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Voids in Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444563675, 9780444563743

Voids in Materials

1st Edition

From Unavoidable Defects to Designed Cellular Materials

Authors: Gary Gladysz Krishan Chawla
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444563675
eBook ISBN: 9780444563743
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 12th September 2014
Page Count: 214
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Voids in Materials treats voids of different shapes and forms in various materials, and examines their effects on material properties. The book covers the origins of voids in materials, how they are sometimes introduced in the form of hollow spheres, and the resultant properties of materials containing voids.

There are many books that focus on foams (which intentionally incorporate voids into materials) and that cover voids incidental to or unwanted in the fabrication of non-porous materials. In fact, all materials have voids. This book starts from the premise that voids are pervasive in all material on some level. It goes beyond foams to provide a comprehensive overview of voids, a central reference for scientists and engineers to use for the effect of voids in materials.

Key Features

  • Includes 3D renderings of void geometries
  • Explains how and why voids are introduced into materials across the length scales; from nanometer-scale voids up to macro-scale voids
  • Provides a continuous picture of how material properties change as the volume fraction of voids increases, and the implications for product design


Chemists, chemical engineers and material scientists who study the properties and effects of voids in the designing of new materials. A valuable guide for engineers in industry.


Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1.1. Overview
    • 1.2. Descriptions
    • 1.3. Voids through the Length Scale
  • Chapter 2. Intrinsic Voids, Ideal Materials, and Real Materials
    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Crystalline Materials
    • 2.3. Mechanical Properties
    • 2.4. Processing and Service Induced Voids
    • 2.5. Time Dependent Properties
  • Chapter 3. Intrinsic Voids in Polymers
    • 3.1. Polymer Structure
    • 3.2. Free Volume and Thermomechanical Behavior
    • 3.3. Kinetic Theory of Polymer Strength
    • 3.4. Thermal Conductivity
    • 3.5. Role of Voids in Physical Aging in Polymers
    • 3.6. Measurement of Free Volume
  • Chapter 4. Techniques for Introducing Intentional Voids into Materials
    • 4.1. Introduction
    • 4.2. Commonalities of Foam Formation Processes
    • 4.3. Introduction of a Gas
    • 4.4. Templating or Sacrificial Pore Former
    • 4.5. Bonding Together of Spheres, Fibers, Powders, or Particles
    • 4.6. Rapid Prototyping of Cellular Structures
    • 4.7. Mechanical Stretching
    • 4.8. Hierarchical Design with Voids
  • Chapter 5. Techniques of Introducing Intentional Voids into Particles and Fibers
    • 5.1. Introduction
    • 5.2. Hollow and Porous Particles
    • 5.3. Hollow and Porous Fibers
    • 5.4. Nonspherical Hollow Particles
  • Chapter 6. Cellular Materials
    • 6.1. General Characterization
    • 6.2. Conventional Foams
    • 6.3. Syntactic Foams
    • 6.4. Thermal Properties
    • 6.5. Finite Element Analysis
  • Chapter 7. Applications
    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. Macroscale Voids
    • 7.3. Micrometer Scale Voids
    • 7.4. Nanometer Scale Voids
    • 7.5. Subnanometer Voids
  • Chapter 8. Void Characterization
    • 8.1. Introduction
    • 8.2. Microscopy
    • 8.3. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy
    • 8.4. Three Dimensional Imaging
    • 8.5. Gas Adsorption
  • Glossary
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2015
12th September 2014
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Gary Gladysz

Gary Gladysz

Gary Gladysz is an adjunct associate professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA and founder at X-Link 3D. He received his PhD from the New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology where he participated in the NATO Collaborative Program with the German Aerospace Institute (DLR). Since receiving his PhD, he has led research efforts in university, government, and industrial settings. He has extensive research experience designing and characterizing thermoset composite materials for 3D printing, fibrous composites, ceramic composites, polymers, composite foams, and thin films. As a technical staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), he was technical lead for rigid composites and thermoset materials. In 2005 he was awarded the LANL Distinguished Performance Group Award for his work leading materials development on the Reliable Replacement Warhead Feasibility Project. Additionally, while the US Army, he developed composite materials and test protocols for ballistic head protection. He has served on funding review boards for LANL, National Science Foundation, ACS, and the Lindbergh Foundation. He has been guest editor on many issues of leading materials science journals, including Journal of Materials Science and Materials Science & Engineering. Dr. Gladysz has organized many international conferences/symposia on syntactic foams, composite materials, and innovative materials for additive manufacturing. He started and chairs the ECI international conference series on Syntactic & Composites Foams. Dr. Gladysz currently lives in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA X-Link 3D

Krishan Chawla

Krishan Chawla

Krishan Chawla obtained his B.S. from Banaras Hindu University and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. He has taught and done research in many prestigious Institutions all over the world. Prof. Chawla has published extensively in the areas of processing, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of materials, in general, and composite materials and fibers, in particular. Besides being a member of various professional societies, Professor Chawla is Editor of International Materials Review (published jointly by ASM International, USA and the Institute of Materials, London) and a member of the Editorial Board of various journals. Professor Chawla has worked as a Program Director for metals and ceramics in the Division of Materials Research, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC and currently serves as a consultant to the industry, US national laboratories, and various US federal government agencies. He received numerous prestigious awards, including the Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA


"...a good job of highlighting the similarities among voids in these various types of materials and describing the ways in which voids impact their properties...recommended to those who desire an accessible, introductory overview to porous materials." --MRS Bulletin

"Useful tables are included that list example materials and associated void sizes…This book is recommended to those who desire an accessible, introductory overview to porous materials." --MRS Bulletin

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