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Chapter 1 Electrical Properties of Thin Conducting Films
II. The Physics of Transport Phenomena in Thin Films
III. Electromigration in Thin Metal Lines
IV. The Interconnect Impedance
V. Test Structures
Chapter 2 Metallurgical Properties of Thin Conducting Films
II. Theoretical Background on Thin-Film Properties
III. Metallurgical Properties of Thin Films
IV. Summary and Future Trends
Chapter 3 Metallization Techniques
I. General Considerations
II. Deposition Techniques
Chapter 4 Methods of Metal Patterning and Etching
III. Metal Etching
Chapter 5 Gate Metallization
II. Choice of Gate Materials
III. Metal Gate Electrodes
IV. Polysilicon and Silicide Gate Electrodes
V. Transparent Conducting Electrodes
VI. Concluding Remarks
Chapter 6 Contact Metallization
II. Specific Contact Resistance
III. The Impact of Series Resistance on the Device Performance
IV. Scaling of Contact Resistance
V. Shallow Junctions
VI. Contact Fabrication Procedures
VII. Ohmic Contacts to Silicon
Chapter 7 Multilevel Metallization Schemes
II. Need for Multilevel Metallization
III. Historical Perspective
IV. Multilevel Metallization Issues
V. Materials Used for Multilevel Metallization Schemes
VI. Conductor Systems
VII. Dielectric Systems
VIII. Planarization and Via Technologies
IX. Yield, Reliability, and Other Issues
X. Concluding Remarks
Chapter 8 Electromigration in Interconnects and Contacts
III. Measurement Techniques
IV. The Design of Reliable Devices
V. Future Perspectives
Chapter 9 Metallization Technology for GaAs Integrated Circuits
II. GaAs Integrated Circuit Metallization Design Considerations
III. GaAs Contact and Interconnect Systems
IV. Metallization Fabrication Technology for GaAs
V. Yield and Reliability
VI. Future Trends
Chapter 10 Interconnections, Dissipation, and Computation
II. Interconnections in VLSI
III. Off-Chip Interconnections
IV. Dissipation and Computation
VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 15: VLSI Metallization discusses the various issues and problems related to VLSI metallization. It details the available solutions and presents emerging trends.
This volume is comprised of 10 chapters. The two introductory chapters, Chapter 1 and 2 serve as general references for the electrical and metallurgical properties of thin conducting films. Subsequent chapters review the various aspects of VLSI metallization. The order of presentation has been chosen to follow the common processing sequence. In Chapter 3, some relevant metal deposition techniques are discussed. Chapter 4 presents the methods of VLSI lithography and etching. Conducting films are first deposited at the gate definition step; therefore, the issues related to gate metallization are discussed next in Chapter 5.In Chapter 6, contact metallization is elaborated, and Chapter 7 is devoted to multilevel metallization schemes. Long-time reliability is the subject of Chapter 8, which discusses the issues of contact and interconnect electromigration. GaAs metallization is tackled in Chapter 9. The volume concludes with a general discussion of the functions of interconnect systems in VLSI.
Materials scientists, processing and design engineers, and device physicists will find the book very useful.
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 1987
- 13th August 1987
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
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