The Context for Recycling

4. Implementation and Progress

5. Interpretations

Chapter 2. Green Engineering and Sustainable Design Aspects of Waste Management

1. Introduction

2. Paradigm Evolution

3. Life Cycle Assessment

4. Sustainability

5. Conclusions

Chapter 3. Regulation of Wastes

1. Introduction

2. The Growth of Environmental Regulations

3. Solid and Hazardous Wastes Legislation

4. Clean Air Legislation

5. Water Quality Legislation

6. Environmental Product and Consumer Protection Laws

7. Waste Regulations in Other Countries

8. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Waste Collection

1. Introduction

2. Materials Collected

3. Collection Systems

4. Modelling Problems and Methods

5. Data Requirements for Modelling

6. Example Studies

7. Conclusion


Chapter 5. Mine Waste

1. Origins and Quantities of Mine Waste

2. Waste Characteristics

3. Storage of Fine-Grained Wastes

4. Water Balances for Mine Waste Storages

5. Safety of Mine Waste Storage Structures During Their Operational Lifetime

6. Decommissioning, Closing and Rehabilitating Tailings, and Other Mine Waste Storages

7. Summary

Chapter 6. Metal Waste

1. Introduction

2. Scrap Metals

3. Management of Metal Waste

4. Metal Containing Raw Materials for Recycling

5. Machinery and Processes for Scrap Treatment

6. Conclusion

Chapter 7. Radioactive Waste Management

1. Introduction

2. Nuclear Waste Treatment and Processing

3. Geologic Disposal

4. Conclusions

Chapter 8. Municipal Waste Management

1. Introduction

2. Definition of MSW

3. MSW Management

4. MSW Generation

5. MSW Composition

6. Treatment and Disposal

7. Waste Management and Climate Change

8. MSW Management in Islands and Marine Pollution

9. Introduction to MSW Policy and Legislation

Chapter 9. Wastewater

1. Introduction

2. High-Tech Systems for Reuse of Wastewater and Nutrients

3. Urine Diversion with Flush Sanitation

4. Dry Sanitation/Low-Cost Solutions

5. Conclusions

Chapter 10. Recovered Paper

1. Introduction

2. Types of Recovered Paper

3. Processing of Recovered Paper

4. Barriers to Recovered Paper Use

5. Conclusions

Chapter 11. Glass Waste

1. The Glass Industry

2. Glass Reuse

3. Container Glass Recycling Processes

4. The Future of Glass Recycling

5. Conclusion

Chapter 12. Textile Waste

1. Introduction

2. Technological, Economical, and Ecological Background

3. Textile Waste Treatment Scenarios

4. Discussion

Chapter 13. Chemicals in Waste: Household Hazardous Waste

1. Introduction

2. Sources of HHW

3. Types and Quantities of HHW

4. Collection and Disposal Routes

5. Environmental and Health Risks

6. Waste Legislation

7. Management

8. Conclusions

Chapter 14. Reusing Nonhazardous Industrial Waste Across Business Clusters

1. Introduction

2. Status of NHIW

3. Industrial Symbiosis

4. The Pattern of Industrial Symbiosis

Chapter 15. Construction Waste

1. Introduction

2. Concepts and Definitions

3. Construction Waste Composition and Quantification

4. Construction Waste Source Evaluation

5. Construction Waste Management and Minimisation Approaches

6. Construction Waste Management and Minimisation: The UK Context

7. Discussion and Conclusions

Chapter 16. Thermal Waste Treatment

1. Introduction

2. Incineration

3. Types of Thermal Units

4. Thermal Optimization

5. Other Thermal Technologies

6. Conclusions

Chapter 17. Thermochemical Treatment of Plastic Solid Waste

1. Introduction

2. Technologies for PSW Management

3. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 18. Air Pollution

1. Introduction

2. Air Pollution

3. Scale of the Problem

4. Air Quality

5. Air Pollution Control

6. Air Quality Management

7. Conclusions

Chapter 19. Ocean Pollution

1. Introduction

2. Sources of Pollutants to Coastal Environments

3. Trace Metals

4. Organic Waste

Chapter 20. Electronic Waste

1. Introduction

2. Management of Electronic Waste

3. Disassembly of Electronic Waste

4. Recycling Technology of Electronic Waste

5. Environmental and Health Perspectives Related to Electronic Waste Recycling Activities

6. Conclusions

Chapter 21. Tyre Recycling

1. Introduction

2. The Tyre: The Raw Material for Recycling

3. Management of Post-Consumer Tyres

4. Material Recycling: Treatments and Technologies

5. Materials Outputs

6. Traditional and Evolving Markets

7. Applications and Products

8. Energy Recovery

9. The Future

Chapter 22. Battery Waste

1. Introduction

2. Historical Use of Lead

3. Lead-Acid Battery Life Cycle

4. LAB Recycling Rate

5. Opportunities for Lead Recovery

6. Conclusions

Chapter 23. Medical Waste

1. Introduction

2. Regulations

3. Definitions of RMW and HCW

4. Example of Volume of Regulated Facilities in the US State of Michigan

5. Regulated Facilities and Types of Medical Waste Generated

6. Approved Methods of Treatment for Medical Waste (United States and Europe)

7. Conclusions and Future Considerations

Chapter 24. Agricultural Waste and Pollution

1. Introduction

2. Agricultural Waste

3. Agricultural Pollution

4. Agriculture and Irrigation

5. Agriculture and Salinization

6. Agriculture and Fertilizers

7. Agriculture and Biocides

8. Agricultural Waste Management

9. Agriculture and Climate Change

10. Agriculture and Biotechnology

11. The Way Forward

Chapter 25. Military Solid and Hazardous Wastes—Assessment of Issues at Military Facilities and Base Camps

1. Introduction

2. Facilities

3. Waste Management for Base Camps During Expeditionary, Contingency, and Full Spectrum Operations

Chapter 26. Space Waste

1. Introduction

2. The Current Orbital Debris Environment

3. Counter Measures

4. Future Orbital Debris Population and Active Debris Removal

5. Conclusions

Chapter 27. Hazardous Wastes

1. Introduction

2. Managing Hazardous Wastes

3. Treatment Technologies

4. Abandoned Disposal Sites

5. Conclusions

Chapter 28. Thermal Pollution

1. Introduction

2. Cumulative Effects of Thermal Pollution

3. Thermochemical Pollution

4. Conclusions

Chapter 29. Land Pollution

1. Introduction

2. The Land Ethic

3. The Complaint Paradigm

4. Addressing Land Pollution

5. Characterizing Land Pollution

6. Habitat Loss and Destruction

7. Waste Sites

8. Best Practices

9. Conclusions


Chapter 30. Landfills – Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

1. Dumps, Tips, Landfills and Sanitary Landfills

2. Generation and Characteristics of MSW

3. The Generation of Gas in Landfilled MSW

4. The Generation and Pollution Potential of Leachate

5. The Safety and Stability of Dumps and Landfills

6. Conclusion

Chapter 31. Pollution Management and Responsible Care

1. Introduction

2. Responsible Care

3. Toxic Release Inventory

4. Emission Factors

5. Preparing Emissions Inventories

6. Responsible Stewardship

Chapter 32. Risk Assessment, Management, and Accountability

1. Introduction

2. Risk Estimation

3. Success in Waste Management

4. Making Decisions

5. Exposure Estimation

6. Direct Risk Calculations

7. Risk-Based Cleanup Standards

8. Communication

9. Conclusions



Color Plates


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About the Editor

Trevor Letcher

Trevor M Letcher is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is a past Director of the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics and his research involves the thermodynamics of liquid mixtures and energy from landfill. He was awarded the South African Chemical Institute’s Gold medal in 1999 and in 2000 he was awarded the South African Gold medal by the South African Association for the Advancement of Science. He has published over 250 papers in peer review journals and has edited, co-edited and written eleven books in his research and related fields. His latest books include Unraveling Environmental Disasters (2012), Materials for a Sustainable Future (2012), Waste (2011), Heat Capacities (2010), Climate Change (2009) and Future Energy (2008).

His leisure activities involve regular hikes with the Mendip Ramblers, woodwork (long case clocks) and wood turning, gardening at home and on his allotment, theatre, reading and playing golf.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

Daniel Vallero

Dr. Daniel A. Vallero is an internationally recognized expert in environmental science and engineering. His four decades of research, teaching and professional experience in hazardous waste engineering and management have addressed a wide range of human health risk and ecological issues, from global climate change to the release of hazardous wastes. His research has advanced the state-of-the-science of air and water pollution measurement, models of potential exposures to chemicals in consumer products, and environmental impact assessments.

He established the Engineering Ethics program and is a key collaborator in the Responsible Conduct of Research Program at Duke University. These programs introduce students, from first-year through PhD, to the complex relationships between science, technology and societal demands on the engineer. The lessons learned from the cases in this book are a fundamental part of Duke’s preparation of its future engineers to address the ethical dilemmas likely to be encountered during the careers of the next generation engineers.

Dr. Vallero received a bachelor’s degree from Southern Illinois University, a Master of Science in City & Regional Planning from SIU, a Masters in Civil & Environmental Engineering (Environmental Health Sciences) from the University of Kansas, and a PhD in Civil & Environmental Engineering from Duke.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA