Waste Treatment

Waste Treatment

Proceedings of the Second Symposium on the Treatment of Waste Waters

1st Edition - January 1, 1960

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  • Editor: Peter C. G. Isaac
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483152240

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Description

Waste Treatment contains the proceedings of the Second Symposium on the Treatment of Waste Waters, held on September 14-19, 1959 and organized by the Public Health Engineering Section of the Department of Civil Engineering of King's College at the University of Durham in the UK. The papers explore the theory and practice of wastewater treatment, with emphasis on biological treatment and the disposal of solids removed from liquid wastes. This book is comprised of 21 chapters and begins with a discussion on the biochemistry of aerobic treatment of organic waste and the biochemistry of anaerobic digestion. The next chapter deals with the ecology of activated sludge and bacteria beds and examines the factors determining the character and dominant organisms of a sludge. The reader is methodically introduced to the use of manometric methods in the study of sewage and trade wastes; biological oxidation systems for industrial waste treatment; application of recirculation to the purification of sewage and trade wastes; and treatment of distillery and antibiotics wastes. The effects of liquid wastes on receiving waters are also considered, along with the principles of vacuum filtration and their application to sludge-drying problems. The final chapter focuses on the reclamation of water from domestic and industrial wastes. This monograph will be a useful resource for policymakers and practitioners in the field of public health.

Table of Contents


  • Editorial

    Acknowledgments

    Introductory

    Some Aspects of the Biochemistry of Aerobic Organic Waste Treatment

    Compounds which are Metabolized

    Enzymes

    Coenzymes and Activators

    The Concept of Energy in Biological Systems

    Dehydrogenation and Respiration

    The Metabolism of Organic Compounds

    Waste Treatment

    Conclusions

    References

    Some Aspects of the Biochemistry of Anaerobic Digestion

    Liquefaction and Gasification

    Practical Aspects of Sludge Digestion

    Recent Research into the Rate of Sludge Digestion

    Conclusions

    References

    Discussion of First Two Papers

    Ecology of Activated Sludge and Bacteria Beds

    Comparison of Activated-Sludge and Bacteria-Bed Environments

    Activated Sludge

    Interrelationships of the Different Populations in the Sludge Community and Their Environment

    Factors Determining the Character and Dominant Organisms of a Sludge

    Bacteria Beds

    Organisms of the Film

    Factors Determining the Accumulation of Film

    Grazing Fauna

    Factors Determining the Nature of the Grazing-Fauna Population

    Factors Influencing the Film-Grazing-Fauna Balance

    Practical Applications of Ecological Principles to the Design and Operation of Biological Treatment Plants

    References

    Discussion

    The Use of Manometric Methods in the Study of Sewage and Trade Wastes

    Respirometers

    Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Biological Treatment Practice

    New Developments in the Application of Kessener Brushes (Aeration Rotors) in the Activated-Sludge Treatment of Trade-Waste Waters

    Investigations on the Aeration of Water

    Research on the Rate of Oxidation in an Activated-Sludge Tank

    Research on Simplified Sewage Purification for Comparatively Small Amounts of Sewage and Industrial Wastes

    References

    Discussion

    Process Design of Biological Oxidation Systems for Industrial Waste Treatment

    BOD Removal and Sludge Growth

    Oxygen Utilization

    Sludge Production and Oxidation

    Nutritional Requirements

    Oxygen Transfer

    Separation of Solids from Liquids

    Design Example

    References

    Discussion

    The Application of Recirculation to the Purification of Sewage and Trade Wastes

    Application to Purification of Sewage—Development of the Process

    Pseudo-Recirculation

    The Technique of Applying Recirculation

    The Mechanism of the Process

    Application to Purification of Trade Wastes

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Discussion

    The Treatment of Chemical Wastes

    Definition of the Problem

    Principles of Biological Treatment

    Application of Basic Principles

    Concentration Limits for Discharge to the River

    New Biological Treatment Plant

    The Monsanto Treatment Plant

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Discussion

    The Treatment of Distillery and Antibiotics Wastes

    Potable Spirits

    Industrial Alcohol

    Antibiotics and Vitamins

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Discussion

    Sampling and Analysis

    The Relevance of Waste-Water Analysis to the Design of Process and Pretreatment Plant

    Trade Effluent at Design Stage

    Effluent from Production Plant

    Effluent Disposal to River or Sewer

    Effluent Pretreatment

    Effluent Analysis

    Research on Disposal of Trade Effluent

    Conclusion

    References

    Analytical Tests in Relation to the Discharge of Trade Effluents to Sewers

    Typical Tests and Their Application

    Pretreatment Required to Render Trade Effluents Acceptable into Sewers

    Reduction in Volume of Trade Effluent

    Pretreatment Processes

    Control of Trade Effluent Discharges to Sewers

    Typical Methods of Charging for Trade Effluents

    References

    The Effects of Liquid Wastes on Receiving Waters

    The Legal Position

    Natural Stream-Water

    Domestic Sewage

    Trade-Waste Waters

    Mine-Waters, Drainage from Colliery Spoil Heaps and Coal-Stocking Grounds

    Toxicity Problems Arising in Rural Areas

    Estuarine Pollution

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Discussion of the Three Preceeding Papers

    The Self-Purification of Streams and the Relationship between Chemical and Biological Tests

    The Physical Factors—Temperature

    The Chemical Factors—Oxygen

    Experimental Study of Reoxygenation of Pure Running Water

    Experimental Study of the Reoxygenation of Polluted Running Water

    Significance of Loss of Nitrogen during Self-Purification

    Rapid Colorimetric Tests for Nitrogen

    Correlation between Biological Analysis and Physical and Chemical Analyses of Waters Polluted by Organic Substances

    The River Geer—Seasonal Pollution

    Research on Fish Toxicity

    Efficiency of Treatment Process

    Relationship between Analysis and the Toxicological Assay

    References

    Discussion

    Sludge Treatment

    Principles of Vacuum Filtration and Their Application to Sludge-Drying Problems

    Carman's Theory

    Experimental Method

    Application to Conditioning Treatment

    Use of Specific Resistance in Predicting Yields on Large Filters

    Use of Specific-Resistance Measurements in Research

    References

    Discussion

    Sludge Filtration and Drying

    Sludge Production

    Nature and Composition of Sewage Sludges

    Preliminary Processes

    Methods of Filtration

    Filter-Pressing

    Vacuum Filtration

    Disposal of Filter Cake

    Costs

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Discussion

    Composting

    Fermentation

    Mass Composting

    Segregation

    Preparation of Compostable Materials

    The Use of Sewage Sludge

    Batch Composting

    Multi-Stage Composting in Vertical Silos

    Continuous Composting (Dano Process)

    Economic Considerations

    References

    Discussion

    The Practice of Sludge Digestion

    Sludge Digestion

    Effect of Temperature

    Seeding and Mixing

    Water Content of Sludge

    Gas Production and Utilization

    Tank Capacity and Design Factors

    Laboratory Tests Used in Control

    Effect of Toxic Substances

    Accelerated Processes

    Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Wastes

    References

    Discussion

    Waste Treatment: Particular Industries

    The Origin, Treatment and Disposal of Effluents in the Food Canning and Freezing Industries

    Nature and Quantity of Wastes

    Screening

    Pretreatment of Wastes

    Full Treatment

    Spray-Disposal

    Re-Use of Water

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Discussion

    The Application of Biological Processes to the Treatment of Liquid Tannery Effluent

    Constitution of Tannery Effluent

    The Influence of Lime

    Influence of Caustic Alkalinity

    Influence of Sulphide

    Influence of Vegetable Tannins

    Influence of Trivalent Chromium Salts

    Influence of Minor Constituents

    Conclusion

    References

    Discussion

    Treatment of Waste Waters from Milk-Products Factories

    Character and Quantity of Waste Waters

    Reducing the Strength of the Waste

    Balancing of Flow and Composition

    Removal of Suspended Matter

    Use of Coagulants

    Aerobic Biological Treatment

    Biological Filtration Processes

    Aeration Processes

    Anaerobic Treatment

    Disposal of Sludges

    Discharge of Waste Waters to a Sewer

    Summary

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Discussion

    Reclamation

    Reclamation of Water from Domestic and Industrial Wastes

    What is Waste water Reclamation

    Limiting Factors

    Use of Reclaimed Water

    Methods of Reclamation

    Summary

    References

    Discussion

    Appendices

    1. The Separation and Composting Plant at the Craigmillar Refuse-Disposal Works of the City of Edinburgh

    2. List of Lecturers, Participants, etc

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 490
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1960
  • Published: January 1, 1960
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483152240

About the Editor

Peter C. G. Isaac

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