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VLSI Metallization - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122341151, 9781483217819

VLSI Metallization, Volume 15

1st Edition

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Editors: Norman G. Einspruch Simon S. Cohen Gennady Sh. Gildenblat
eBook ISBN: 9781483217819
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th August 1987
Page Count: 490
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Electrical Properties of Thin Conducting Films

I. Introduction

II. The Physics of Transport Phenomena in Thin Films

III. Electromigration in Thin Metal Lines

IV. The Interconnect Impedance

V. Test Structures


Chapter 2 Metallurgical Properties of Thin Conducting Films

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Background on Thin-Film Properties

III. Metallurgical Properties of Thin Films

IV. Summary and Future Trends


Chapter 3 Metallization Techniques

I. General Considerations

II. Deposition Techniques


Chapter 4 Methods of Metal Patterning and Etching

I. Introduction

II. Lithography

III. Metal Etching

IV. Summary


Chapter 5 Gate Metallization

I. Introduction

II. Choice of Gate Materials

III. Metal Gate Electrodes

IV. Polysilicon and Silicide Gate Electrodes

V. Transparent Conducting Electrodes

VI. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 6 Contact Metallization

I. Introduction

II. Specific Contact Resistance

III. The Impact of Series Resistance on the Device Performance

IV. Scaling of Contact Resistance

V. Shallow Junctions

VI. Contact Fabrication Procedures

VII. Ohmic Contacts to Silicon



Chapter 7 Multilevel Metallization Schemes

I. Introduction

II. Need for Multilevel Metallization

III. Historical Perspective

IV. Multilevel Metallization Issues

V. Materials Used for Multilevel Metallization Schemes

VI. Conductor Systems

VII. Dielectric Systems

VIII. Planarization and Via Technologies

IX. Yield, Reliability, and Other Issues

X. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 8 Electromigration in Interconnects and Contacts

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Measurement Techniques

IV. The Design of Reliable Devices

V. Future Perspectives


Chapter 9 Metallization Technology for GaAs Integrated Circuits

I. Introduction

II. GaAs Integrated Circuit Metallization Design Considerations

III. GaAs Contact and Interconnect Systems

IV. Metallization Fabrication Technology for GaAs

V. Yield and Reliability

VI. Future Trends


Chapter 10 Interconnections, Dissipation, and Computation

I. Introduction

II. Interconnections in VLSI

III. Off-Chip Interconnections

IV. Dissipation and Computation

V. Conclusions




VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 15: VLSI Metallization discusses the various issues and problems related to VLSI metallization. It details the available solutions and presents emerging trends.

This volume is comprised of 10 chapters. The two introductory chapters, Chapter 1 and 2 serve as general references for the electrical and metallurgical properties of thin conducting films. Subsequent chapters review the various aspects of VLSI metallization. The order of presentation has been chosen to follow the common processing sequence. In Chapter 3, some relevant metal deposition techniques are discussed. Chapter 4 presents the methods of VLSI lithography and etching. Conducting films are first deposited at the gate definition step; therefore, the issues related to gate metallization are discussed next in Chapter 5.In Chapter 6, contact metallization is elaborated, and Chapter 7 is devoted to multilevel metallization schemes. Long-time reliability is the subject of Chapter 8, which discusses the issues of contact and interconnect electromigration. GaAs metallization is tackled in Chapter 9. The volume concludes with a general discussion of the functions of interconnect systems in VLSI.

Materials scientists, processing and design engineers, and device physicists will find the book very useful.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1987
13th August 1987
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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About the Editors

Norman G. Einspruch

Simon S. Cohen

Gennady Sh. Gildenblat