VLSI Metallization

VLSI Metallization

1st Edition - August 13, 1987

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  • Editors: Norman G. Einspruch, Simon S. Cohen, Gennady Sh. Gildenblat
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483217819

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Description

VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 15: VLSI Metallization discusses the various issues and problems related to VLSI metallization. It details the available solutions and presents emerging trends. This volume is comprised of 10 chapters. The two introductory chapters, Chapter 1 and 2 serve as general references for the electrical and metallurgical properties of thin conducting films. Subsequent chapters review the various aspects of VLSI metallization. The order of presentation has been chosen to follow the common processing sequence. In Chapter 3, some relevant metal deposition techniques are discussed. Chapter 4 presents the methods of VLSI lithography and etching. Conducting films are first deposited at the gate definition step; therefore, the issues related to gate metallization are discussed next in Chapter 5.In Chapter 6, contact metallization is elaborated, and Chapter 7 is devoted to multilevel metallization schemes. Long-time reliability is the subject of Chapter 8, which discusses the issues of contact and interconnect electromigration. GaAs metallization is tackled in Chapter 9. The volume concludes with a general discussion of the functions of interconnect systems in VLSI. Materials scientists, processing and design engineers, and device physicists will find the book very useful.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Electrical Properties of Thin Conducting Films

    I. Introduction

    II. The Physics of Transport Phenomena in Thin Films

    III. Electromigration in Thin Metal Lines

    IV. The Interconnect Impedance

    V. Test Structures

    References

    Chapter 2 Metallurgical Properties of Thin Conducting Films

    I. Introduction

    II. Theoretical Background on Thin-Film Properties

    III. Metallurgical Properties of Thin Films

    IV. Summary and Future Trends

    References

    Chapter 3 Metallization Techniques

    I. General Considerations

    II. Deposition Techniques

    References

    Chapter 4 Methods of Metal Patterning and Etching

    I. Introduction

    II. Lithography

    III. Metal Etching

    IV. Summary

    References

    Chapter 5 Gate Metallization

    I. Introduction

    II. Choice of Gate Materials

    III. Metal Gate Electrodes

    IV. Polysilicon and Silicide Gate Electrodes

    V. Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    VI. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 6 Contact Metallization

    I. Introduction

    II. Specific Contact Resistance

    III. The Impact of Series Resistance on the Device Performance

    IV. Scaling of Contact Resistance

    V. Shallow Junctions

    VI. Contact Fabrication Procedures

    VII. Ohmic Contacts to Silicon

    Appendix

    References

    Chapter 7 Multilevel Metallization Schemes

    I. Introduction

    II. Need for Multilevel Metallization

    III. Historical Perspective

    IV. Multilevel Metallization Issues

    V. Materials Used for Multilevel Metallization Schemes

    VI. Conductor Systems

    VII. Dielectric Systems

    VIII. Planarization and Via Technologies

    IX. Yield, Reliability, and Other Issues

    X. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 8 Electromigration in Interconnects and Contacts

    I. Introduction

    II. Background

    III. Measurement Techniques

    IV. The Design of Reliable Devices

    V. Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 9 Metallization Technology for GaAs Integrated Circuits

    I. Introduction

    II. GaAs Integrated Circuit Metallization Design Considerations

    III. GaAs Contact and Interconnect Systems

    IV. Metallization Fabrication Technology for GaAs

    V. Yield and Reliability

    VI. Future Trends

    References

    Chapter 10 Interconnections, Dissipation, and Computation

    I. Introduction

    II. Interconnections in VLSI

    III. Off-Chip Interconnections

    IV. Dissipation and Computation

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 490
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1987
  • Published: August 13, 1987
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483217819

About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch

Simon S. Cohen

Gennady Sh. Gildenblat

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