Waking and the Reticular Activating System in Health and Disease

Waking and the Reticular Activating System in Health and Disease

1st Edition - April 27, 2015

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  • Author: Edgar Garcia-Rill
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128016329
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128013854

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Waking and the Reticular Activating System in Health and Disease provides a comprehensive overview on the “activating” properties of the RAS. In health, the RAS provides the basis against which we assess the external world, and in disease it distorts that world and shatters our self-image. This book describes the physiology of each process, how it is disturbed in each disorder, and what the most appropriate treatment should be. Dr. Garcia-Rill, along with contributions from leading specialists, discusses the understanding of the RAS as a system not only modulating waking, but also in charge of survival mechanisms such as fight vs flight responses and reflexes. The full spectrum of these functions helps explain the complexity of symptoms evident in such disorders as disparate as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. The book reviews the mechanisms that control waking and arousal, and especially how those mechanisms malfunction in certain neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Key Features

  • First comprehensive overview on the RAS and its role in schizophrenia, major depression, autism, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other neurologic and mental diseases
  • Offers a new way of thinking about brain function and the role of the RAS in our waking lives
  • Written by a leading translational neuroscience researcher with contributions by specialists in the field


Neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists and sleep physicians

Table of Contents

    • Acknowledgments
    • Dedication
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1: Governing Principles of Brain Activity
      • Abstract
      • Why Waking?
      • The Gorilla in the Room
      • Cell Assemblies
      • Coherence and Frequency
      • Content and Context
      • Cortical Columns
      • Thalamocortical Resonance
      • Clinical Implications: Thalamocortical Dysrhythmia
    • Chapter 2: The EEG and the Discovery of the RAS
      • Abstract
      • The EEG and the RAS
      • Limitations of the EEG
      • Early Theories of Sleep
      • The Pedunculopontine Nucleus
      • Dorsal and Ventral Cholinergic Pathways
      • Clinical Implications: “Sleep Problems” vs. “Waking Problems”
    • Chapter 3: Other Regions Modulating Waking
      • Abstract
      • A Matter of Time
      • The Lateral Hypothalamus and Hypocretin
      • The Basal Forebrain and Acetylcholine
      • The TMN and Histamine
      • Clinical Implications: Coma
    • Chapter 4: Wiring Diagram of the RAS
      • Abstract
      • Wiring Diagram
      • Locus Coeruleus
      • Dorsal Raphe Nucleus
      • Pedunculopontine Nucleus
      • Intrinsic Properties of PPN Neurons
      • Inputs to PPN Neurons
      • Electrical Coupling
      • Cell Clusters
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 5: Development and the RAS
      • Abstract
      • Development of Wake–Sleep States
      • Evolutionary Considerations
      • Developmental Decrease in REM Sleep
      • REM Sleep Inhibition
      • Changes in Intrinsic Properties
      • Changes in Transmitter Responses
      • Puberty and Wake–Sleep
      • Gonadal Steroids
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 6: Ascending Projections of the RAS
      • Abstract
      • The Ascending Reticular Activating System
      • Intralaminar Thalamus
      • Cortex
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 7: Descending Projections of the RAS
      • Abstract
      • Descending Targets
      • The Subcoeruleus Nucleus
      • The PPN and the MLR
      • Posture and Locomotion
      • Push–Pull on Reticulospinal Cells
      • The Startle Response
      • Spinal Cord
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 8: The 10 Hz Fulcrum
      • Abstract
      • Alpha Frequency (~ 10 Hz) Activity
      • Alpha Rhythm
      • The mu Rhythm
      • Physiological Tremor
      • The 10 Hz Fulcrum
      • Natural Frequency
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 9: Gamma Band Activity
      • Abstract
      • What does the EEG Measure?
      • Binding and Perception
      • Cortical Mechanisms of Gamma Band Activity
      • Coordination of Gamma Band Activity
      • RAS Mechanisms of Gamma Band Activity
      • Gamma Maintenance
      • Gamma in Waking vs. REM Sleep
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 10: Preconscious Awareness
      • Abstract
      • The Role of Gamma Band Activity in the RAS
      • Levels of Awareness
      • Waking and Preconscious Awareness
      • Volition and Free Will
      • Mechanisms for Preconscious Awareness
      • Everyday Preconscious Awareness
      • The PPN and Behavior
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 11: Psychiatric Disorders and the RAS
      • Abstract
      • Arousal, Waking, and Psychiatric Disorders
      • Schizophrenia
      • Bipolar Disorder
      • Major Depression
      • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
      • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
      • Autism
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 12: Neurological Disorders and the RAS
      • Abstract
      • Arousal, Waking, and Neurological Disorders
      • Parkinson's Disease
      • Alzheimer's Disease
      • Huntington's Disease
      • Insomnia
      • Neglect
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 13: Drug Abuse and the RAS
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Waking and Drug Abuse
      • Stimulants
      • Depressants
      • Clinical Implications
    • Chapter 14: The Science of Waking and Public Policy
      • Abstract
      • Three States
      • Wakefulness and Performance
      • Intent
      • Genetics
      • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
      • The Future of Science
      • Waking and Public Policy
      • Changing Directions
      • Brain Music
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 330
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: April 27, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128016329
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128013854

About the Author

Edgar Garcia-Rill

Dr. Edgar Garcia-Rill is a Professor of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, and Psychiatry in the College of Medicine at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS). He also holds graduate faculty appointments in the Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences and Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences program. He is the Director of the Center for Translational Neuroscience, a Center of Biomedical Research Excellence.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Director, Center for Translational Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA

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