Waste Materials Used in Concrete Manufacturing

Waste Materials Used in Concrete Manufacturing

1st Edition - December 31, 1996

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  • Editor: Satish Chandra
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780815513933
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519515

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The environmental aspects involved in the production and use of cement, concrete and other building materials are of growing importance. CO2 emissions are 0.8-1.3 ton/ton of cement production in dry process. SO2 emission is also very high, but is dependent upon the type of fuel used. Energy consumption is also very high at 100-150 KWT/ton of cement produced. It is costly to erect new cement plants. Substitution of waste materials will conserve dwindling resources, and will avoid the environmental and ecological damages caused by quarrying and exploitation of the raw materials for making cement. To some extent, it will help to solve the problem otherwise encountered in disposing of the wastes. Partial replacement of clinker or portland cement by slag, fly ash, silica fume and natural rock minerals illustrates these aspects. Partial replacement by natural materials that require little or no processing, such as pozzolans, calcined clays, etc., saves energy and decreases emission of gases. The output of waste materials suitable as cement replacement (slags, fly ashes, silica fumes, rice husk ash, etc.) is more than double that of cement production.These waste materials can partly be used, or processed, to produce materials suitable as aggregates or fillers in concrete. These can also be used as clinker raw materials, or processed into cementing systems. New grinding and mixing technology will make the use of these secondary materials simpler. Developments in chemical admixtures: superplasticizers, air entraining agents, etc., help in controlling production techniques and, in achieving the desired properties in concrete.Use of waste products is not only a partial solution to environmental and ecological problems; it significantly improves the microstructure, and consequently the durability properties of concrete, which are difficult to achieve by the use of pure portland cement. The aim is not only to make the cements and concrete less expensive, but to provide a blend of tailored properties of waste materials and portland cements suitable for specified purpose. This requires a better understanding of chemistry, and materials science.There is an increasing demand for better understanding of material properties, as well as better control of the microstructure developing in the construction material, to increase durability. The combination of different binders and modifiers to produce cheaper and more durable building materials will solve to some extent the ecological and environmental problems.


Engineers, scientists in concrete manufacturing.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Properties and Use of Solid Residue From Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion
    Starting Materials and the Combustion Process
    The Chemical and Phase Composition of AFBC and PFBC Ashes
    The Reactivity of Fluidized Bed Ashes
    The Analysis of Ashes and Testing of Ash Mixes
    Utilization of Ashes Without Additives
    Portland Fly Ash Cements and Composite Cements
    Possible Use of AFBC and PFBC Solid Residue as Constituents of Concrete Mixes
    The Use of Fluidized Bed Ashes in Multi-Component Portland Clinker Free Cements
    Autoclaved Products
    Artificial Concrete Aggregate
    Fluidized Bed Ashes as Constituents of Portland Cement Clinker Raw Meal
    Legal and Standardization Aspects, Performance Requirements
    Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research
    2. Production and Use of By-Product Gypsum in the Construction Industry
    Chemical Gypsums
    Flue Gas Desulphurization Products
    3. Fly Ash In Concrete
    Fly Ash Characterization
    Effect of Fly Ash on Fresh and Hardened Concrete Properties
    4. The Use of Rice Husk Ash in Concrete
    Classification of Rice Husk Ash
    Analysis of The Quality of RHA
    Hydration Mechanisms of Paste with RHA
    Early Characteristics of Concrete with RHA
    The Durability Properties of Concrete with RHA
    5. Blast Furnace Slag - The Ultimate Binder
    Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
    Processes of Hydration and Hardening of Slag Cements
    Cements Using Blast Furnace Granulated Slags
    Concretes Containing Granulated Blast Furnace Slags
    Field Experience and Special Use of Slag Alkali Cements
    Conclusions and Recommendations
    6. Red Mud and Phosphogypsum and their Fields of Application
    Red Mud Utilization
    Phosphogypsum Utilization
    Summary and Conclusions
    7. Use of Lignin-Based Products in Concrete
    The Nature and Source of Lignins
    Use of Lignosulphonates in Concrete
    Effects on Hydration of Cement and Microstructure of Concrete
    Performance in Concrete
    Factors Influencing the Performance of Lignosulphonate Admixtures
    Use as Superplasticizers
    Effects on Durability of Concrete
    Concluding Remarks
    8. Recycling of Waste as an Alternative Raw Material and Fuel in Cement Manufacturing
    Utilization of Waste and Environmental Pollution Control
    Influence of Using Waste Alternatives to Replace Raw Materials and Fuel on Clinker Formation and the Character of Cement Clinker
    Influence of Waste Alternatives on Cement Quality
    Procedure to Use Waste as Alternative Raw Materials and Fuels
    Other Types of Cement-Utilizing Waste
    9. Use of Silica Fume in Concrete
    Silica Fumes and Synthetic Silica
    Evolution of Hydrogen
    Pozzolanic Reactivity, Hydration and Microstructure
    Durability Properties
    Concluding Remarks
    10. Palm Oil Shell Aggregate for Lightweight Concrete
    Lightweight Concrete
    Palm Oil Shell Aggregate
    Lightweight Concrete Using Palm Oil Shells
    Comparison with Other Agricultural Wastes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 672
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 1996
  • Published: December 31, 1996
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780815513933
  • eBook ISBN: 9780815519515

About the Editor

Satish Chandra

About the Author

Satish Chandra

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