This book provides users of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) with information on applying the WAIS-IV, including additional indexes and information regarding use in special populations for advanced clinical use and interpretation. The book offers sophisticated users of the WAIS-IV and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV) guidelines on how to enhance the clinical applicability of these tests.

The first section of the book provides an overview of the WAIS-IV, WMS-IV, and new Advanced Clinical Solutions for Use with the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV (ACS). In this section, examiners will learn:

  • Normal versus atypical score variability
  • Low-score prevalence in healthy adults versus clinical populations
  • Assessing whether poor performance reflects a decline in function or is the result of suboptimal effort

New social cognition measures found in the ACS are also presented. The second part focuses on applying the topics in the first section to specific clinical conditions, including recommended protocols for specific clientele (e.g. using demographically adjusted norms when evaluating individuals with brain injury). Common clinical conditions are discussed, including Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, traumatic brain injury, and more. Each chapter provides case examples applying all three test batteries and using report examples as they are obtained from the scoring assistant. Finally, the use of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV and the ACS in forensic settings is presented.

Key Features

  • Coverage of administration and scoring of WAIS-IV, WMS-IV and ACS
  • Information contained on the use of WAIS-IV with special populations
  • Case studies in each chapter
  • Written by the creators of WAIS-IV, WMS-IV and ACS


Research/experimental psychologists

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1. Overview of the WAIS–IV/WMS–IV/ACS


WAIS–IV Content and Approach to Development

WAIS–IV Index Scores and Structure

Issues in Summarizing Overall Ability

A Possible Fifth Factor

WAIS–IV: Going Beyond the Numbers

WAIS–IV as a Neuropsychological Instrument

WMS–IV Content and Approach to Development

WMS–IV Index Structure

WMS–IV: Going Beyond the Numbers

Joint Factor Structure of the WAIS–IV and WMS–IV

Additional WAIS–IV and WMS–IV Index Scores

Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS–IV and WMS–IV

Serial Assessment with WAIS–IV and WMS–IV

WMS–IV Flexible Approach

Case Studies


Key Learning


Chapter 2. Understanding and Using Multivariate Base Rates with the WAIS–IV/WMS–IV


Research on Multivariate Base Rates

Five Psychometric Principles for Multivariate Base Rates

Multivariate Base Rates for the WAIS–IV and WMS–IV


Key Learning


Chapter 3. Understanding Index and Subtest Scatter in Healthy Adults


Basic Concepts

Patterns of Cognitive Variability in Healthy Adults

Interpretation of Profile Scatter

Case Studies


Key Learning


Further Reading

Chapter 4. Demographic Adjustments to WAIS–IV/WMS–IV Norms


Background Factors Associated with Test Performance

Demographic Adjustments to Norms

Case Studies


Key Learning


Chapter 5. Predicting Premorbid Ability for WAIS–IV, WMS–IV and WASI̵


No. of pages:
© 2013
Academic Press
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN:

About the editors

Lawrence Weiss

Lawrence G. Weiss, PhD is Vice President of Test Development for Pearson Clinical Assessment. He oversees a department of 150 professionals and is responsible for all research and test development activities related to the company’s psychological, educational, speech, language, and occupational therapy assessment products as well as post college admissions tests. He also advises on test development activities for the company’s international business partners around the globe including Pearson Clinical Assessment offices in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, India, China, Spain, and Brazil. Dr. Weiss has presented widely on intelligence in more than a dozen countries. He has authored or co-authored the following 7 graduate level text books: • WISC-III Cross Cultural Analyses: Culture and Children’s Intelligence (2003) • WISC-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation (2005) • WISC-IV Advanced Clinical Interpretation (2006) • WISC-IV Clinical Use and Intervention (2008) • WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation (2010) • BAYLEY-III Clinical Use and Interpretation (2010) • Advanced Clinical Assessment with WAIS-IV and WMS-IV (2013) Some of his books have been translated into Spanish, Japanese, and Korean. In addition, he has authored or coauthored approximately 30 journal articles, 12 technical reports, and 10 other book chapters. Dr. Weiss holds a PhD degree in industrial and organizational psychology from Texas A&M University, and a master’s degree in clinical psychology from Trinity University. He lives in San Antonio, Texas, with his wife of 28 years, Judy Ann. The Weiss’ have two adult sons.


"Some superb cases clearly illustrate advanced interpretation strategies, as well as common pitfalls for inexperienced examiners…This book truly provides an advanced look at the use and interpretation of these instruments that goes well beyond the simple cookbook-style offerings seen elsewhere. It is not geared towards beginning graduate students, but every practitioner should eventually read it to engage in competent assessment with these instruments." Rating: 5, March 21, 2014
"Mental health researchers and practitioners provide a detailed overview of the psychometric instruments Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale — Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV), the Wechsler Memory Scale — Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS), and the WMS-IV Flexible Approach. They also describe the cognitive abilities required to complete the tasks, and present normative data for new indexes."--Reference & Research Book News, October 2013