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The environmental aspects involved in the production and use of cement, concrete and other building materials are of growing importance. CO2 emissions are 0.8-1.3 ton/ton of cement production in dry process. SO2 emission is also very high, but is dependent upon the type of fuel used. Energy consumption is also very high at 100-150 KWT/ton of cement produced. It is costly to erect new cement plants. Substitution of waste materials will conserve dwindling resources, and will avoid the environmental and ecological damages caused by quarrying and exploitation of the raw materials for making cement. To some extent, it will help to solve the problem otherwise encountered in disposing of the wastes. Partial replacement of clinker or portland cement by slag, fly ash, silica fume and natural rock minerals illustrates these aspects. Partial replacement by natural materials that require little or no processing, such as pozzolans, calcined clays, etc., saves energy and decreases emission of gases. The output of waste materials suitable as cement replacement (slags, fly ashes, silica fumes, rice husk ash, etc.) is more than double that of cement production.
These waste materials can partly be used, or processed, to produce materials suitable as aggregates or fillers in concrete. These can also be used as clinker raw materials, or processed into cementing systems. New grinding and mixing technology will make the use of these secondary materials simpler. Developments in chemical admixtures: superplasticizers, air entraining agents, etc., help in controlling production techniques and, in achieving the desired properties in concrete.
Use of waste products is not only a partial solution to environmental and ecological problems; it significantly improves the microstructure, and consequently the durability properties of concrete, which are difficult to achieve by the use of pure portland cement. The aim is not only to make the cements and concrete less expensive, but to provide a blend of tailored properties of waste materials and portland cements suitable for specified purpose. This requires a better understanding of chemistry, and materials science.
There is an increasing demand for better understanding of material properties, as well as better control of the microstructure developing in the construction material, to increase durability. The combination of different binders and modifiers to produce cheaper and more durable building materials will solve to some extent the ecological and environmental problems.
Engineers, scientists in concrete manufacturing.
- Properties and Use of Solid Residue From Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion
Starting Materials and the Combustion Process
The Chemical and Phase Composition of AFBC and PFBC Ashes
The Reactivity of Fluidized Bed Ashes
The Analysis of Ashes and Testing of Ash Mixes
Utilization of Ashes Without Additives
Portland Fly Ash Cements and Composite Cements
Possible Use of AFBC and PFBC Solid Residue as Constituents of Concrete Mixes
The Use of Fluidized Bed Ashes in Multi-Component Portland Clinker Free Cements
Artificial Concrete Aggregate
Fluidized Bed Ashes as Constituents of Portland Cement Clinker Raw Meal
Legal and Standardization Aspects, Performance Requirements
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research
2. Production and Use of By-Product Gypsum in the Construction Industry
Flue Gas Desulphurization Products
3. Fly Ash In Concrete
Fly Ash Characterization
Effect of Fly Ash on Fresh and Hardened Concrete Properties
4. The Use of Rice Husk Ash in Concrete
Classification of Rice Husk Ash
Analysis of The Quality of RHA
Hydration Mechanisms of Paste with RHA
Early Characteristics of Concrete with RHA
The Durability Properties of Concrete with RHA
5. Blast Furnace Slag - The Ultimate Binder
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Processes of Hydration and Hardening of Slag Cements
Cements Using Blast Furnace Granulated Slags
Concretes Containing Granulated Blast Furnace Slags
Field Experience and Special Use of Slag Alkali Cements
Conclusions and Recommendations
6. Red Mud and Phosphogypsum and their Fields of Application
Red Mud Utilization
Summary and Conclusions
7. Use of Lignin-Based Products in Concrete
The Nature and Source of Lignins
Use of Lignosulphonates in Concrete
Effects on Hydration of Cement and Microstructure of Concrete
Performance in Concrete
Factors Influencing the Performance of Lignosulphonate Admixtures
Use as Superplasticizers
Effects on Durability of Concrete
8. Recycling of Waste as an Alternative Raw Material and Fuel in Cement Manufacturing
Utilization of Waste and Environmental Pollution Control
Influence of Using Waste Alternatives to Replace Raw Materials and Fuel on Clinker Formation and the Character of Cement Clinker
Influence of Waste Alternatives on Cement Quality
Procedure to Use Waste as Alternative Raw Materials and Fuels
Other Types of Cement-Utilizing Waste
9. Use of Silica Fume in Concrete
Silica Fumes and Synthetic Silica
Evolution of Hydrogen
Pozzolanic Reactivity, Hydration and Microstructure
10. Palm Oil Shell Aggregate for Lightweight Concrete
Palm Oil Shell Aggregate
Lightweight Concrete Using Palm Oil Shells
Comparison with Other Agricultural Wastes
- No. of pages:
- © William Andrew 1996
- 31st December 1996
- William Andrew
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
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