Voids in Materials

Voids in Materials

From Unavoidable Defects to Designed Cellular Materials

2nd Edition - November 30, 2020

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  • Authors: Gary Gladysz, Krishan Chawla
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128192832
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128192825

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  All materials have voids in them, at some scale. Sometimes the voids are ignored, sometimes they are taken into account, and other times they are the focal point of the research. Voids in Materials: From Unavoidable Defects to Designed Cellular Materials takes due notice of all these occurrences, whether designed or unavoidable defects. We define, categorize, and characterize the voids (or empty spaces in materials) and we analyze the effects they have on material properties. This second edition is an updated and expanded central reference for voids in materials and covers all types of voids, intrinsic and intentional, and stochastic and nonstochastic, and the processes and conditions that are needed to create them and is a valuable resource to students in the areas of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, and chemistry, as well as scientists, researchers, and engineers in industry.

Key Features

  • the effect of voids in materials; from low volume fraction defects and free volume in polymer networks to high void volume fraction foams and aerogels
  • how and why voids are introduced into materials across the length scales
  • biomaterial design used in vivo for soft, hard, and nerve tissue scaffolds
  • metallic and geopolymeric foams
  • additive manufacturing technologies used to tailor regularity (R) in the cell structure
  • stochastic, nonstochastic, and Voronoi foams
  • the latest techniques for characterizing voids
  • new chapters, covering the Kirkendall effect to create hollow and porous structures, and nanometer scale voids: nanotubes, zeolites, organic frameworks, and nanoporous noble metals


Students in the areas of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, and chemistry; Scientists and engineers in industry; Researchers in university laboratories as well as government labs

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction

    2. Intrinsic voids in crystalline materials: Ideal materials and real materials

    3. Intrinsic voids in polymeric networks
    4. Nanometer scale porous structure
    5. Hollow and porous structures utilizing the Kirkendall effect
    6. Techniques for introducing intentional voids into materials

    7. Techniques of introducing intentional voids into particles and fibers
    8. Void characterization techniques

    9. Characteristics and properties of porous materials
    10. Applications

Product details

  • No. of pages: 338
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: November 30, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128192832
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128192825

About the Authors

Gary Gladysz

Gary Gladysz
Gary Gladysz is an adjunct associate professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States and founder at X-Link 3D. He received his PhD from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, where he participated in the NATO Collaborative Program with the German Aerospace Institute (DLR). Since receiving his PhD, he has led research efforts in university, government, and industrial settings. He has extensive research experience designing and characterizing thermoset composite materials for 3D printing, fibrous composites, ceramic composites, polymers, composite foams, and thin films. As a technical staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), he was technical lead for rigid composites and thermoset materials. In 2005 he was awarded the LANL Distinguished Performance Group Award for his work leading materials development on the Reliable Replacement Warhead Feasibility Project. Additionally, while the US Army, he developed composite materials and test protocols for ballistic head protection. He has served on funding review boards for LANL, National Science Foundation, ACS, and the Lindbergh Foundation. He has been guest editor on many issues of leading materials science journals, including Journal of Materials Science and Materials Science & Engineering. He has organized many international conferences/symposia on syntactic foams, composite materials, and innovative materials for additive manufacturing. He started and chairs the ECI international conference series on Syntactic and Composites Foams. He currently lives in Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA X-Link 3D

Krishan Chawla

Krishan Chawla
Professor Krishan Chawla obtained his BS from Banaras Hindu University and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States. He has taught and/or done research at (in alphabetical order) Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany); German Aerospace Research Institute (DLR), Cologne (Germany); Instituto Militar de Engenharia (Brazil); Laval University (Canada); Los Alamos National Lab (United States); New Mexico Tech (United States); Northwestern University (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States). He has published extensively in the areas of processing, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of materials, in general, and composite materials and fibers, in particular. Besides being a member of various professional societies, he is Editor of International Materials Review (published jointly by ASM International, United States and the Institute of Materials, London) and a member of the Editorial Board of various journals. During 1989-1990, he served as a Program Director for metals and ceramics in the Division of Materials Research, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, United States. He serves as a consultant to the industry, US national laboratories, and various US federal government agencies. In 1992 he was the recipient of the Eshbach Society Distinguished Visiting Scholar Award from Northwestern University. During the period of June, 1994 through June, 1995 he held the US Dept. of Energy Faculty Fellowship at Oak Ridge National Lab. In 1996 he was given the Distinguished Researcher Award by the New Mexico Tech. In 1997 he was made a Fellow of ASM international. In 2000 he was awarded the Distinguished Alumnus award by Banaras Hindu University. He received the President’s Award for Excellence in Teaching, University of Alabama at Birmingham in 2006. In 2018 he was awarded the Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA

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